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Bt EDWAED pick, Ph.D., 


J03. <£- 4^ 




In preparation. 

GESCHICHTE. Winierthv:-, 1848. 

I, for colppboD read Oolopbon. 

3, . negctler rud mgeUa, 

4, „ biwk read hunk. 
J, II flow rtitd Amv. 

if I, fotige read fbugDe. 
last licB but 1,/or cnl«Dder read <a1fiad&r, 

lut Uoe but I, far gerbnt lavi geiflaL 
B, JBT BTgnu read gniea. 


oince modem languages have been allowed to occupy a 
small corner in the large curriculum of a modem education, 
one thing has become more striking than ever, the dis- 
proportion between the time and labour spent upon them, 
and the results obtained. The shortcomings of the methods 
adopted seem to me the principal cause of this discrepancy. 
I think that a rational method would save much time and 
trouble to the student of modem languages. In pursuance 
of my plan to make learning by heart „a logical and not a 
merely mechanical process" (see D^^* Barry's letter p. 323). 
T have endeavoured to show in my lectures and in my 
book ,,How to study French", that a language can 
be taught quickly and thoroiTghly in a practical and ra- 
tional way. The Etymological Dictionary, which 
I here submit to the public will supply a further means 
to facilitate the study of the French language, for a word 
is more easily remembered, if we trace it in other lan- 
guages already known to us. 

I have carefully avoided giving fanciful or arbitrary 
Etymologies and have relied upon the best authorities, such 
as Diez, Grimm, Chevallet, Fuchs, Scheler, 
Mahn, Littr^, etc. For Latin Etymologies I have follo- 
wed principally Freund and D'* W. Smith, for Greek, 


Liddell and Scott, and for English, Worcester's 
dictionary. I have given all the words or at least their 
radicals which are found in the best authors and which 
are in common use , also a great number of technical teiins. 

Adverbs which are formed regularly from adjectives 
by adding the suffix ment,.e. g. rare, rarement, 
have been omitted, as it seemed sufficient for the pur- 
pose, to explain the suffix. 

If a word be not found in its alphabetical place ,. it 
must be sought before or after the next word, as it seemed 
to me more convenient where pradficable, to put in smaller 
type all the derivatives immediately after their radicals. 

The words in a parenthesis at the end of a paragraph 
are the English words , in which the same root is to be 
found as the word treated. 

As the Latin language is predominant in French 
Etymology, when the language of a foreign word is not 
stated , it is Latin. 

A great number of different languages and different 
types used in this dictionary have occasioned a number 
of typographical eiTors which the reader will kindly cor- 
rect, according to the list given on p. VIL 

28 Queens road 

* ,_ __^ 

St. Johns wood, B. P. 

London, July 1869. 



a., active. 

ace, accusative or according, 
adj., adjective, 
adm., administration, 
adv., advjerb. 
agric, agricultare. 
Arab., Arabic, 
arch., architecture, 
artil., artillery. 
A.S., Anglo-Saxon, 
astr., astronomy, 
bank., banking, 
.bind., book -binding, 
bot, botany. 
Bret., Breton. 
Celt, Celtic, 
chem., chemistry, 
com., comlnerce. 
comp., compare dr comparative, 
contr., contracted or contraction, 
corrupt., corrupted or corruption. 
D., Dutch. 
Da., Danish, 
dim,, diminutive. 
£. , English. 

«", equivalent to, or identical "with, 
esp., especially, 
etc., et cetera. 
Et. d., Etymology doubtful. 
F., French, 
f., feminine, 
fenc, fencing, 
fig., figure, 
fin., finance, 
fish., fishing. 

form., formerly. 

fort., fortification. 

freq., frequentative. 

fut, future. 

f. p. future participle. 

Gael.,* Gaelic. 

Ge., German. 

gen., generally. 

geog., geography. 

geom., geometry. 

golds., goldsmidi'a work. 

Goth., Gothic. 

Heb., Hebrew. 

her., heraldic. 

Hind., Hindostanee. 

hunt.; hunting. 

i. e., that is. 

imper., imperative. 

ind., indicative. 

inst., instrument 

inteij., inteijection 

Ir., Irish. 

It, Italian. 

L., Latin. 

L.Ge., Low German. 

L.Qr., Low Greek. 

lit, literally. 

m., masculine. 

man., manufacture. 

Metal, Metallurgy. 

M.Gr., Modern Greek. 

M.H.G., Middle High German. 

M.L., Middle or low Latin. 

Math., mathematics. 

mil., military. 

VI — 

miiL, mineralogy. 
miUL, music. 
n.f neater. 

nav., navy or navigation, 
need., needlework, 
next or^ext w., next word. 
o.| one« 

O.E.9 Old English. 
O.It., Old Italian. 
O.F., Old French. 
O.H.G., Old High German. 
. O.L., Old Latin. 

O.N. or O.North, Old Norse. 

Onomat, onomatopee. 

orig., originally. 

O.Sp., Old Spanish. 

perf., perfect 

perh., perhaps. 

Pers., Persian. 

pL, plaral. 

Pol., Polish. 

Port., Portaguese. 

poss., possessive. 

p. p., past participle. 

pr., pronominal. 

prec, preceding. 

pret, prefix. 

prep., preposition. 

pr. p., present participle. 

pret, preterit. 

print, printing. 

prob., probably. 

pron., pronoun. 

prop., properly. 

pr. v., pronominal verb. 

Prov., ProvengaL 

proverb., proverbially. 

Rom., Roman. 

Ross., Rossian. 

s., substantive or self. 

Sans., Sanscrit. 

sc, scilicet 

Sc, Scotch. 

Sclav., Sclavonic. 

sculp., sculpture. 

s. m., same meaning. 

Sp., Spanish. 

s. t, see this or see these. 

s. th., see this or these. 

suff., suffix. 

sup., superlative or supine. 

transf., transferred. 

Turc, Turkish. 

usu., usually. 

v., verb. 

V. a., verbe active. 

V. a. n., verbe active and jueuter 

vet, veterinary. 

V. n., verbe neuter. 

W., Welsh or Worcester. 

kj prep, to, at, in; ad, in componnds 

also a, ab. 
a. ai, as, v. a., see avoir, 
aoaisser, v. a. and pr. to lower, to 

humble, to abate, to abase, to 

debase, see bas, basse, 
abaisse, B.f.(ctd.) bottom, nnder crust, 
abaiiiemeiit, s. m. lowering, falling, 

sinking, subsiding, depression, 
abajoue, s. f. chees- pouch; see &, 

bas and joue.- 

abandonner. v. a. to abandon, to 
forsake; O.F. a bandon, at will, 
at discretion, ban, s. th. 
abandon, s. m. abandonment, relin- 
quishment, unconstraint. 
abandonnement, s. m. abandonment, 
forsaking, relinquishment,snrrender, 

abaque, s. m. abacus, plinth; aba- 
cus, a square tablet, a^a£, -aico(, 
a slab. 

abasourdlr, v. a. to stun, to deafen, 

to astound; like assourdir, s. th. 
abatage, s. m. cutting of trees; see 

ab&tardlr, ▼. a. and pr. to debase, 

to render degenerate ; see b a t a r d. 
abfttardistement, s. m. degeneracy, 

abatis^ s. m. demolition, rubbish, 

abatis, pi. giblets; see abattre. 
abattre, v. a. to throw down, to pull 

down, to strike off; ab, batuere; 

see battre, to beat. 

abat-jour, s. m. abat-jour, sky-light, 
shade (of lamps, etc.); see jour. 

abattement, s. m. faintness, low state, 
despondency, abatement. 

abattoir, s. m. slaughter-house, abat- 
toir. See also abatis, abatage. 

abat-vent, s. m. penthouse, weather 

abat-voiz, s. m. reflector of the voice, 
sound -board (of a pulpit). 

abb6. s. m. abbe, abbot; abbas, 

abbatis, father, 
abbatial, e, adj. abbatial, abbatical; 

ILL. abbatialis. 
a]ibagra» b. f. abbey; abbatia. 

abesse, s. f. abbess; O.F. ab^esse; 
abeds, s. m. abscess; iftbscessus, 
abs-cedere, abscessum, to go 
away, to disappear. 

abdiquer, v. a. to abdicate; ab-di- 
c are, same root as ligare,tobind, 
hence ab-dicare, lit. to untie. 
abdioatioB, s. f. abdication; abdi- 
catio, -onis. 

abdomen, s. m. abdomen, belly; 

abdomen, ab-dere, to hide, 
abdominal, e, adj. abdominal, 
ab^e^dalre. s. m. the letters a-b-c, 

spelling-book; abeoedarium, 

abecedarius, one who teaches 

the a, b, c. 

ab6e, s. f. mil -dam; instead of la 

b^e, b6er; see bayer. 
abeille, s. f. bee; apicula, dim* of 

aberration, s. f. aberration; aber- 

ratio, -onis, errare, to wander. 

abStir, v. a. n. to stultify; see bSte. 
abhorrer, v. a. to abhor; ab-hor- 

abime, s. m. abyss; O.F. abisme; 
abimer, v. a. to ruin, to overwhelm. 

baseness; abjectio, -onis. 

abjurer, v. a. to abjure; ab-jurare. 
abjuration, s. f. abjuration; abju- 

ratio, -onis. 
abiatif, s. m. ablative case; ablati- 

vus, ablatum, sup. of auferre, 

to lift, to remove. 

able, 8. m. ablette, s. f. ablet, white- 
bait, blay; albulus, dim. of albus 

abluer, v. a. to cleanse, to wash; 
ab -lucre, to wash away, akin to 
lavare, see laver. 
aUntion, s. f. ablution. 

abue«ration, B.f. abnegation, self-de- 
nial; ab-negatio, -onis, ab-ne- 


— 2 — 

aboi, aboiement, barking, bark; 
see aboyer. 

abois, pL of prec; bay, last extre- 
abolir, v. a. to abolish; ab-olere. 
abdlisMniaiLt, s. m. abolishment, 
abolitioii, s. f. abolishment. 

abomlner, y. a. to abominate; ab- 
ominari, omen, 
abominable, adj. abominable, 
abomination, s. f. abomination. 

abonder, v. a. to abound, ab-nn- 
dare, to overflow, unda, a wave. 

abondammont, adv. abundantly, co- 

abondanee, s. f. abundance; abun- 

abomdant, e, adj. abundant, plentifal. 

alionner, v. a. to subscribe for ; bon, 
good , to make good, i. e. to secure. 
abonn6, s. m. o, s. f. subscriber, 
abonnemant, s. m. subscription. 

abonnir, v. a. and pr. to improve; 

see bpn. 
aborder. v. a. to approach, to 
aboara, to board; see bord. 
abord, s. m. approach, access. 
abordaUe, adj. approachable, accost- 
alNvdage, s.m. running foul, boarding. 

aborigines, s.m. pi. aborigines, ab- 
originals; aborigines, original 
inmibitants, a b, from, origo,-ini8, 
origin; see origin e. 

abomer, v. a. to bound, to fix the 
boundaries of land; see borne, 
abornement, s. m. the fixing of the 

abortif, -Ire, adj. abortive; abor- 
tivus, ab-oriri, to fail; comp. 

aboaeher, v. a. to bring together, 
to effect an interview, pr. v. to 
have an interview, (anat.) to inoc- 
ulate; see bouche. 
abonehement, s. m. interview, (anat.) 

aboat, s. m. (carp.) end; see a and 

aboutir, v. n. to come out, to end, 
see bout, end. 

aboatifiaat, e, adj. bordering, s^ m. 
pi ends and sides of a thing, abuttals. 

aboyer, v. n. to bark, to bay; ad, 

abr^ger, v. a. to abridge, toabbre- 

viate;ab-breviare;brevis, short. 
abr6gi, s. m. abridgement, epitome, 

abreaver, v. a. to water, to give drink; 

O.F. abevrer, abeuvrer; ad- 

bibere; comp. f r om age and for- 

mage; see boire. 
abronvoir, s. m. watering-place (for 

animals), horse -pond. 
abr^yiateor, s. m. abbreviator; ab- 

breviator, abbreviare; seeab- 


abr^viatioii, s. f. abbreviation, con- ' 

traction; abbreviatio, -onis; 

see prec. 
abri, s. m. shelter, cover; O.H.G. 

bi-rihan, to cover. 
abricot, s.m. apricot; praecoquus, 

praecox (malum), precocius, 

ripened before the time; Arab, al- 

berqtiq; nQcunoma^ 

abxieotier, s. m. apricot -tree. 
abriter, v. a. and pr. to shelter, to 

screen; see abri. 
abroger, v. a. to abrogate, to repeal; 


abrogation, s. f. abrogation, repeal. 
abrouti, e, adj. browsed; see b router. 
abrupt, e, adj. rugged, abrupt; ab- 

ruptus, rumpere, to break. 
abratir, v. a. to brutalize, to stultify; 

see brute. 

abratiisen«nt,s.m. brutishness, stupor. 
absent, e, adj. absent; a b sens, 
-entis, pr. p. of abesse. 

absenter (a), pr. v. to absent o.'s 
self, to stay away. 

abslde, apside, s. f. apsis; a^igj 

'idog-^ a tying, fastening, antmy 

to fasten. 
absinthe, s. m. wormwood, bitters 

(liquor); absinthium, drffiv^tov, 
absolu, e, adj. absolute, absolutus, 

p.p.of absolvere; seeabsoudre. 
absolution, s. f. absolution; abso- 

lutio, -onis; see prec. 
absorber, v. a. to absorb, to imbibe ; 


absorption, s.f. absorption; absorp- 
tio, -onis. 
absoudre, v. a. to absolve, to dis- 
charge; absolvere.'*' 

• AbiolTer« bee«in« abiolre, abtoldre, abioadr*, ••• Piak: on laagoaga p» M« 

- 3 — 

abMotoy 8. f. absolntiOB. 
abstdme^ adj. abstemious; abs-te- 
miuB, abs, from, temum, wine. 
abstenir (s^), pr. v. to abstain; abs- 
tinere, tenere, to hold, 
abstention, s. f. abstention, 
abstinent, e, adj. abstemious; abs- 
tinens, -entis. 

abstinaace, s. f. abstinence; abs- 
abstraire, v. a. to abstract; abs-tra- 

abstractif, ve, adj. abstractive, 
abitraetion, s. f. abstraction; abs- 

tractio, -onis. 
abitrait, e, adj. abstruse, abstracted, 

absent; abstractus, p.p.of abs- 

abstraSf e, adj. abstruse, recondite; 

abstrusus. p. p. or abs-tru- 

dere, to tnrust away, hence to 

absorde, adj. absurd; ab-surdus, 

giving a dull sound, dull, absurd, 
absurdity, s. f. absurdity. 

abas 9 8. m. abuse, misuse; abusus, 
p. p. of ab-uti, to use up. 
abuser, v. a. and pr. to abuse, to 
to take advantage, pr. v. to de- 
lude, to deceive o.s self, to mis- 
take; It. abusare. 
abniif, ve, adj. abusive, improper. 

aeabit) s. m. quality; M.L. accapi- 
tum; orig. acceptance of a master, 
head; caput, head. 

acacia, s. m. acacia, gumtree; aca- 
cia, d%a%Ca. 

academic, s.f. academy; academia, 

aoad^micien, s. m. academician, aca- 

aoadAmiqne, adj. academical, 
aoad&niite, s. m. pupil of an academy. 
ae%|ou, s.m. mahagony, acajou ; from 

an American word. 
acari&tre, adj. crabbed, cross; O.F. 
acarer, to cope with one; Sp. and 
Port, car a, face, head, see end re. 

accabler, v. a. to weigh down, to 
overwhelm; O.F. caable, cada- 
ble; M.L. cadabula, a machine 
of war to throw stones, xara^oAry, 
a throwing, 
aocablant, e, adj. overwhelming, op- 
pressive, tiresome. 

. aeeaUenient, s. m. prostration , de- 
pression, overwhelming. 

aeeaparer, v. a. to monopoUae, to 

engross, to forestall; capere^ to 

aeoaparemant, s. m. engrossement, 

aeoaparenr, s. m. le, s. f. monopo- 
lizer, engrosser. 
ace^der, v. n. to accede, to comply; 

aee^l^rer, v. a. to accelerate, to 
hasten; ac-celerare, celer,qaick. 

aec^toitioB, s. f. acceleration, des- 

accent, s. m. accent, emphasis; ac- 
centus, ad, to, canere, to sing, 
aeoentner, v. a. to accent, to accent- 

aeeentoatiOB, s. f. accentuation, 
accepter, v. a. to accept; accep- 
tare, freq. of accipere, accep- 
tum; capere, to take, 
aeeeptable, adj. acceptable, 
aeeeptation, s. f. acceptance, 
aeoeptenr, s.m. acceptor; acceptor. 
aeoeptioB, s. f. regard, respect, (of 
words) meaning; acceptio, -onis. 
accds, s. m. access, approach; ao- 
cessus, accedere, see acc^der. 
aeeessiUe, adj. accessible; acces- 

aeoession, s. f. accession, acceding; 
accessio, -onis. 
aoeeisoire, adj. accessory, 
accident, s. m. accident; accidena, 
-entis (id quod accidit), ac- 
cidere, cadere, to fall, 
aooidenti, e,adj. uneven, hilly (ground), 
aooidentel, le, adj. accidental. 
aecise, s. f. excise; M.L. accisiae, 
fromaccisus p. p. ofac-ciderd, 
caedere, to cut. 
aeclamer, v. a. to shout, to cheer; 
aeclamation, s. f. acclamation, 
acclimater, v. a. to acclimatize; see 

aecointer (s'), pr. v. to become, to 
get intimate; M.L. accognitare; 
cognitus; p. p. of cognoscere, 
see connaitre; E. acquainted, 
aoeointance, s. f. intimate connexion, 
aecoler, v. a. to embrace, to hug; 
see col, neck, 
accolade, s. f. embrace, kiss. 
aeeommoder, v. a. to suit, to accom- 
modate; ac-comtnodare, com- 
moduB, suitablo* 

4 — 

I, 8. m. (cnlin.) dressing, 


Meommodaat, e, adj. accommodating. 
Maommodenunit, s. m. accommodation, 

aeeompagner^ v. a. to accompany, to 

attend; M.L. companium, com- 

panis, comrade; see compagne. 
— eompftgnateur, B.m. triea, s.i. (mas.) 

Meompflgnament, s. m. accompanying, 


aeeomplir, y. a. to complete, to finish, 

to accomplish; ad- com pier e. 
aeeompliisemeiLt, s. m. completion, 

accomplishment, fulfilment. 
•eeorder, v. a. and pr. to accord, 

to agree, to make agree, to tune ; 

corde, s. th. 
■Mord, 8. m. agreement, concorde, 

MMrdi, s.m. e, s.f. bridegroom, bride. 
Meordsur, s. m. tuner. 

Meort, e, adj. complying, easy; It. 

accorto; accorgere for ac- 

corrigere, to adjust. 
aeeoster, v. a. to accost; costa, 

see cote. 
aeeoneher, t. a. to deliver, to bring 

forth, to put to bed; v. n. to be 

confined, to be delivered, to be 

put to bed; see concher. (couch). 
ftoeooehAe, s. f. lying in woman, 

woman in childbed. 
aeeonehamAnt, s. m. confinement, ac- 
aoeouehAnr, s. m. se, s. f. accoucheur, 

Meouder (s'), pr. v. to lean on one's 

elbow; ac-cubitare, cubitus, 

elbow; see coude. 

aeeoudoir, s. m. elbow-rest. 
aeeoapler, v. a. and pr. to couple; 

see couple. 

aeooaploment, s. m. coupling, pairing. 
aeeoureir, v. a. and pr. to snorten; 

see court, 
aooooreissemsnt, s. m. shortening. 

aecourir, v. n. to run up, to hasten; 
ac-currere; see courir. 
accoutrer, v. a. to accoutre, to dress 
out; foracconturer,seeoouture. 
aeeoutrement. s. m. accoutrement, 
aeeotttamer^ v. a. and pr. to accus- 
tom; M.L. costuma for oonsue- 
tudo; oomp. ooutume. 

•eer^diter. v. a. and pr. to accredit; 

see credit. 
aceroeher, v. a. to hook on, to hang 
up, to catch; see croc, 
aeeroe, s.m. rent, tear, impediment. 
aeorochA-eoenr, s. m. heart -breaker 
(curl); see coeur. 
aeeroehemoit, s.m. grappling, locking. 
aeeroire, v. a. to believe; seecroire. 
aeeroltre, v. a. to increase; see 

aoeroissem«nt, s. m. increase, exten- 
sion, accretion, 
aeeril, e, p. p. of accroitre. 

aceroupir, s. v. pr. to cower, to 
squat; see croupe, 
aeeroupissement , s. m. cowering. 
aecueiliir, v. a. to receive, to welcome ; 
ac-colligere; see cueillir. 
aeoneil, s. m. reception, welcome. 
aeculer, v. a. to drive into a corner; 
M.L. acculare; see cul. 
aeovl, s. m. place without egress, 
blind alley; (artil.) breeching. 
aeeumuler, v. a. and pr. to accu- 
mulate, to heap up; ac-cumu- 
lare, cumulus, heap, 
aeensmlation, s. f. accumulation; ac- 
cumulatio, -onis. 

aceasatif, s. m. accusative case; 
accusativus, accusare, to ac- 
cuse, because the accused is the 
object of prosecution, comp. 
next w. 
accuser, v. a. to accuse; ac-cusare, 
causa, cause. 

aeousatenr, s. m. triee, s. f. accuser, 
prosecutor; accusator, -trix. 

aeousation, s. f. accusation, charge, 
prosecution; accusatio, -onis. 

aeeni^, e, adj. and s. accused, de- 
fendant, prisoner. 

aeerbe, adj. acerb, harsh; acerbus. 
aodrhiti, s. f. acerbity, harshness; 

ac^rer, v. a. to steel; Prov. acer, 
see acier. 

ae^ri, e, adj. steeled, sharp -edged, 

ac^teux, ease, adj. acetous; ace- 
tosus, acetum, sour. 

aehalander, v. a. to procure custom- 
ers; see chaland. 

acharner, v. a. to excite, to infuriate; 
see chair, flesh. 

aehamsmant, s. m, rabidness, obsti- 
nacy » tenaioity. 

— 5 — 

•eliaty ii.m. purchase; see aoheter. 
ache^ n. f. smallage, age (plant); 

aeheminer, v. |i. to forward, to send; 

pr. V. to set out (for a place), to 

proceed; see c hem in. 
aohdminsment, s. m. means, step, 

acheter, y. a. to buy, to purchase: 

accaptare, ad-captare,freq. of 

capere,to catch; acheter meant 

formerly to acquire, now: to acquire 

for money, 
aehetenr, s. m. «• , s. f buyer, purchaser. 

aeheyer, v. a. to complete, to finish; 

see chef; chef meant formerly 

end, extremity. 

aoh^ement, s. m. completion, finishing. 

aehromatiqae, adj.achromatic ; apriv. 

XQaiuCf colour. 
aelde, s. m. acid; acid us. 
aeiditi, s. f. acidity; aciditas. 
aoidvM, 6, adj. acidulated; acidulus, 
dim. of acidus. 
aeidvlor, v. a. to acidulate. 

acier, s. m. steel; Proy. assier, 
acer; M.L. aciarium; acies 
ferri, hardened iron, root ac, 

aeiter, v. a. to convert into steel, 
aei&rie, s. f. steel -works. 
aeolyte, s. m. acolyte; dx6Xov&og, 
acomt, s. m. aconite; aconitum, 

aeoquiner, v. a. to captivate, to 

allure; see coquin. 
aooostique, adj. acoustic, dnovaunds^ 

cc%6va^ to hear. 

aequ^rir, v. a. to buy, to acquire; 

ac-quirere; quaerere, to get. 
^equ^nr, s. m. buyer, purchaser. 
acquieseer, v. n. to acquiesce, to 

comply; ac-quiescere. 
aequiefeement, s. m. acquiescence, 

compliance, assent. 
acquis, e^ adj. acquired; p. p. of 

acqu6rir; acquisitum, sup. ot 

acquirere; see acqu6rir. 

acquisition, s. f. acquisition, pur- 
cnase, acquirement; ac-quisitio, 
-onis; see prec. 
acquitter, v. a. to fulfil, to discharge, 
to pay; quiet are, to quiet, 
. quietus, see quitte. 
. aoquit, s. m. receipt, discharge, 
aoquttenunt, s.m. discharge, payment, 

acre* s. f. acre; M.L. a or a; Ge. 

acker: ager, a field. 
Acre, adj. acrid, acrimonious; acer, 

Aexoti, s. f. acrity, acrimony, tart- 
aerimonie, 8.f. acrimony; acrimonia. 
Aerimoaieuz, sa, adj. acrimonious. 
aerobate, s. m. rope-dancer; ax^o- 
pdtrjs, who walks on tiptoe, crx^o^, 
outermost, fiaivto (^ao), to go. 
aerostiche, s. m. acrostic; ax^o^, 
extreme, atixog^ a row or line. 

acte, s. m. act, action, charter; 
actus, and actum (agere; see 
agir). The old charters have the 
formula: data or datum nono 
Kal. Octobris, etc. Actum in 
ipso Monasterio, etc.. hencethe 
French words acte and a ate, date. 

aetenr, s. m. aetriee, s. f. actor, act* 
ress; actor, actrix. 

aetif, ▼•, adj. active; activus. 

aetion, s. f. action, deed, share; 
actio, -onis. 

aetionnairo, s. m. f. shareholder. 

aotnel, la, adj. actual, effective, pres- 
ent (time); actualis. 

aetoaliti, s. f. actuality. 

acnponetare, s. f. acupuncture; a cus, 
a needle, punctura, a puncture, 
pungere, to prick. 
adage, n. m. adage, saying; ada- 

gium, a proverb. 
adapter, v. a. to adapt, to apply; 
adaptation, s. f. adaptation. 
addition, s. f. addition, bill; addi- 
tio, -onis, ad-dere, to add. 
additionnel, le, adj. additional, 
additionnar, v. a. to add, to sum up. 

adepte, n. m. adept; adeptus. 

adherer, v. n. to adhere, to stick 
close; ad-haerere. 

adhesion, s. f. adhesion, compliance, 
adherence; adhaesio, -onis, ad- 
haerere, adhaesum, see prec. 

adieu, adv. good bye, adieu; O.P. 
k dieu commanae, I commend 
thee to God; see dieu. 

adjacent, e, adj. adjacent: ad-ja- 
cens, -entis, pr. p. or ad-ja- 
cere, to lie near. 

adjectil^ ve, adj. and s.m. adjective; 
adjectivum, ad-jicere, adjeo- 
tum, to throw to, jacere, to 

— 6 — 

fUyoindre, v. a. to adjoin; ad-jun« 

gerc, see Joindre. 
adjoint, s. m. assistant, deputy: p. 

p. of adjoindre. 
a^jonotioii, s.f. adjunction; adjunc- 

tio, -onis. 
adjadant, s. m. adjutant-; adjutans, 

-antis, assisting, pr. p. of ad- 

jutare, to help, freq. of ad-ju- 

vare, to assist. 

a^ndieatalre, s. m. purchaser, vendee ; 

adjudicator, adjudicare, see 

a^uaication, s. f. auction, sale by 

auction; adjudicatio, -onis; see 


adjuger, v. a. to adjudge, to aifpard, 
to knock down (by auction); ad- 
judicare; see juger. 

a^Jurer, v. a. to adjure; ad-jurare, 
to swear, comp. jurer. 
a4jiiratiou, s. f. adjuration. 

admettre, v.a. to admit; ad-mittere. 
administrer, v; a. to administer, to 
dispense; ad-ministrare; seemi- 

adminifltrateur, s. m. trioe, s. f. ad- 
ministrator; administrator. 

adminiitratif, ve, adj. administrative; 

aflmtni stration, s.f. administration, ma- 
nagement; administratio,-onis. 

admirer, v.a. to admire, to wonder; 

admirable, adj. admirable; admira- 

admiratenr, s. m. trioe, s.f. admirer; 

acbniretion, s. f. admiration; admi- 

ratio, -onis. 
admission, s. f. admission; admis- 

Eio, -onis, admittere, admis- 

Bum; see admettre. 
admissible, adj. admissible, allowable. 
admissibiUt^, s. f. admissibility. 

admon^ter, v. a. to reprimand, to 
admonish; formerly admon ester; 
admonitare freq. of ad-monere. 
admonition, s. f. admonition, repri- 
mand; admonitio, -onis. 

adolescent, s. m. adolescent; ado- 
lescens, -entis, pr. p. of ado- 
lescere, to grow up. 
adoleaoenee, s. f. adolescence; ado- 

adonlser, v. a. and pr. to dress up, 
to bedizen; jAd.onis, .loved by 

Venus on aoooimt of his extra- 
ordinary beauty. 

adonner (s'), pr. v. to devote one's 
self, to be addicted; see donner. 

adopter, v.a. to adopt; ad -op tare, 
adoptif, ve, adj. adoptive, adopted; 

adoption, s. f. adoption; adoptio, 

adorer, v. a. to worship, to adore; 

adorable, adj. adorable, 
adoratenr, s. m. trioe, s. f. adorer, 

adoration, s. f. adoration, worship. 

adosser, v. a. to lean against, to sup- 
port; ad-dorsumj see dos, back. 

adouber, v. a. to adjust, to arrange 
a piece (in chess) ; M.L. adobare; 
A.». dubban, to touch. 

adoncir, v. a. to soften, to smooth, 
to sweeten; see doux. 

adouoissant, e, adj. emollient; pr. ^ 
of adoucir. 

adoudssement, s. m. softening, sweet- 
ening, allaying, mollifying. 

adresser, v. a. and pr. to adress, 
to direct; see dresser, 
adresse, 0. f. address (speach), address 
of a letter, etc. 

adroit, e, adj. dexterous, adroit, 
clever; ad-directus. 

aduler, v. a. to adulate; adulari. 
adulateur, trioe, adj. and s. adula- 
tory, flattering, flatterer, 
adulation, s. f. adulation; adulatio, 

adnlte, s. m. f. adult; adultus, p. 

p. of ad-olescere, to 'grow up. 
adultdre, adj. adulterous, adulterate; 

adulter, alter, another, 
adulterer, v. a. to adulterate; adul- 



* advenir, v. n. to occur, to happen; 
adventiee, adj. adventitious; adven- 
ticius, coming from abroad, ad- 
ventus, an approach, ad, to, ve- 
nire, ventum, to come. 

adventif, ye, adj. adventive; ad- 
vent us, see prec. 

adverbe, s. m. adverbe; adver- 
bium, ad, to, verbum, a word, 
adverbial 9 e, adj. adverbial. 
adverse, adj. adverse, opposite; 

— 7 — 

adversQB, turned towards, oppo- 
site, p.p. of ad-yertere, totum 
towards, comp. avertir. 

advenaire, s. m. adversary, oppo- 
nent; adversarius. 

adveniti, s. f. adversity, misfortune; 

a^rer, to air. to aerate; aer, air. 
aMm, ne, aoj. aerial, airy, 
afoolithe, s. m. aerolite, falling stone; 

X^off, a stone, 
airom^tre, s. m. aerometre; lUtgov^ 

a measure, 
afoonaute, s. m. aeronaut; va^g, 

a sailor, 
airoftato, s. m. aerostat, air-balloon; 

tfYOTtKij, statics. 

affable, adl. affable; affabilis, af- 
fari, aa-fari, to speak to, to 

aflkbiUti,8. f. affability; affabilitas. 

affadir, t. a. to render, to make in- 
sipid, to flatten; see fade. 

aflkdisflemtnt, s. m. cloyment, cloying, 

afllaiblir^ v. a. to weaken, to enfeeble; 
see faible, weak. 
aflkiUisiemant, s. m. weekening, en- 

affaire 2 s. f. affair, thing, concern; 
a-faire (s. th.); ad faciendum; 
oomp. avenir, pourboire. 

affaisser, v. a. and pr. to sink, to 
weigh down; see faix, burden. 
aflkisMment, s. m. sinking, weekness, 

affaler. v. a. to overhaul (a rope); 
Dutch afhalen, to drag off. 

affamer, v. a. to starve, to famish; 
fames; comp. faim, nunger. 

affeeter, affect, to appropriate; 

affectare, freq. or afficere, ad- 

ficere, to. affect, facere, to 

aflbetation, s. f. affectation; affec- 

tatio, -onis. 
affeetion, s. f. affection; affect io, 

aflbetiomier, v. a. and pr. to have 

an affection for, to be fond of, to 

delight, to take a liking. 
aflbetaeaz, ease, adj. affectionate; 


affermer, v. a. to farm, to rent; see 
fermcy farme. 

affermir, v. a. to strengthen, to con- 
solidate; see ferme, firm, 
aflbrmissomsat, s. m. strengthening, 

aUKterie, s. f. affectation; affec- 
tare, see affecter. 

afficlier, v. a. to stick up, to post, 
to expose; see fiche. 
afOehA, s. f. placard, poster, 
afaebeor, s.m. bill-poster, bill-sticker. 
affld^, e, adj. trusty, trustworthy; 
It. affidato, affidare, to trust; 
fides, trust. 

affller. v. a. to set, to sharpen; see 

affllier, v. a. to affiliate; H.L. af- 

filiare; ad. to, filius, a son. 
afflliation, s. r. affiliation. 

afflner, v. a. to fine, to refine; M.L« 
affinare; see fin, tine, 
affinage, s. m. (man.) fining, affinage. 
afflnerie, s. f. (metal.) finery. 
a£Qiianr, s. m. finer, refiner (of metals). 
affinity, s. f. afanity; affinitas, 
finis, boundary. 

afflrmer, v. a. to affirm, to aver; 
affirmare, firmus, comp.ferme. 
afOrmatif, ve, adj. affirmative. 
afOrmatioa, s. f. affirmation, asser- 
tion; affirmatio, -onis. 

afflenrer, v. a. to level, to make 

flush; £. floor; Ge. flur; comp. 

affliger, v. a. and pr. to afflict, to 

grieve; affligere. 
afflietion, s. f. affliction; affliotio, 


afflner, v. n. to flow, to abound; 

attaeaee, s. f. influx, affluence, ab- 
undance, crowd. 

afauent, adj. tributary (stream), that 

affoler, v. a. to make dote on, upon; 

gtre affol^ de, to be excessively 

fond of; see fou, fol. 
affouage. s. m. right of cutting w5od 

ior fuel; focus, see feu. 

afll'anchir, v. a. to free, to affran- 
chise^ to pay the postage of (letters) ; 
see franc, franche; Ge. frank, 
afflranohissement , s. m. liberation, en- 
franchisement , prepayment of post- 

affr^ter, v. a. to charter, to freight; 
see fret. 

— 8 — 

tJMUm&ntt 8. m. ohartering, freight- 

aflMtenr, s. m. charterer, freighter. 
alh-enx, euse, adj. frightinl, horrible; 
O.F. afre; O.H.G. eipar, eiver 
fright ; Ge. f ur c h t. 
alMander, affrioler, v. a. to make 
dainty, to allnre, to 'entice; see 

alh-ont, 8. m. affiront, insult; see 
front, forehead, front, 
aflhniter, y. a. to face, to affront, to 

affkibler, v. a. and pr. to wrap np, 
to muffle; M.L. affibulare; fi- 
bula, buckle. 

affttt, n. m. watch (hunt.), carriage 
(of a gun); fustis, see fflt. 
aflillter, v. a. to mount (a canon), to 
point (a pencil), to sharpen (tools). 

afln, conj. in order (to), so that; for 
k fin; ad fin em (in fine). 

Afrieaiii, e, adj. ands. African; Af- 

agace, 8.f. pie; O.H.G. a^aza, aga- 
lastara; (It. gazza; Ge.Elster.) 

agaeer, y. a. to irritate, to torment; 


to chase, to pit one against another. 

agaoement, s. m. irritation. 

agaeerie, s. f. incitement, coaxing, 


agate, s.fl agate; achates, dxdtrjg^ 
supposed to be the name of a river 
in Sicily wherethis stone was first 

tge^ B. m. age; O.F. edage, eage, 
aage; aetaticum, aetas, abbr. 
of aevit as, aevum, space of time. 
Agd, e, adj. old, aged. 

agenee, s. f. agency; see agent. 

ageneer, v. a. to arrange, to dispose, 
to order; dtre agenc6, to bedres- 
sedup; O.F. gent, gente, hand- 
some, genteel, see gent, 
ageneement, s. m. arrangement, dis- 

agenda, s. m. memorandum book; 

agenda, things to do, a^ere. 
agenouiller,*(s^), pr. v. to Kneel, to 

kneel down; see genou, knee. 
agent, s. m. agent; see agir. 
agglom^rer, v. a. to agglomerate; 

ag-glomerare, glomus, a balL 
agglomeration, s.f. agglomeration; a^- 

glomertio, -onis. 
agglatiiier, ▼. a. to agglutinate; 

aff-glntinare, to fflue together, 
gluten, glue, 
agglutination, n. f. agglutination. 

aggrayer,y. a. to aggravate; aggra- 
vare, gravis, heavy, 
aggravation, s. f. aggravation. 
agile^ adj. agile, nimble; agilis, see 

agility s. f. agility, nimbleness; agi- 

agio, s. m. agio, premium; It. ag- 
gio, same as a^io, easy. 

a|fiotar, v. n. to job, to speculate 
in the fonds. 

agiotage, s.m. stock-iobbing, jobbing. 

agiotear, s. m. stock-jobber, jobber, 
agir^ V. a. to act; agere. (agent, 
agile, etc) 

agisiant, o, adj. acting, active, effect- 
ual; pr. p. of agir. 

agiter, y. a. to agitate; agitare, 
freq. of agere, see prec 

agitatenr, s. m. agitator ; agitator. 

agitation, s.f. agitation, stir, bustle; 
agitatio, -onis. 

agnat, s. m. agnate; agnatus, a 
relation on the fathers side, a^- 
nasci, ad-nasci, to be bom m 
addition to. 

agnean, s. m. lamb; O.F. agnel; 
agnellus, dim. of agnus. 
agnelor, v. a. to yean, to lamb, 
agonie, s. f. agony, anguish; ayofv, 
agomiser, v. n. to be dying; ayco- 

agrafe, s. f. hook, clasp; O.H.G. 

chrapfo, krafo, ahook; Ge.grei- 

fen, to gripe, to sprasp. 
agrafor, v. a. to hooK (into an eye), 

to clasp. 
agraire, adi. agrarian; agrarius, 

relating to land, ager, a field, comp. 


agTandir,v.a. to enlarge, to aggrand- 
ize, to magnify; grandis, see 
agrandlMementy s. m. enlargement, 
aggrandizement, extension. 

agraver, etc.; see aggraver. 

agr^er, v. a. to accept, to approve; 
see gr6. 

agr^able, adj. agreeable, pleasant. 
agrteMnt,^B.m. consent, gratification. 
agr^ger, v. a. to admit, to receive 
(into a publio body); ag-grega- 

— 9 — 

re, to incorporate into a herd, 
grex, herd. 

•grigut, B. m. agregate, assemblage. 

agxAgatioa, s. f. aggregate, aggrega- 
tion, congregation. 

agr^g^ s. m. fellow, ag^re^^ate. 

agr^ agreti, 8. m. pi. ngging (of a 
agresseur, s.m. aggressor; aggres- 
sor, aggredi, to attack. 

agression, s. t. agression; aggres- 
sio, -onis, see prec. 

agreste, adj. agrestic, rural, rustic, 
rude; agrestis, rustic, ager, a 

agricole, adj. agricultural; agrico- 
la, a farmer, ager, field, colore, 
to cultivate, 
agrievltenr, s. m. agricultor, husband- 
man, farmer. 

agrioulturo, s. f. agriculture; agri- 

agriifer, (s')^* pr.'to seize, to cling; 
see griffe and agrafe. 

agripper, v. a. to snatch, to snatch 
up; see grippe r. 

agronome, s. m. agriculturist; aypd- 
vofMtg, dy^og^ a field, vofiog^ a rule, 
agronomie, s. f. agronomy, agricul- 
agronomiqiie, adj. agronomic. 

aguerrir, v. a. to train up, to inure 
to war; see guerre. 

aguets, s. m. pi. watch, aux aguets, 
in wait, on the lookout; see guet. 

alienrter (s'), to be obstinate, stub- 
born, to stick to; see hour ter. 

ahnrir, ▼. a. to amaze, to astound; 
see hure. 

ai, ale, aies, alent, etc.^ see avoir. 

aider^ v. a. to aid^ to assist, to help; 
adiuvare; adjutus in the sense 
of help is found in Macrobius Sa- 
tur. VII. 7., hence adjudha in 
William Ts oath, this became ajude, 
aide; Prov. ajuda; It. aiuta. 
aide, s.f. aid, help, assistance, s. m. 
assistant, helper, 
aide de eamp, s. m. aid-de-camp, lit. 
field-aid, see de and camp. 

afeul, 8. m. grandfather ; Prov. a v i o 1 ; 
It. avolo, dim. of. L. avus. 
aieule, s.f. grand-mother. 
aiewE, 8. m. pi. ancestors ; pi. of aY- 
aigle, 8. m. eagle; aquila. 
alglOBf 0* m. eaglet, young eagle. 

algre, a^}. eager, sour, sharp; acer, 
acris; comp. ^f^lise and seigle. 
aigra-dovx, ee, adj. acid and sweet, 
sourish, tartish; see donx. 
aigrelety te, adj. sourish, tartish. 
aigrenr, s. f. acidity, sourness, tart- 
aigiir, v. a. and pr. to turn sour, 
to turn, to embitter, to sour, to 
get exasperated. 

aigrefin. s. m. sharper, cunning fel- 
low; for aigle fin, lit. fine eagle, 
see aigle and fin, accord. tpLittre 
perhaps from aigre faim, eager 
or very great hunger. 

alirrette, 8. \f. aigret, [tuft; O.H.G. 
heigir, heigro. (F. h^ron (see 
this); Engl, hern; Ge. reiher, 

aigu, e, a^. sharp, keen; acutus. 
(acute, ague). 

aignail, s.m. (hunt.) dew-drop; O.F. 
aigue, water, see eau. 

aiguayer, v. a. to bathe, to wash; 
O.F. aigue, see prec. 

algue-marine, s. f. aigue-marine; 
aqua marina, see prec. 

aiguidre, 8. f. ewer; O.F. aigue, see 

aiguille, s. f. needle; acicula, 

aignillte, s. f. needleful. 

aiguilleter, v. a. to tie, to fasten with 

aigttiUette, 8. f. point, tagged point, 

aignillier, s. m. needle-case, needle- 

aigpillon, 8. m. goad, spur, stimulus, 
sting (of insects), pnckle. 

aiguillonner, v. a. to goad, to spur, 
to stimulate. 

algulser, v. a. to whet, to sharpen; 
see aigu. 

aignisement, s. m. whetting, sharp* 

ail, n. m. garlic; allium. 

aile, s. f. win^; a la. 

aiU, e, adj. winded. 

aileron, s.m. pinion, side fin (of fis- 
hes), paddle (of water-mills). 

aille, allies, aillent, see aller. 
ailleurs, adv. elsewnere; aliorsum. 

aimable, adj. amiable, lovely; ama- 

bilis, am are, see aimer. 
aimant, s. m. magnet; adamas, ada- 
mantis, diamond, uddymgj uncon- 

- 10 — 

qnerable, hence the hardest metal, 
1. e. steely also diamond, 
•imanter, v. a. to magnetize. 

aimer, v. a. to love*, am a re. (amiable) 

aine, s. f. groin; O.F. aigne; ingnen, 
-in is. 

ain^, e, adj. eldest, first bom; O.F. 
ainsneit; ante natus, comp. 
pnin6. ante, before, natns, bom. 

ainsi, adv. so, thns; aeque sic. 

air, s. m. air; £:er. 

air* 8. m. manner, countenance, ap- 
pearance, Ge. art. 

air, 8. m. air, song; It. aria. 

airain, s. m. brass, bronze; a era- 

aire, s. f. area; area. 

ais, 8. m. board, plank; as sis. 

aise, s. f. comfort, ease, joy; Goth. 

az6ts, comfortable, easy. 
aiianee, s. f. ease, facility, pi. water- 

aiselle, s.f. arm-pit; ascilla, axil- 
la; Ge. achsel. 

^Journer, v. a. t6 adjurn, to sum- 
mon; M.L. adjornare; O.F. jorn; 
F. jour (see this), 
igoiimmnait, s. m. adjoumement, 
postponement, (law) summons. 

ajouter, v. a. to add, to join; M.L. 
adjuxtare, see next w. 

lOuster, V. a. and pr. to adjust, to 
frame, to fit, to dress; M.L. ad- 
juxtare; juxta^ near to. 
igiiitenient,s.m. adjustment, arrange- 
ment, fitting, dress, agreement. 

alambic, s. m. alembic, still; Arab, 
alanbiq; afipii, 

alarme, s. f. alarm, fear, fright; It. 
all 'arme, to arms; ad-arma. 
alarmor, v. a. and pr. to alarm, to 
be alarmed, 
alanniste, s. m. alarmist. 

albfttre,8.m. alabaster; alabastrum, 

albinos^ s. m. albino; albus^ white. 
The Portuguese first applied the 
term to the white negroes whom 
they found on the coast of Africa. 

Albion, s.m. Albion, England; Al- 

album, s.m. album, scrap-book; al- 
bum, white tablet. 

albumine, s. f. albumen; albumen, 
the white of the egg, album, white. 
aUraminevx, se, adj. albuminous. 

aleall, 8. m. alkali; Arab, al-qali, salt. 

alebimie, b. f. alchimy; Arab, al-ki- 
mia; see chimie. 
alohimiflte, s. m. alchimist. 

aleool, s.m .alcohol; Arab, al-cohl, 
a fine powder for blackening the 
eye-lashes. The name has been 
transfered to spirit of wine, be- 
cause of the subtility of the pow- 
aloooliqne, adj. alcoholic. 

aleOre, s. f. alcove, bed-press; Sp. 
alcoba, Arab, al-gobbah, the 

aleyon, s. m. halcyon, kingsfisher 
(bird) ; hal cy o , -o nis , aX%veSPy alg^ 
the sea, nvm, to conceive. 

al^atofre, adj. (of contracts) depend- 
ing on certain events, eventual; 
aleatorius, pertaining to a ga- 
mester, aleator, a dice-player, 
ale a, a die, a game, a chance. 

aldgre, see all^gre. 

aldne, s. f. awl; O.F. alesne; O.H» 
G. alansa; A.S. eal; £. a]wl. 

alentonr, adv, about, round about, 
s. m. pi. neighbourhood; a 1' -en- 
tour (s. th.); in turnum (in a 
turn, as it were). 

alerte, adj. alert, vigilant, quick, s. 
f. alert; It. allerta, erta, an as- 
cending road; erect a (via), e ri- 
gor e, to erect. 

alcvin, s. m. fry (fish); ace. to Littr6 
O.F. alever. It., M.L. al lev are, 
to nourish, same ^s Clever, s. th. 
aleviner, v. a. to stock with fry. 

alezan, ne, adj. and s. m. (of horses) 
chestnut; Sp. alazan; Arab, al 
hhazan, the stallion. 

algdbre, s. f. algebra; Sp. It. alge- 
bra; Arab, al - g a b r , a resetnng 
of anything broken,' a meaning it 
still bears m Spain, 
algibriqne, adj. silgebraical. 

Alg^rien, ne, adj. and s. Algerine; 
F. Alger, Algiers. 

algue, s. f. al^a^ sea- weed; alga. 

alibi, s. m. alibi; alibi, elsewhere, 
the old dative of alius, other. 

aliboron, s. m. ignoramus, ass; £t.d. 

ali6ner, v. a. to alienate, to trans- 
fer; alienare; alius, another, 
alitoation, s. f. alienation, estrange- 
aliini, s. m. a, s. f. lunatic. 

aligner, ▼. a. to level; adlineare^ 
linea, see ligna, 

— 11 — 

aUgaim«Bt« s. m. line (of a gardes, 
road, etc.), (mil.) line. 

aliment, 8. m. alinent, food; ali- 

mentnm; alere, to nourish. 
' alimentaire,adj. alimentary, nourish- 

alimeatation, s. f. alimentation, feed- 

alimenter, v. a. to feed, to support. 

alin^a, s. m. a new paragraph; ad 

aliter (s'), pr. v. take to, or be con- 
fined to bed; see lit, bed. 

aliz^Sf 8. m. trade-winds; Et. d. 
allaiter, or alaiter, y. a. to suckle, 

to nourish; ad-lactare, lac, see 

lait, mUk. 

allaitemmt, s. m. nursing, suckling. 
allant, s. m. goer, (allants et ve- 

nants, goers and comers); pr. p. 

of aller, to go, s. th. 

all^cher, v. a. to allure, to entice; al- 
lectare freq. of al-licere, lace- 
re, to draw gently, 
altteliemeiit, s. m. allurement, entice- 

all^e, s. f. passage, alley, walk; see 

allegation, s. f. allegation, quoting; 

allegatio, -onis, allegare, see 


all^ger, v. a.' to disburden, to lighten, 
to allay, to alleviate; alleviare, 
levis; see 16ger. 
allige, s. f. lighter (boat). 
aUigement, s. f. ligthening, easing, 

alli^gorie, s. f. allegory; dlXrjyog^aj 
alXog^ another, dyogevcoy to speak. 
all^orique, adj. allegoric. 
aildgre,adj. lively, merry; It. alle- 
gro; alacer, alacris. 
•iUgtMie, s. f. liveliness, joy. 
all^guer, v. a. to allege, to state; 
al-legare, to commission, later 
. to allege. 

allemand, de, adj. German.; Ge. AUe- 
mann, proper name of a Ger- 
man nation. 

AUemagne, s. f . Germany ; A 1 1 e m a n- 

aUsmaade, s. f. allemande, a German 

alier, v. n. to go; O.F. aler, Prov. 

anar; M.L. andare; Sp. Port, an- 

' dar; Et. d. ace. to Muratori and 

DieE aditare, freq. of ad-ire, 
to go to. 
alien (frane). s. m. freehold, allo- 
dium; O.H.G.aldt; M.L.alodium, 
alodis, Et. d. 

allier, v. a. to ally, to unite, to alloy, 
pr. V. to be united, to make an 
alliance; al-ligare; see Her. 
alliage, s. m. alloy, mixture, 
alliance, s. f. alliance, union, league. 
aUid, e, adi. and s. allied, related, 
ally, relation. 
alloeation^ n. f. grant, allocation; 
allocatio, -onis, all ocare,comp. 
allocution, s. f. allocution, address; 

allocutio, -onis, al-loqui, toad- 

allodUO, 6, adj. allodial; M.L. allo- 
dialis, allodium, a freehold es- 
tate, comp. alleu. 

allonger, alonger, v. a. to lengthen, 
to prolong; ad-longare. Ion- 
gus, see long. 

allonge, s. f. piece (to lengthen), leaf 
(of a table). 

allongemant, s. m. lengthening, elon- 
alloner, v. a. to allow, to grant; see 
louer = laudare, to praise, to 
allumer, v. a. to light, to kindle; 
ad, luminare; lumen, light, (il- 
luminate, etc.). 

allumette, s. f. match. 

allumeur, s. m. lighter, lamplighter. 

allure, s. f. gait, carriage; see al- 

allusion, s. f. allusion, hint; allu- 
sio, -onis, ludere, to play. 

alluYion, s. f. alluvion, alluvium; al- 
luvio, -onis, an inondation, al- 
luere, ad-luere, to wash against, 
alluvial, e, adj. alluvial. 

almanaeh, s. m. almanac, directory; 
Et. d. 

alods, s. m. aloes; aloe, cUdfj. 

aloi, s. m. alloy, mixture; &-loi, ad 
legem, according to law. 

alonger, see allonger, 

alors, adv. then, at that time; ad 
illam horam, comp. d^sormais. 

alouette, s. f. lark; alauda, origi- 
nally Gaelic. 

alourdir, v. a. to make, to render 
heavy, to dull; see lourd. 

aloyau, s. m. sirloin; £t. d. 

— 12 — 

Alpes, 0. f. pi. Alps, mountainBt Ge. 
alpe. albe; O.H.G. a]p&; Aipes 
pi. of alpis, albns, wnite. 
alpeitre, adj. Alpine. 
alphabet 9 b. m. alphabet; alpha, 
beta, the two first letters of the 
Greek alphabet. 
alpliaMtique, adi. alphabetical, 
alpin, Sy adj. Alpine, see Alpes. 
altereation, s.f. altercation, dispute; 
altercatio, -onis, altercari. 

alt^rer, y. a. to alter, to, change, 
to excite thirst, pr. v. to spoil. M. 
L. alterare; alter, other, 
alttoition, s. f. deterioration, altera- 
alterne, adj. alternate; alternus, 
alter, otner. 

altdxnatlf, ye, adj. alternate; alter- 

altematiye, s. f. alternatiye. 
altomer, y. n. to alternate; alter- 

altesse, s. f. highness; It. altezza; 
altus, high. 

altier, dre, a^*. lofty, proud, arro- 
gant; altus. 

alto, s. m. alto, tenor-yiolin; It. al- 
to; altus, high, „formerly the high- 
est part of the male voice, and 
sung by boys, or by men in fal- 

aluniine, s.f. alumen, alumina; alu- 
men, comp. alun. 
alaminanT, le, adj. aluminous. 
alvmininm, s. m. aluminium. 

alun, s. m. alum; alumen. 
aluiatlott, B. f. alum-making, 
alunitoa, s. f. alum-pit. 
alT^ole, s. f. cell (of bees), socket 
(of teeth), alyeole ; a 1 y e o 1 u s, dim. 
of a lye us, a cayitv^ comp. auge. 
aly^olairs, adj. alyeolar. 
amabilit^, s. f. amiableness; amabi- 
litas, amabilis, see aimable. 

amadoner, y. a. to coax, to wheedle; 
O.N. mata, Da. made, to feed 
(e. g. young birds) ; Goth, m a t j a n, 
to eat. 

amadov, s. m. German -tinder, ama- 
amalgrir, y. a. to make lean, thin; 
see maigre. 
•inaigrisiement, s. m. growing thin. 
amalgame, s. m. amalgam; fidXayiia, 
softening, fMrXcncoV, mo 11 is, soft, 
amalgaiaify ▼• a. to amalgamate. . 

amande, 0.f. almond; amygdalum, 


amaadi, s. m. milk of almonds, 
amandler, s. m. almond-tree. 
amant, s. m. loyer, sweetheart; 

amans, -tis, amare, see aimer. 

amarante, s. f. amaranth, adj. ama- 
ranth-coloured; (xftdQttvrogj unfad- 
ing, a priy., (la^a^vm, to decay. 

amairiner, y. a. and pr. to man a 
prize, to inure to sea; see mar in. 
amaiiiiage, s. m. manning a prize. 

amarrer, y. a. to make fast a ship, 
etc.; O.H.G. marrian, to detain. 

amarrage, s. m. anchoring, mooring 
of ships, eround-tackling. 

amarre, s. f. hawser, rope, mooring. 

amasser, y. a. to heap up, to gather; 

see masse. 
aiaas, s. m. heap, mass. 

amateur, s.m. amateur, loyer; a ma- 
tor, amare see aimer. 

amatir, y. ^. (golds.) to deaden; see 

amaurose, s.f. amaurosis; dfucv^mcig^ 
a darkening, dfuivQom, to make 

amazone, s. f. amazon; amazon, 
diiaidvy a priy. and fiai^g^ the 
breast, from the fable that the 
Amazons cut off their right breast, 
that it might not incommode them 
in shooting and hurling the jaye- 

ambassade, s. f. embassy; Goth, and- 
bahti, O.H.G. ambant; Ge. ambt, 
amt, office. 

amhaaaadenr, s. m. dxioe, s.f. ambas- 
sador, ambassadress. 

ambiant, e, adj. ambient, surrounding; 

ambiens, -entis, pr. p. of amb- 

ire, to go around. 
ambidextre, adj. ambidextrous; am- 

bo, both, dexter, the right hand. 

ambiga,ue, adj. ambiguous, doubt- 
ful; ambiguus, amb-igere, to 
wander about, age re, to go. 
amhigniti, s. f. ambiguity; ambi- 

ambition, s. f. ambition; ambiti0| 
-onis, ambire, see ambiant. 
ambitieu, s«, adj. ambitious; ambi- 

amUtioimer, y. a. to be ambitious 
of, to aspire to. 
amUeryV.n. to ambto; ambulare. 

— 13 — 

uM$f 8. m. amble, easy pace, 
ftmbre, s. m. amber; It. ambra; Sp. 
Port, am bar; Arab. *aiibar, a 
sweet scented resin. 
ambvAy 6, adj. amber-coloured. 
ambroisieyS.f. ambrosia; ambrosia, 
aii§QoaCci, the food of the gods, 
dik-p^otog immortal. 

ftmbrosien, ne , adi. Ambrosian; per- 
taining to St. Ambrose. 

ambnlant, e, adl. ambulant, itinerant, 
strolling; ambnlans, -antis, pr. 
p. of ambulare, to go about, 
ambnlftnoe, s. f. ambulance, flying 

ambulatoire, adj. ambulatory, itine- 

ftme, s. f. soul, mind; O.F. an me; 
anima. (animate, etc.) 

am^iiorer, y. a. to improve, to mend; 
H.L. ameliorari; melius, see 

■mtiioration, s. f. amelioration, im- 

am6iiager, v. a. to regulate the cut- 
ting of trees in forests; see mana- 
amAnagemqnt, s. m. regulating the 
cutting of trees in forests. 

amender, v.a. to mend, to amend, to 
improve; emendare; mendum, 

aoMiide, s. f. fine, penalty. 
amendBment, s. m. amendment, im- 

amener. v. a. to bring, to introduce, 
Y.n. (mar.) to haul down, to low- 
er, to brin^ to; see mener. 

am^nit^, s. f. amenity: amoenitas. 

amerydre, adj. bitter, sad; a mar us. 
amertnma, s. f. bitterness, grief; 

Amerieain, e, adj. ands. American; 

amethyste, s. f. amethyst; ame- 
thyst us, afbedv^FTop, lit. not drun- 
ken, a priv., fisd'vm^ to be drun- 
ken, from the supposition, that 
wine drunk out of^an amethystine 
cup would not intoxicate. 

ameublement, s. m. furniture, mov- 
ables; see meuble. 

ameublir, v. a. (agr.) to mellow 
(land); see meuble adj. 
aaeuUiisemeiit, s. m. (agr.) mellow- 

mmiB^terf ▼. a* to train dogs to hunt 

in a pack, to raise a mob, to stir 
up, pr. ▼. to gather in a mob; see 
ami, 8. m. e, s. f. friend, adj. friend- 
ly*; amicus, amica; amare, to 

amiable, adj. friendly, amicable. 

amieal, a, adj. friendly, amicable. 
amidoii,s. m. starch; amylum, ApAf* 
Xov^ a cake of fine meal, a priv., 
(ivlri^ a mill, so called from the 
meal not being ground at a com- 
mon mill. 

amidonaar, v. a. to starch. 

amineir, v. a. to thin, to render thin ; 
see mince, thin. 

amineiiiement, s. m. making, rende- 
ring thin, thinness. 
amlral, s. m. admiral; Arab, amir 
al bahr, commander of the sea. 
ftmirauti, s. f. admiralty. 
amiti^, s. f. amity, friendship; ami- 
citia; see ami. 

ammoniac, ammoniaque, s. m. am- 
moniac; ammoniacum, prob. 
from the temple of Jupiter Am- 
mon inE^pt, near which muriate 
of ammonia was first obtained by 
burning the dung of camels, the 
word Ammon being from afif»o(, 
sand, and applied as a surname to 
Jupiter in the temple erected to 
him in the sandy (tesert of Libya. 

amnistie, s. f. amnestv, pardon ; afi- 
vriatCa^ oblivion; a priv., fivdofuu^ 
to remember, 
amniitier, v. a. to pardon. 

amodier, v. a., to farm out (lands), 
to lease out; M.L. admodiare; 
modus, measure. 

amoindrir, v. a. to diminish, to les- 
sen; see moindre. 
amoindriiMment, s. m. lessening, dim- 

amoilir^ v. a. to mollify, to soften; 
mollis, see mou, moUe. 
amollifiemeat, s. m. softening, molli- 

amonceler, v. a. to heap up; see 

amoaeellAment , s. m. heaping up, 
piling up, accumulation. 

amont, adv. up the river; ad m on- 
to m. (mount) 

amorce, s. f. bait, priming (of guns, 
eto.);O.F. amors, p.p. of amord- 
re, see amoroer. 

— 14 — 

amorMTy v. a. to bait, to decoy; 0. 
F. amordre, see mordre. 

amor9oiry 8. m. sort of gimlet to begin 
a hole. 
amortir, v. a. to qnench, to extin- 

* giiish,to deaden (a ballet); see mort. 

amortiiMmwit, s. m. liquidation, amor- 
amour, b. m. and f. love; amor; 
amare, see aimer. 

amoiixaelier, v. a. and pr. to fall in 
love, to be smitten. 

amovrette, s. f. love, love-affair. 

amonreux, m, adj. in love, amorooB. 

amour-propra, s. m. self-love; see 

amovible, adj. removable; amovi- 

bilis, a-movere. 
amovibiliti, s. f. liability to removal, 

amphibie. s. m. amphibia; dfupi-fiiog, 

of double life. 
amphitheatre, s. m. amphitheatre; 

amphitheatrum; diifpid'iat^ovj a 

circnlar theatre, aftqo^, about, d'ia- 

tQov^ see theatre, 
awphiht^teal, e, adj. amphitheatrical. 

amphitryon, s.m. Amphitryon, host; 
*A(upir(fV€Mf, a Theban prince, who 
in a comedy of Moli^re gives a 
splendid feast to his officers. 

amphore^.s. f. amphora; amphora, 
diupoQS^g^ ajar, shortened form of 
upbqu-tpoQSve, diHpi, on both sides, 
tpigm, to beat, the amphora having 
a handle on each side of the neck. 

ample, adj. wide, ample; ampins, 
amplear, s. f. ampleness, largeness, 

ampliation, s. f. official copy of an 

act, (law) exemplification; amplia- 

tio, -onis« 
ampliiifir, v. a. to amplify, to enlarge; 

amplificare, facere, to mal^e. 
ampUfloatenr, s. m. amplifier; am- 

amplifioatioii, 8.f. amplification; am- 

plificatio, -onis. 
amplitad6,s.f. amplitude; amplitude. 

ampoule, s. f. ampulla, blister; am- 

ampovM, e, adj. bombastic, inflated, 
(metal.) blistered. 
amputer, v. a. to amputate; am-pu- 

aapBtation, 8. f. amputation; ampu- 
tatio, -onis. 


amulettey s.f. amulet, charm; amii- 

amuser, v. a.' and pr. to amuse, to 
divert; see muser. 
aimiBant,e» adj. amusing, entertaining, 
amusement, s. m amusement, enter- 
tainment; pastime, 
amnaette, & f. plaything, trifle. 

amygdale, s. f. almond of the throat, 
tonsil; amygdalum, see amande. 

an. s.m. year; annus, see anneau. 
(annual, annuity etc.) 

anabaptiste, s. m. anabaptist; dvd, 
again, or anew, pant^m^to dip under. 

anachordte, s. m. anachoret; dvaxat' 
grjtjjg, dva-xtoQia, to go back, to 

anaehronisme. s. m. anachronism; 
dva-XQOviaiiogy xQOvog time. 

analectes, s. m. pi. analects, select 
pieces (of authors); an ale eta, dvd- 
Xsntcc, dva-lsyutj to gather up. 

analeptique. adj. analeptic, restor- 
ative; avairjntinog^ dva'Xafi§dva^to 
take up. 

anagramme, s. m. anagram, 

analogue, ai^. analogous; avdloyog, 
analogie, s. t. analogy; dvuXoytu. 
analogiqne, adj. analogical. 

analvse, s. f. analysis; dvdkvatg^ dis- 
solution, It/flu, to loosen. 
analyBer, v. a. to analyze, to parse, 
analytiqne, adj. analytic, dvaXvtL%6g, 

ananas, s. m. pine-apple ; of Indian 

anarehie, s. f . anarchy ; dvagxlocj a priv. 
*^9Z^) government, 
anarehiqne, adj. anarchical. 

anathdme, s. m. anathema; dvad'siux^ 

anatomic, s. f. anatomy; dvcttofufy 

dva-rifivto, to cut up. 
anatomiqne, adj. anatomical, 
anatomiser, v. a. to anatomize. 

anedtres, s. m. pi. ancestors, fore- 
fathers; antecessor, ante-ce- 
dere, to go before. 

anche, s.f. reed (of wind-instruments); 
O.H.GI^. ancha(Ge. anke), flexion, 
joint, M.L. banc a, comp. banc he. 

anchois, s. m. anchovy; It. accinga; 
aphya, dtpvrj. 

ancien, ne, adj. ancient, old; It. an- 
ziano; ante, before, 
aoeiennement, anciently, in former 

a. f. oldnessi seniority. 

— 15 — 

aaere^ s. m. anebor; anchora, ay- 

aneras^, ^- ™* anchorage, 
anonr, v. n. to anchor. 

andouille, s. f. chitterlings; M.L. in- 
due tilis, sanssage; inducere, to 
introduce. • 

andooiller^ s. m. antler; Ge. ende. 

Ane, 8. m. ass, donkey; a sin us. 

an^antir, v. a. to annihilate, to de- 
stroy; sec n^ant. 
andantiBsement, s. m. annihilation, de- 

aneedote, s. f. anecdote; av&iLdotog^ 
not published, a priv. iK-d^oafii, 
to give out. 
aneedotique, adj. anecdotical. 

anemone, s. f. anemone, wind-flower; 
dvsiuavri^ avBihog, wind. 
ftnerie, s. f. gross ignorance, gross 
blunder, see ane. 

ftnesse, s. f. she-ass; see ane. 
ftn^Tiisme^ s. m. aneurism; uvBvifva- 
fucy a widening. 

anfraetueiix, se, adj. anfractuous; 
anfractus, a curving^ root frag 
in f ranger e; comp. fracture, 
anfiraotnoiiti, s. f. anfractuosity. 

ange, s.m. angel; ^ngelus, ayyskog, 


aagtiique, adj. angelical. 
angine, s. f. angina; angina, an- 

gere, to suffocate. 

anglais, se, adj. and s. English; An- 
glensis, Angli. 

angle, s.m. angle, corner; angulus. 

anglican, e, a^. and s.' of the church 
of England; Anglicanus. 

anglieisme. s. m. Anglicism; ang- 
lais, s. tn. 

anglomane, adj. fond of everything 

that is English, see anglais, and 


anglomaniei s. f. Anglomania. 
angoisse, s. f. anguish; angustia. 
angora, adj. and s.m. angora (cat); 

Ancyra, "AynvQu, a town in Asia 


anguille, s. f. eel; an guilla; anguis, 

a serpent. 
angulaire, adj. angular; see angle. 
angnlenx, se, adj. angiilous, many- 

tator, 8.m. dre, s. f. ass-driver; see 

animal, a. m. and adj. animal; ani- 
mal; anima, breath, life. 

animer, v. a. to animate; to give 
life, to encourage; animare, ani- 
ma, see prec. 
a a imat iiM i , a.f. animation; animatio, 

. animotitiy s. f. animosity; animo- 

anis, s. m. anise, aniseed; anisnm, 
Sviaov, avrfiov. 

anlMtte, s. f. aniseed (cordial). 
annaies, s. f. annals; see an. 
anneau, s.m. ring; O.F.annel;annel- 
lusfor annuluB, root an meant a 
ring or circle, hence annus, the 
circle of the year, 
annaler, v. a. to curl (hair). 
aanalAt, s. m. ringlet, annulet. 
ann^e, s. f. year; see an. 
annexe, s. f. annex; annexus, p.p. 
of annectere, ad-nectere, to tie 
aukOKor, V. a. to annex. 

annihiler, v, a. to annihilate; anni- 
hilare, ad, to, nihil, nothing, 
annihilatioii, s. f. annihilation. 
anniversaire, &6j. and s. m. annivers- 
ary; anniversarius, annus, a 
year, vert ere, versum^ to turn. 
annoneer, v. a. to announce, to ad- 
vertise; an-nunciare, nuntius, 
see nonce. 

annonee, s. f. announcement, adver- 
tisement (of newspapers), 
annoneiatioii, s. f. Annunciation, La- 

annoter, v. a. to annotate, to com- 
ment; ad-notare, nota, see note, 
annotation, s. f. annotation, 
aanotatear, s. m. annotator. 

aiAiiafre, s.^ m. annuary, year book; 
sed an. 

annuel, le, adj. annual, yearly; an- 
nus, a year. 

annuity, s. f. annuity; an n us, a year. 

annulaire, adj. annular, ring-shaped; 
annulus, see anneau. 

annuler. v. a. to annul, to cancel; 

annullare, nullus, none, 
annnlation, s. f. annulment, nullifi- 
cation, cancelling, 
anoblir, v.a. to ennoble; see noble. 
anoUisiemont, s. m. ennoblement. 
anodin, e, adj. and s. m. anodyne; 

tt priv., ^^vfij pain. 
aaonal^e, a^. anomalous; anoma- 

— 16 — 

lu8, ttwdfucXog^ a priy., 6fMl6g^ 

ammialie, B. f. anomaly. 
Iboii, B. m. yonng aBs, aas's foal; 

see ane. 
anonyme, adj. anonymous; dv6w(iog, 

d priv., ovofuc, name. 
anormal, e, adj. anormal, anomalous; 

anormis for abnormis, without 

rale, norma, rule. 
anse, b. f. handle; ansa. 

antagronisme, s. m. antagonism; av- 
tayo&viana^dvtt^ against, ayoDv^oftat, 
to fight, 
aatagooista, adj. and s.m. antagonist. 

ant^e^dent, e, adj. antecedent, pre- 
cedent; ante-cedens, pr. p. of 
ante-cedere, to go before. 

anteehrist, s. m. antichrist; dvzi^ 
against, Xqiotoq, Christ. 

ant^diluTien, ne, adj. antediluvial; 
ante-diluvium before the deluge. 

ant^rieur, e, adj. foregoing, former, 

anterior; anterior, ante, before. 

tLDtMoritif 8. f. anteriority, priority. 

antiehambre, a. f. antechambre; an- 

antieiper, v. n. to anticipate; anti- 
cipare, ante, before, capere, 
to take, 
antiflipation, s. f. anticipation. 

antidater. V. a. to ante-date; ante 
before, F. dater, s. th. 

antidote, s. m. antidote; antido- 
tum, ivridoxovy dvTi\ against, di- 
SenfUy to give, 

antilope, s. f. antelope; £t. d. 
antimolne, s. m. antimony: Et. d. 
anlipathie, s. f. antipathy; avTina&^cc, 

dvtiy against, nd9og, feeling, 
a&tipathiqiie, adj. antipathetic, anti- 
pathic. • 
antipode, s. m. antipode, contrary, 

opposite; dvtinodsgf dvti^ opposite, 

novgy nodog, foot. 
antiqae, adj. antique, ancient; anti- 

; aa^naire, s. m. antiquary; antiqua- 


antiqnit^i s. f . antiquity ;antiquitas. 
antitlidse. s. f. antithesis; dvz^saig, 

opposition, dvt^, against, T^fii, 

to put. 

autre, s. m. den, cave; antrum. 
anxi^t^, B. f. anxiety, perplexity; 
anzietas, angere, to suffocate. 
aoftt) 8. m. angast; Sp. Port ago- 

8to; 86 named in bononr of An* 
gustus Caesar; oomp.li6n andg6- 

apaiser, v. a. and pr. to appease, to 
pacify; see paix. 

apanage, s. m. appanage, portion; 
M.L. apanagium; panis, bread. 

it part, adv. apart, aside; a parte, 
seo a and part. 
aparU, s. m. wor4s spoken aside. 

apatlue,s.f. apathy ; ana&ia, apriv., 
nd&og, feeling, 
apathique, adj. apathic. 

apercevoir, v. a. to perceive, to dis- 
cover; see percevoir. 
aper^a, s. m. cursory view, rough es- 

ap6tis8er, v. a. to lessen, to dimi- 
nish; see petit. 

aphorisme, s. m. aphorism, maxim; 
dq)0Qian6g, dtpog^vOy to define. 

apitoyer, v. a. to move to pity; see 

aplanir, v. a. to level, to smooth; 
M.L. plan are; planus, level, 
aplanissement, s.m. levelling, smooth- 

aplatir, v. a. to flatten, to make flat; 
see plat. 
aplatiBieniBnt, s. m. flattening, flatt- 

aplomb, s. m. perpendicularity, self- 
possession; see plomb. 

apoeryphe, adj. apocryphal; dndiiQv- 
q)og, obscure. 

apogee, 8. m. apogee, zenith; 'dfcd- 
yof/ov; dnd, away, from, yrj, earth. 

apologie, s. fv apology; dnoXoyiay 

dnoXoylofiat f to speak in defence, 

apoplexie, s. f. apoplexy; dnonlTj^^a, 

dnonlTJtTODf to strike. 
apopleetiqiie, adj. apoplectic. 
apostasie,' s. f. apostasy; dnoetaoCu^ 

defection, d^p^arrnit, to revolt, 
apostasier, v. n. to apostatize, 
apostat, s. m. apostate; apostata, 

aposUUe, s. f. postscript; post ilia 

apostiller, v. a. to add a postcript or 

apostolat, s. m. apostolate; apos- 

tolatus, apostolus, see apdtre. 
apostolique, adj. apostolical. 
apostrophe, s. f. apostrophe, address; 

dnoatQotj^j a turning away, axo- 

at(fi(pmf to torn away* 

- 17 — 

apMtroph«r, v. a. to apostrophize, to 

apoth^ose* s. f. apotheosis; dno^im- 

cig, deincation, dno, from, &i6g, 

apothieaire, s. m. apothecary; M.L. 

apothecarineT, apotheca, dno- 

^/xi7, a store-house, ano-ti&riiu, to 

stow away. 

apOtre , s. m. apostle ;. apostolus, 
ehtdctoXogj criXlm, to -send. 

apparattre, v. n. to appear; appa- 
rere, see paraltre. 

apparat, s. m. state, parade; appa- 
ratus, ap-parare, to prepare. 

appareiller, v. a. to match, to set 
sail, see par ell. 
appareil, s. m. display, preparation. 

apparemment, adv. apparently; see 
next w. 

apparent, e, adj. apparent; appa- 
rens, -entis pr. p. of apparere, 
see apparaitre. 

apparenee, s. f. appearance, likeli- 

apparenter, v. a. and pr. to ally, to 
give relations (by marriage) to; 
see parent. 

apparier, v. a. and pr. to pair, to 
match; Prov. apariar; Bp. apa- 
rear; M.L. appariare; par, see 

apparition, s. t. apparition, appear- 
ance; apparitio, -onis, appa- 
rere, see apparaitre. 

apparoir, v. n. to appear, to be ap- 
parent; apparere, see apparat- 

appartement,s.m. apartmen^ room; 
M.L. apparti amentum, division; 
partiri, to divide. 

appartenir, v. a. to belong, to ap- 
pertain; ad-pertinere. 

appas, s. m. pi. allurements, charms; 
pi. of appat, s. th. 

appAt, s. m. bait, allurement, entice- 
ment; O.F. past, bait; pascere, 
pastum, see pattre. 

appauvrir, v. a. to impoverish; see 
appauvrissement, s.m. empoverishment. 

appeau, s. m. bird-call, decoy-bird; 

see appel. 
appeler, v. a. to call, to name, v. n. 

to appeal; ap- pell are. 
appel, s. m. appeal, call; O.F. ap- 


appellatif; ve, adj. appellative, 
appellation, s. f. calhn^, naming, ap- 
pellation; appellatio, -onis. 
appendice, s. m. appendix, addition; 
appendix, appendere,seenextw. 
appeudre, V. a. to append, to hang 

up; ap-pendere. 
appert, see apparoir. 
appesantir, v. a. to make heavy, 
QuU, to weigh 'down, pr. v. to get 
heavv, to descant on; pensare, to 
weigh, see peser. 
appetantiiiemont, s.m. heaviness, dull- 

appetit, s. m. appetite, desire; ap- 
petitus, ap-petere, to seek. 
appAtissaiit,e,aaj. tempting, inviting. 
applaudir, v. a. to applaud, to clap 
hands, to cheer; ap-plaudere. 
applaadissAment, s. m. applause, plau- 
dits, cheering. 
appiiquer, v. a. and pr. to apply 
to put; ap-plicare. 
appb'eable, adj. applicable, 
applieation, s. f. application; appli- 
catio, -onis. 
appoint, s. m. difference, odd money 
ad punctum, to the point. 

appointer, v. a. to refer a cause, to 
give a salary. 

appeintements, s. m. p). salary. 
apporter, v. a. to bring, to convey; 
see porter, to carry, (porter) 

apport, s. m. market, the chattels 
personal of a husband, contribution, 
apposer, v. a. to set, to put, to ap- 
ply; see poser. 

appoiition, s. f. affixing, apposition; 
appositio, -onis. 

appr^cier. V. a. to appreciate, to va- 
lue; appretiare; pretium, 

appreciable, adj. appreciable, 
apprieiation, s. f. appreciation, esti- 
apprehender, v. a. to apprehend, to 
seize, to rear; ap-prehendere; 
comp. apprendre. 
appr^iensien, s. f. apprehension; ap- 
prehensio, -onis. 

apprendre, v. a. to learn, to hear; 
apprendere, ap-prehendere, to 

apprenti, s. m. e, s. f. apprentice. 
apprentlMage, s. m. apprenticeship. 
apprdter. v. a. to prepare, to dress, 
see pret. 


— 18 

apprtt, s. m. preparation, prepara- 
tive, dressing. 

appriteur, s. m. dresser. 

appris^e, p.p. of apprendre, 

appriYoiser, v. a. to tame \ see p r i v 6. 

approbateur, triee, adj. and s. ap- 
proving, approbator ;approbator, 
see approuver. 

approbatiou, s. f. ai)probation, ap- 
proval; appro batio, -onis, see 

approeiier, v. a. n. and pr. to ap- 
proach, to draw near; seeprocbe. 

approohe, a. f. approach. 

approfondir, v. a. to deepen, to 
search into; see profo-nd 

approprier, v. a. to appropriate, to 
adapt; ap-propriare, proprius, 
one*8 own. 

appropriation, s. f. appropriation. 

approuver, v. a. to approve; ap- 

approvisiouuer, v. a, to victual, to 
supply; see provision, 
approvisionnomoiit , s. m. supply of 
provisions, victualling. 

ap^roxiinatif, ve, adj. approxima- 
tive; approximare, proximus, 
the- next. 

approximatiou, s. f. approximation, 
approach, rough guess, see prec. 

appayer, v. a. and pr. to support, 
to lean, to rest ; O.F. a pp o y e r mea- 
ning also to mount; O.F. pui, poi, 
hillock; podium, a height, 
appui, s. m. stay, support. 

ftpre, adj. harsh, sharp; O.F. as pre; 

&pret^, s. f. harshness, tartness, sharp- 

apr^s, adv. after, next, afterwards; 
see pres. 

apside, see abside. 

apte, adj. proper, apt, fit; apt us. 
aptitude, s. f. aptness, aptitude; ap- 

apurer, y. a. to audit (accounts), to 
purify (gold); see pur. 

aqi^uarelle, s. f. aquarelle, painting 
in water-colours; It. aquarella; 
aqua, water. 

aquatique, adj. watery, marshy; 
aqua, water. 

aqueduc, s. m. aqueduct; aquae 

aqueux, se, adj. aqueous, watery; 
aquosus, aqua, water. 
tLqjBLMiUf s. f. aquosity, wateriness. 

aquilin. adj. m. aquiline, Roman; 

aquiiinus, aquila, eagle. 
arabe, adj. and s. Arabian, Arabic; 
arabeiquoy adj. and s. f. arabesque; 
species of oVuamgnt, adopted from 
ancient art in Arabian and Moorish 
arabique, adj. Arabic. 
arable, adj. arable, tillable; arabi- 

lis, arare, to plough. 
araiguee, s. f. spider ; a r a n e a ; cr^ap^. 
aratoire, adj of husbandry; arato- 

rius, arare, to plough. 
arbaidte, s. f. cross-bow, arbalist; 
areubalista; arcus, a bow, bal- 
lista, a machine for projectiles, 
§ttllm, to throw. 
arbaUtri«r, s. m. cross-bow-man. 
arbitre, s. m. arbitrator, umpire; ar- 
arbitrago, s. m. arbitration; arbi- 

arbitraire, adj. arbitrary, optional, 
arbitrer, v. a. to arbitrate, to. award; 
arborer, v. a. to erect, to hoist; see 

ar bouse, s. f . arbute-berry ; arbutus. 
arboviiir, s. m. arbute, strawberrytree. 
arbre, s. m. tree; arbor, (arbour, 

arbriiieau, s. m. shrub, bush. 
arbuste, s. m. shrub, bush; ar bus- 
turn contr. from larbosetum, ar- 
bos = arbor, see prec. 
are, s. m. bow, arch; arcus. 
areade, s. f. arcade, vault, 
aro-bouter, V. a. to buttress; arcus, 
and Ge. botz, bot, button, 
aro-boatant, s. m. support, buttress. 
are-en-ciel, s. m. rainbow, arcus in 
coelo; see ciel. 
arehal, s. m. wire, brass; aurichal- 

arehanipre, s. m. archangel; aQxdyYs^ 

log, aQx*^ pr^^* ^1*^11^ ^QX^t ^o lead ; 

see ange. 
arche, s. f. ark; area. 
arehe, s. f. arch; arcus. 
archer, s. m. archer, bowman ; see arc. 
archet, s. m. bow, fiddle-stick; see arc. 
archev^que, s. m. archbishop; ar- 

chi-episcopus, aQx^i see areh- 
archevtehi, s. m. archbishopric. 
archiduc, s. m. archduke ; a r c h i-d u x^ 

it^Xij see preo. 

— 19 — 

arehid«Mdy e, adj. archidncal. 

arebiteote, b. m. architect; archi- 
tect us, apx^TfXTcov, oiQZ^S^ chief, 
tintoiVy a bailder. 
arehitMtOBifv^ adj. architectonic, 
arehiteetore, B. f. architecture. 

arehltraTe, s. f. architrave; It. ar- 
c hitrave ; dffx^s, chief, trabs, tra- 
biB, a beam. 

arehlTes, a.m. pi. archives, records; 
archivum, dQxeiov,& public build- 

arehiv^, s. m. archivist, keeper of 
the records. 

ar^oB, B. m. saddle bow; see arc. 

aretique, adj. arctic; dgntindg, &qk- 
ToSf bear. 

ardent, e,.adj. burning, ardent, glow- 
ing, violent; ardens, -entis, pr. 
p. of ardere, to burn, 
ardemment, adv. ardently, fervently, 
ardour, s. f. ardour, heat, fervency; 

ardlUon, b. m. tongue (of a buckle); 
^9 dig J point. 

ardolse. s. f. slate; M.L. ardosia, 
ardesia, Et d. Mahn supposes 
it to be a contraction of (pier re) 
ardenoise, stone from the Ar- 
dennes where great quantities of 
slate are found. 

ardoisito, s. f. slate-quarry. 

arda, e, adj. arduous, difficult; ar- 

are, s. m. are, French measure; area, 
any open surface. 

ardne, s. f, sand, a#ena; arena. 

ar6ole,s.f. areola; areola, dim. of 
area, see are. 

ar^omdtre, s. m. areometer; uQaidg, 
thin, rare, (isxqov, a measure. 

arMe, s. f. fish-bone; Prov. arista; 
arista, the ear of grain, fish-bone. 

argent, s. m. silver, money; argen- 
tum. (argentine, etc.). 

azgenter, v. a. to silver, to plate. 

argeziterie, s. f. silver-plate. 

argentenr, s. m. silverer. 

argentier, s. m. treasurer. 

argentin, e, adj. silvery, argentine. 

argentore, s. f. silvering. 
ar^e, s. f. clay, potters clay; ar- 
gil! a; affyMog, 

axgileux, le, adj. clayish. 
argot, s. m. dead * wood ;£t. d. 
urgot, s. m. cant, cant words; £t.d. 
argoosin, convict-keeper; It. aguz- 
aino; ace. to Uttre prob. a cor<« 

ruption of 8p. alguacil, an over- 
arguer, v. a. to argue, to infer; ar- 

azgWDAatyS. m. argument, reasoning; 

argumsatatimi, s. f. argumentation, 
arguing; argumentatio, -onis. 

arguaentcr, v. n. to argue, to hold 
an argument; argumentari. 

argutie, s. f. quibble; argutiae. 

aride, adj. arid, dry, barren; ari- 
dus, arere, to be dry. 
aridity, s. f. aridity, dryne^, bari^- 
ness; ariditas. 
arlette, s. f. short air, arietta; dim. 

of It. aria, see air, song. 
aristoeratie, s. f. aristocracy; d^ia- 
ToxpaT^the government of the tfest, 
dgiaxogy best, x^at^oi, to rule, 
ailitoerate, s. m. f. aristocrat, 
aristooratiquey adj. aristocratic. 

arithm^t&qne, adj. and. s. f. arithme- 
tic; aQL^it/ritixij^ belonging to num- 
bers, dgi^fuig, a number, 
aritiuaitieiaii, s. m. arithmetician. 

arieq[uin,8.m. harlequin; It. Arlec- 
chino; Et. d. 
arleqninada, s. f. harlequinade. 

armatenr, s. m. owner of apriyateeri, 
ship-owner; armator, armare, 
to furnish with implements, to fit 
out, to arm, arma, see arme. 

arme, s. f. weapon; arma, (arms, ar- 
mour etc.). 

amier, V. a. to arm; armare. 

aim^, s. f. army; It. armata; Sp. 
Sp. armada; armata, p. p. of 
armare, to arm. 

anneiiii8nt,B.m. armament, equipment, 

amdftioe, s.m. armistice, truce; ar- 
mistitium, sistere. to stop. 

annoire, s. f. cupboard, closet; ar- 

annoiriei, s. f. pi. arms, coat of arms; 

anniire, s. f. armour; armatura. 

amuurier, s. m. armourer, gunsmith, 

arame, 8.m. aroma; aroma, ddcofuif 

aromate, s. m. aromatic, 
aromatiqua, adj. aromatic, 
aromatiiar, v. a. to aromatize. 
arp^ge, s. m. arpeggio: It. arpeg- 
gio from It. arpa, narp. 


— 20 — 

arpent, s. m. acre; Gnelic. aripen- 
nis, arpennis. 

acp«iitage, suryey^land-measaring. 

arpenter, v. a. to survey, to measure, 
to walk rapidly (over). 

arpenteiir, s. m. surveyor. 
arqaebuse, s. f. arquebuse, a sort of 
hand-gun; O.F. harquebuse, ha- 
que buse; Gre. bakenbtichsd. 
arquer, v. a. n. and pr. to arch, to 

bend; see arc. 
arraclier, v. a. to pull up, to pluck 
out, to takeout; M.L. ab-radicare 
for eradicare, radix; root. 

arraohement, s. m. plucking, tearing, 

, weeding out. 

arraolieiir, s. m. drawer (of teeth), 
cutter (of corns). 
arranger, v. a. to arrange; see rang. 

arrangement, s. m. arrangement, sett- 
lement, order. 
arr6ragei! ; see a rr i 6 r e. 
arrdter/v. a. n. and pr. to stop, to 
detain; O.F. arrester, a, and ros- 
ter, (see this,) to make one rest 
or remain. 

arrestation, s. f. seizure, arrest. 

arrdt, s. m. sentence, judgment. 

arrAt^ s. m. resolution, decision, order. 

arrhes, s. m. pi. earnest money, de- 
posit; arrha. 

arridre, adv. behind; ad-retro; 
comp. derii^re. Trear, etc.) 

- arriM, e, adj. backward, left un- 
done, due, arrears. 

arri^re-boutiqae, s. f. back shop; see 

arriire-garde, s. f. rear-guard; see 

ani^re-neveu, s. m. great nephew, pi. 
latest posterity; see neveu. 

arriver, v. a. to arrive, to reach; 
It. arrivare; M.L. adripare; see 

arrivage, s. m. arrival, 
arrive, s. m. arrival, coming. 

arroger (s'), pr. v. to arrogate, to 
claim; ar-rogare. 
arrogant, s. m. arrogant, proud; ar- 
rogans, -antis. 

arrogamment, adv. arrogantly, haugh- 

axrpganee, s. f. arrogance, haughti- 
ness; arrogantia. 

arroi, s. m. array, train; O.F. arro- 
yer, arr6er, to prepare; £. array. 

arrondir, v. a. to rotmd, to round off; 
see rond. 

arrondiiMBwat, 8. ra. roundness^ dis- 
trict, ward. 
arroser, v. a. to water, to sprinkle; 
see ros6e, dew. 

arroiage, s. m. irrigation, watering, 
axroeoir, s. m. watering-pot. 
arsenal, s. m. arsenal; L.Gr.ff^ffsya- 
If/g, Arab, dar ^anah, industrial 
arsenie, s. m. arsenic; arsenicnm, 

art, s. m. art; ars, artis. 
art^re. s. f. artery ; arteria, apn^^^, 
winapipe, artery, dsiQca, to lift; so 
called from the opinion of the an- 
cients, that the arteries contain or 
circulate air. 
artiriel, le, adj. arterial. 
artesien, ne, adj. artesian; Artois, 
in France, where' this kind of well 
was first made. 
artiehauty i. m. artichoke; It. arti- 
article, s. m. article, joint, clause; 
art! cuius, dim. of artus. 
artienler, v. a. to articulate, to state; 

artienlatioiit s. f. articulation, point. 
artifice, s. m. art, contrivance, arti- 
fice, firework; artificium, ars, 
artis, art, facere, to make, 
artifieiel, le, adj. artificial, 
artifleier, s. m. pyrotechnist, 
arfciflciewx, le, adj. artful, cunning. 
artillerie, s. t. artillery, ordnance; 
ars-artis, art, comp. enginfrom 

artilleiur, s. m. artillery-man^ 
artisan, s. m. artisan, mechanic; prob. 
M.L. artitianus, artitus, able; 
ars, artis, skill. 
artiste, s. m. artist, performer ; see a r t . 
artiateinent,adv. artistically, skilfully, 
artistique, adj. artistic, 
as, a, etc. see avoir, 
as. s. m. ace; Ge. as. O.H.G. esse, 
asbeste, s. m. asbestus; aapaatogt un- 
quenched, a priv. apBwv^, to 
ascendant, s. m. ascendancy, ^wer, 
influence; ascend ens, -entis, pr. 
p. of ascend ere, to mount. 
aseeiisioii,s.f. ascension, ascent, rise, 
Ascension-daj; ascensio, -onis. 
aseetiqae, adj. ascetic; affxijTtxdg, 
pertuning to exercise, {dauimf to 
« ezeroiae,) applied by the Greek 

— 21 — 

fathers to those who separated 
themselves from the world for the 
purpose of exercise in the contem- 
plation of divine things. 

asiatique, adj. Asiatic; Asia. 

asile, s. m. shelter, asylum, refuge; 
asylum; a-avXovy inviolate. 

aspect, s. m. aspect, looks; aspec- 
tus, a-spicere, to look at. 

aspergei» s. f. asparagtts; aspara- 
gus, danuQccyog. 

asperger, v. a. to besprinkle; a sper - 

aipeniion, s. f. sprinkling. 
aBpersoir, s. m. aspergillum, holy- 
water brush. 

asp6rit^, 8. f. asperity; asperitas, 
asper, see apre. 

aspbalte^ s. ui. asphaltum; asp h al- 
ius; aatpalTOg. 

asphyxie, s. f. asphyxy* aatpv^a, 
absence of pulsation, a priv., atpv^oi, 
to beat (of the pulse). 
asphyzier, v. a. to suffocate, pr. v. 
to commit suicide by suffocation. 

aspic, s. ra. aspic, asp; dan^g. 

aspirer, v. a. n. to draw breath, to 
aspirate, to aspire ; aspirare, ad- 

aspirant, e, adj. (of pumps) sucking; 
aspirans, -antis. 

. aspirant, s. m. e, s. f. aspirant, can- 

aspiration, s. f. aspiration, inhaling, 
suction; aspiratio, -onis. 

assailHr, v. a. to assault, to attack; 

M.L.assalire, ad-salire; salire, 

to leap. 
assainir. v. a. to render wholesome; 

see sain, sound, 
aggainisaement, s. m. rendering healthy, 

assaisonner. v. a. to season, to spice; 

see saison. 
asiaisonnement, s. m. seasoning. 

assassin, s. m. assassin, murderer; 
Arab, hashishin, the name of a 
religious sect, the members of which 
were bound to commit every murder 
Ordered by their chief. They intoxi- 
cated themselves with a liquor pre- 
pared from hemp (hashish) hence 
the name. Later the name was 
used to express a hired murderer, 
assassinat, s.m. murder, assassination. 
asiassiner, v. a. to murder, to assas- 

assaat,S;m. assault, attack; 
saltus, assalire, see assaillir. 

ass6cher, v. n. to dry up, to become 
dry; ad-siccare; see sec, and 

assembler, v. a. to assemble, to meet; 
assimulare, ad-simulare, to 
make like (with a reference to 
simul, together), see sembler. 
assemblage, s. m. assemblage, gather- 
ing, collection. 

assemble, s. f. assembly, meeting, 

assener, v. a. to hit the mark, to 
strike hard; assignare, to mark 
out, comp. assigner. 

assentir, v. a. to assent, to agree 
to; assentire, ad-seutire. 
asientiment , s. m. assent. 

asseoir, v. a. and pr. to sit, to assess; 
assidere, sedere. 

assermenter , v. a. to swear; see 

assertion, s. f. assertion; assertio, 
-onis, as-serere, assertum. 

asservir, v. a. to subject, to enslave; 
ad-servire; see serf*. 
aBservissement, s. m. servitude, sub- 

assesseur, s.m. assessor ; assessor, 
as-sidere, assessum, to sit .by. 

asseyez, assey'aiit, etc.; see asseoir. 

assez, adv. enough, sufficiently; ad 
satis, (sate, s^iety, etc.). 

assidu* e, adj. assiduous, diligent; 

assiduity, s. f. assiduity, application, 
industry; assiduitas. 

assied, assieds, etc.; see asseoir.' 
. assi^ger, v. a. to besiege; see si6ge. 
assi^geant, s. m. besieger. 

assiette, s. f. position, plate ; It. as s e- 
tare, to arrange, to put to table, 
a s s e 1 1 o , ornament ; prob. from s e- 
care, sectum, to cut, to divide. 

assigner, v. a. to assign, to allot; 

assignare, ad-signare. 
assignat, s. m. assignat, paper money 
of the French republic,— so termed 
because it represented land which 
might be transferred or assigned 
to the holder. 

assignation, s.f. assignation, transfer. 

assimiler, v. a. to assimilate, to 

liken; assimilare, similis, like. 

asiimilation, s. f. assimilation; assi- 

milatio, -onis. 

assis, e, p. p. of asseoir, s. th. 

— 22 — 

ly B. f. asaizeB. 
asstetar, v.«. to assist, to aid ; y. n. to 
aasfftBiiM, 8. f. assistance, aid, at- 
asBoeler, v. a. and pr. to associate, 
to join; associare, ad-sociare, 
Bocius, companion. 
MBodBtion, s.f. association, society, 

asioeiA, s. m. •, s. f. associate, part- 
ner, fellow; associatus. 
assommer, ▼. a. to fell, to kill, to 
weary; see somme, Durden, and 
Bomme, sleep. 

BSBominantj •, adj. overpowering, most 
tiresome j tedious. 
ftBSomptioD J s.f. assumption ; a s s u m p - 

tie, -onis, as-sumere. 
aBsortir, y. a. to suit, to match; see 

assortifliBnt, s. m. assortment. 
assoupir, v. a. and pr. to make, to 
render, to be drowsy, to quiet; ad - 
sopire, root sop, see sommeil. 
aiBoapisiexiMiit, s.m. drowsiness, sleep- 
iness, heaviness, slumber. 
assoupUr, v. a. to render, to make 

supple; see soup le. 
assoordlr, v. a. to deafen, to muffle; 
' see sourd. 

aiaonrdlBiaiit, •, adji deafening, stunn- 
assoaTir, v. a. an4 pr. to satiate, to 
^orgCj to gratify ; Goth, g a - s 6 1 h - 
J an, to satiate. 

assouTiSiement, s. m. satiating, gor- 
: ging, gratifying. 

assa1ettir,v. a. to subject, to subdue; 
a a, subjectus; see sujet 
assi^'ettisBeiaent, s. m. subjection, 
assumer, v. a. to assume ;assumere, 
ad-sumere; comp. assomption. 
assurer, v. a. to assure, to secure, 
to insure, pr. v. to make sure, to 
secure, to ascertain; M.L. asse- 
curare; securus, see sftr. * 
auuranod, s. f. assurance, confidence, 

aiButeiBnt, adv. assuredly) surely, 
aisurenr, s. m. insurer. 
astjSrisque, s. m. (print.) asterisk, star ; 
dotsQiaiiog, small star, aatQov, a star. 
asthme, s. m. asthma; ac^iiu, 
afthmatiqiie, adj. asthmatic. 
astieoter^ v. a. to annoy, to teaze; 
Ge. iteohen, to priok. 

astragale, s. m. ankle-bone, astragal ; 
ajstragalus, dazgdyalog, 

astre, s.m. fixed star, star; as t rum, 
aaxQov, (astronomy, etc.) 
astral, •, adj. astral. 

astreindre, v. a. and pr. to bind, 
to constrain; as t ring ere, ad- 
stringer e, to drkw ti^ht. 
astringeant, •, adj. restringent, as- 
tringent; -pr. p. of prec. 

astrologie, s. f. astrology; dctQolO' 
y^or, kno\¥ledge of the stars, ciatgav, 
star, Xdyoff, a discourse. 

astronomic , s. f. astronomy; darQo- 
vofiia^ datQov^ Star, vdiiogy a rule. 

astaee, s. f. craft, cunning, astute- 
ness; astutia, as tutus, length- 
ened form of astus, cunning, 
astueieuz, se, adj. astute, cunning, 

asyle; see asile. 

atelier, s. m. workshop, studio; M.L. 
artilarius, workshop; ars, artis, 

atermjyer, v. a. to delay the pay- 
ment of; F. terme (s. th.), suff. 
-oyer = -icare. 
atennoiement, s. m. compounding with 
creditors, composition. 

ath^e, s. m. atheist; d-^Bog^ without 
ath^sme, s. m. atheism. 

athldte, s. m. athlete; dd'X'qtrjgf com- 
batant,prlze-fighter, ad^Xog^A contest. 
athUtiqas, adj. athletic. 

atlas, s.m. atlas; Atlas in the Greek 
mythology carried the celestical 
globe on his shoulders. 

atmosphere, s. f. atmosphere ; dt(i6gy 
vapour, aq>cciQtt, sphere. 
atmoiph6riqne> adj. atmospheric. 

atome, s. m. atom ; atofiogj indiviaibley 
TifivoDf to cut. 

atours, s. m. pi. attire; O.F. atour- 
ner, to direct, to turn: then — to 
arrange; see tourner. 

atout, s. m. trump, trump -card; a 
tout, s. th. 

atrabilaire, adj. atrabilious; atra 
bills, black bile. 

fttre, s. m. fire-place, hearth; O.F. 
astre; M.L. astrum; O.H.Gr. as- 
trih; Ge. ostrich, stone-floor. 

atroee^ adj. atrocious, cruel; atrox, 
atroolti, s. f. atrocity; atrocitas. 

atrophief s. f. atrophy; d'TQoq>icc^ a 
pnv., t9^9)0), to nourish. 

23 — 

attobler, t. a. and pr. to set at table^ 

to sit down to table; see table. 
attaeher, v. a. and pr. to fasten, to 
attach; It. attacare; Sp. atacar. 
It. tacco, see tache. 

attaehe,»8. f. tie, bond, rivet, at- 


attaehi, s. m. attache (ufan embassy). 

attaehmnent, s. m, attachment, af- 

attaqner. v. a. and pr. to .- ttack, 
to assail; same as attacher, s. th. 
attaqne, s. f. attack, fit, touch. 
attarder (h'), pr. v. to be late; see 

atteindre, v. a. to reach, to attain; 
at-tingere, tangere, to touch. * 
atteSnt, •, p. p. 

atteinte, s. f. reach, stroke, injury, 
attack, attaint. 

atteler, v. a. to put the horses to, 
to yoke; M.L. astellare; O.F. as- 
tele, attelle, hame; hastella, 
dim. ot ha St a, a stick, a spear, 
attelage, s. m. team, set of horses, 
yoke of oxen. 

attenant, e, adj. adjoining, contig- 
uous; ad, tenere; see tenir. 

atteDdre, v. a. n. to wait for, to wait, 
to expect; at-tendere, to turn 
towards, to attend. 

attendrir, v. a. to make tender, to 
move, to soften, pr. v. to get 
tender, to be affected; see tend re. 
attendrinement, s. m. feeling, tender- 
ness, emotion. 

attente, s. f. waiting, expectation; 
see attendre. 

attenter, v. a. to attempt; at-ten-- 
tare, freq. of attendere, orig. 
to stretch. 

attentat, s. m. attempt to commit a 
crime; attentatio. 

attentloii, s. f. attention, care; at- 
tentio, -onis, see attendre. 
att«ntif, ▼•, adj. attentive, mindful, 

att^nufr, v. a. to attenuate, to weak- 
en; at-tenuare, tenuis, thin, 
attfamation, s.f.attenu<'ition, extenua- 
tion; attenuatio, -onis. 

atterrer, v. a. to throw down on 
the ground, to overturn, to startle, 
to astound; It. atterrare; Sp. 
aterrar; see u and terre. 

attenir, t. n. (nav.) to make land, 
to land; see terre. 
attteage, s. m. making land. 
atterrisMment, s. m. alluvium. 
att^Kter. v. a. to attest, to testify; 
at-testari, testis, a witness, 
attestation, s. f. attestation; attes- 
tatio, -onis. 
at1i^dir« v. a. and pr. to make luke- 
warm, to coo]; see ti^de. 
attlMisiement, s. m. lukewarmness, 

attlrer, v. jl to attract, to draw; 
see tirer 
attirail, s. m. implements, apjparatus. 

attlser, v. a. to put (tne fire) to- 
gether, to stir up; see tison. 
attisoir, attiionnoir, s. m. poker (of 

attitude, s. f. attitude ; It. a 1 1 i t ud i n e ; 
aptitudo, comp. aptitude. 

attouebement, s. m. touch; O.F. at- 
toucher, see toucher. 

attraire, v. a. to attract ;ad-trahere. 
attraotion, s. f. attraction; a ttr ac- 
tio, -onis. 

attraetif, ve, adj. attractive, 
attrait, s. m. attraction, charm; at- 

attrayant, adj. attractive, alluring. 
attraper, v. a. to catch; see trappe. 
attrape, s. f. catch, trick. 
attribuer, v. a. to attach, to attri* 

bute, to impute; at-tribuere. 
attribut, s.m. attribute; attributus, 
. p. p. of attribuere. 
attribution, s. f. privilege, preroga- 
tive; attributio, -onis. 

aftrister, v. a. and pr. to sadden, 
to grieve; see triste. 

at tritlon , s. f . attrition ; at-terrere, 
attritum, to rub at. 

attronper, v. a. to assemble (a mob), 
to gather; see troupe, 
attroapement, s. m. riotous assembly, 
mob, rout. 

an, au\, art.; O.F. al, als, con- 
tracted from a le, to the. 

anbade, s. f, serenade (about dawn); 
see aube. 

aubain, s. m. alien; M.L. albanus; 
alibi, elsewhere. 

aubaine, s. f. (in law) escheat to the 
crown of the property of an alien 
deceased, price, God -send. 

* Se* P* on laagna^e p. SI, 

— 24 - 

anbe, s. f. dawn, alb; alba(hora), 
albus, white, pale. 

aab^pfne, s. f. hawthorn, white thorn; 
alba spina; see 6pine. 

aaberg'e, s. f. tavern, inn; It. al- 
bergo; O.H.G. heriberga, har- 
bour; her, army, and bergan, 
to protect, to conceal; Ge. her- 
berge; comp. h6berger. 
aabergiste, s. m. tavern-keeper, inn- 

auenii, e, adj. any; O.F. alcun; It. al- 
aaennement, adv. by no means, not 
at all. 
audace, s. f. audacity, boldness; au- 
dacia, and ere, to venture. 
attdaeieux, se, adj. audacious, daring, 
bold; audax, -acis. 
audience 9 s. f. hearing, audience; 
andientia, audire, to hear. 
aa d Jen e J e r^ s. m. crier of a court. 
auditeur, s. m. hearer, auditor; au- 
ditor, audire, to near. 

andltif, Te, adj. auditory; audit us, 
p. p. of audire, to hear. 

audition, s. f. hearing, auditing; 
auditio, -onis, see prec. 

auditoire, s. m. auditory, audience; 
auditorium, see prec. 

auge, s. f. trouffh, spout; alveus; 
alvus, the belly, comp. abr^ger, 

augmenter, v. a. to increase, toaug- 

' ment; augmentare, augere. 
aagmentation, s. f. increase, augment- 

au^re, s. m. augury, augur; augu- 

rium, augur, Et. d. 
aagarer, v. a. to augur. 
auguste, adj. august; augustus, 

augere, to honour. 
aojoardniui, adv. to-day, nowadays; 

au, jour, d'hui; see jour andhui. 
aulique, adj. aulic; aulicus; aula, 

a hall. 
aulne; see aune. 
aum(^ne9 s. f. alms, charity; iXsruio- 

avvrif mercy, alms. 

aune, aulne, s. m. alder tree; a In us. 
aune, s. f. ell; Goth, aleina; A.S. 

eln; Ge. elle. 
auparavant, adv. before, before now; 

O.F. paravant, au, par, avant, 

B. th. 
auprds, prep, and adv. near, close; 

au-prds; see pr^s and apr^s. 

anquel, dat. of lequ6l; see le and 

aural, aurals, etc.; see avoir. 

e, 8. f. halo of glory, aureola; 

aureola, a crown 

t fflorv, 
of gold, 


auriculaire, adj. auricular; auricu- 
laris, auricula; see oreille. 

aurif^re. adj. auriferous; aurum, 
gold, terre, to carry. 

aurore, s. f. dawn of day, aurora; 
Aurora, the Goddess of Morning; 
av^io^eo^aoraurea hora, golden 
hour; ace. to Varro aureus aer, 
golden -tinted atmosphere. 

ausculter, ▼. a. to auscultate; aus- 
cultare, to listen. 
aasonltation, s. f. auscultation; aus- 
cultatio, -onis, a listening. 

auspice, s. m. auspice; auspicium', 
auspex, -icis for avispex, a 
bird-seer, avis,* bird, and root 
spec in specere, to see. 

anssi, adv. likewise, also, therefore; 

O.F. alsi; aliud sic. 
aussitdt, adv. immediately, as soon 

as; aussi, and tdt, soon; s. tL 

aust^^re, adj. austere, stern; a us te- 
rns; ocvatriQOS* 
aostirit^i s. f. austerity. 

autant, adv. as much, as many; O.F. 
altant; aliud tantum. 

autei, 8. m. altar; altar e;altu8, high. 
auteur, s. m. author; autor, auc- 

tor, augere, auctum, to make 

to grow, to enrich. 
authentique, adj. authentic; ap^tv- 

Ti%6g, ttiS'&svtrjg, an absolute master, 
aathentieitiy s. f. authenticity. 

autobiographie, s. f. autobiography; 

avrdgj self, p^ff, life, yQoctpat], to 

autocrate, s. m. autocrat; oevtmiifdtrjg, 
auto-da-fe, s. m. autodafe; Sp. 

auto de fe act- of -faith. 

autographe, s. m. autograph; amo- 
yqcKpog, » 

automate, s. m. automaton; «tlro- 
fiatog, self-acting. 

automne, s. m. autumn; autumnus, 
auctumnus, augere, auctum, 
to increase; comp. colonne. 
antomnal, •, adj. autumnal; autum- 

autonom^e, s. f. autonomy; etvtovo- 
(tiUf avtog, self, v^ftog^ a law. 

— 25 — 

Mttopfrie^ 8* ^« autopsy, postmortem 
examination; avzfn^ia^ personal in- 
spection, wtdq^ self, d^iff) sight. 

aa^iiser, v. a. to authorize, to com- 
mission; M.L. auctorisare; auc- 
tor, autor, see auteur. 
autorisation, s. f. authorisation, au- 
autoriti, s. f. Q^thority. 

autour, prep, around, about; au, 
tour; s. th. 

autour, s. m. goshawk; acceptor 
for accipiter. 

autre, adj. and pron. other, different; 
0,F. altre; alter, 
autrefbii, adv. formerly; see fois. 

autriehten, ne, adj. and s. Austrian; 
F. Autriche, Austria. 

antruehe, s. f. ostrich; avis struthio. 

autrui, s. m. another; Prov. It. 
altrui; alter-huic; comp. autre. 

auTent, s. m. shed, penthouse; Prov. 
an van; Et. d. 

aux. pi. of au; s. th. 

anxllfafre, adj. auxiliary; auxilia- 

• ris, auxilium, aid. 

aoxquels, pi. of auquel;. s. th. 
ayacliir (s'), pr. v. to flag, to get 
flabby, soft; O.H.G. weichjan; 
6e. weichen, to yield. 
av^s, avait, avons^ etc.; see avoir. 
aval, adv. down the stream; ad val- 
lem, vallis, vale, 
avalanche, s. f. avalanche, snow-slip, 
avaler, v. a. to swallow. 

avancer, v. a. n. and pr. to advance, 
to move; see avant. 

avanee, s. f. advance, start, projection. 

avanoement, s. m. advancement, pro- 
motion, preferment. 

avanie, s. f . molestation (for the pur- 
pose of exaction, exercised by the 
Turks), aflfront; M.Gr. ajJav^a; 
Turk, ha van. 

avant, prep, and adv. before, fore, 
forward; ab ante. 

avantage, s. m. advantage, benefit. 

avantageux, se, adj. advantageous, 
(of dress) becoming. 

avant-hras, s.m. forearm; see bras. 

avant -oourrenr, s. m. forerunner, har- 
binger; see courir. 

avant -dtmier, toe, adj. last but one. 

avant-garde, s. f. vanguard; see 

avant- gofit, s. m. foretaste, anticipa- 
tion; see goftt. 

aTaBl-ktor, adv. the day before yes- 
terday; see hier. 

avaat-pofte, s. m. outpost; see 

avaat-propoi, s. m. preface, intro- 
duction; see prop OS. 

avaat-setaei s. f. front of the stage, 
proscenium; see sc^ne. 

avare, adj. avaricious, stingy; a varus, 
avarice, s. f. avarice*, stinginess; 

avarie, s. f. damage, especially 
of ships; Ge. haferey, nafen, 

It vau-rean, adv. with the current; 
&, s. th.: vau=val, s. th.; la, 
eau, s. th. 

avee, prep, with; O.F. avoec; apud 

avenlr, v. n. to occur, to happen; 
same as advenir, s. th. 

avenaat,e,adj.prei)ossessing, pleasing. 

av6nement, s.m. ac'cession, succession. 

avent, s. m. advent; adventns. 

aventnre, s. f. adventure. 

aventnrer, v. a. and pr. to adven- 
ture, to venture. 

aventoreuz, se, adj. adventurous, ven- 

aventnrier, s. m. toe, s. f. adventurer. 

avean, e, p. p. of avenir. 

aveane, s. f. avenue. 

avenir, s. m. future; F. k venir 
(s. th.), to come. 

av^rer, v. a. to evince the truth of; 
M.L. adverare; verus, true; 

averse, s. f. shower; see verser. 

aversion! s.f. aversion, dislike; aver- 
si^, -onis, ad-vertere, to torn 

aveiiir, v. a. to inform, to advise; 
ad-vertere; see prec. 
avertisiement, s. m. notice, notifica- 
tion, intelligence, information, cau- 
tion, advertisement. 

aveu, s.m. avowal, acknowledgement; 

see avouer. 
aveugle, adj. and s. blind; M.L. ab- 
oculus; ab, without, oculus, 

avenglement, s. m. blindness, 
avengler, v. a. to blind, to dazzle. 

avide, adj. greedy, eager; avidus. 
aviditi, s. t. avidity, greediness, 
eagerness; aviditas. 

26 - 

atHIT) ▼• &• to debase, to degrade, 
to viMfy, se vil. 

ayi1iwwi0Bt, s. m. debasement, de- 
gradation, vileness. 

anner, v. a. to season with wine, 
to season; see vin. 

SYiron, s. m. oar; Wallon. naviron; 

F. navir, s. th. 
avis, 8. m. opinion, advice ; O.F. a d v i s , 

a, vis, see visage. 
aviaer, v. a. to advise, to inform; M.L. 

advisare; comp. abuser, etc. 

ayitailler, v. a. to victual ; v i c t u a 1 i a , 

avitaillement , s. m. victualling, pro- 

Hviver, v. a. to brighten, to polish; 
see vive. 

avoeat, s. m. barrister, advocate; ad- 
vocatus. Avocat is a word of 
modem formation; the older word 
derived form the Lat. advocatus 
was avo^, avaue (s. th.), which 
meant a defender, protector gene- 
rally, and later Lord, suzerain, who 
owed protection to his vassals. 

avoine, s. f. oats; a vena; comp. 

trois, and voile. 
avoir, v. a. to have, s. m. proprety, 

credit; O.F. aveir; habere. 

avolBlner, v. a. to be adjacent to, 
to border upon; see voisin. 

avorter, v. a. to miscarry, to be 
abortive; ab or tare, freq. of ab- 
oriri, abortum, to fail, 
avortemont, s. m. abortion, misscar- 

avorum, s. m. abortion, dwarf, ab- 
ortion of the braitt. 

avoii^^ s. m. attorney, solicitor; ad- 
vocatus; ad-vocare, to call in, 

avouer, v. a. to avow, to confess, 
to approve; see 'X and vouer. 

avril, 8. m. April; Aprilis. 

avron, or haveron, s. m. wild oats; 

O.H.G.habaro;Ge.haber, hafer, 

axe, 8. m. axis, axle-tree; axis, 
azillaire, adj. axillary; see aisselle. 
axiomey s. m. axiom; d^iaijux. 
ay ant, pres. part, of avoir, s. th.; 


azote, 8. m. azote; d-icnos, without 
Ufe, azote not being respirable. 

azur, s. m. azure, blue; It. azzurro, 
lazur; Pers. lazvard. • 
asuri, e, adj. azured, sky-coloured. 

azvme,'adj. and s. m. azymous, un- 
leavened, azyme; ajv/tios, a priv. 
ff/fnj, ferment. 


babenrre, s. m. butter -milk; has, 
: low, and beurre, butter, s. th. 

bablller, v. a. to prat, to chatter, 
to babble; onomat. 
babil, s. m. prattle, babbloi chatter. 
babillage, s. m. babbling, cbtitter, 
twattle, chit-chat. 
. babiUard, e, adj. chattering, talka- 
' tive, chatterer, talker. 

bablne, s. f. lip (of some animals); 
Ge. baeppe; baubari, to bark. 

babiole, s. f. plaything, toy, trifle; 
It. babbole, prob. the same root 
as in E. babe, baby, etc. 

bAbord, s. m. larboard; O.H.G. bak- 
bord; lit. back- board. 

baboucbe, s.f. Turkish slipper; Arab, 
babusb, Pers. papush, pa, foot, 
.push, envelop. 

babouin. s.m. baboon, (pers.) monkey ; 
It. baobuino; Sp. babuino; M.L. 
babuynuB, baboinus; .Ge. ba- 

vian, pavian; Ge. baeppe; see 
bac, 8. m. passage-boat, ferry-boat; 
D. bac, baak; Ge. becken, basin. 

baecalaur^at, s. m. bachelorship, bac- 
calaureate; M.L. baccalaureuB, 
baccalarius, £t. d. 

bacchanalen, s. f. pi. bacchanals, 
revels; bacchanalia; Bacchus, 
, the god of wine. 

bacchante, s. f. bacchante ; B a c c b u s , 
see prec. 

bftcbe, s. f. awning (of carts, wag- 
gons), tilt, hot -bed frame; Et. d. 
bftchier, v. a. to cover with an awning, 
to tilt. 

bacbelter, s. m. bachelor; It. bac- 
celliere, baccalare; seebacca- 

bacbique, adi. bacchic, convivial; 

Bacchus, the god of wine. 
baehot, s. m. wherry;. see bac. 

_ 17 - 

Meier 9 T.a.tobariip, to hurry over; 
H.L. bacnlare; baculuB, stick. 
badaad, s. m. lounger; see bayer. 

badli^eoii, s. m. padigeon (paint), 

colour; Et. d. 
badigeonnar, v. a. to paint (walls, 

houses, etc.). 
badigMmiiagt, s.m. painting of houses, 


badtn, e, adj. playful, jocular, waggish ; 
see bayer. 
badinage, s. m. play, lest, trifling. 
badina, s. f. switch, pi. small tongs, 
badiner, v. a. to play, to trifle, to joke. 

bafouer, v. a. to baffle, to scoff at; 

Ge. baffen; baf, imitation of the 

dogs barking. 
bftftrer, v. a. to stuff, to eat greedily; 

see baver. 

bagage^ s. m. luggage, baggage ; from 
bagues, pl.ofbague, (, which 
f ormerlv meant wearing apparel, and 

generally movables; M.L. baga; 
c. bag; Engl. bag. 
bagarre, s'f. squabble, wrangle ; O.H.G. 
baga, dispute. 

bagatelle 9 s. f. trifle, bagatelle; ba- 

gue; see bagage. 
bagne, s. m. bagne (convict-prison) ; 

It bagno, Et. d. 

bagne, s. f. ring; M.L. baga, rin^, 
bracelet; Gotn. bin g an, to bend; 
Ge. beugen, biegen; Engl. bow. 

baguette, s. f. small stick ; b a c u 1 u s , 
a stick. 

bahut, 8. m. chest, trunk; O.H.G. 

behut, magazine, repository; Ge. 

behtiten, to guard. 
bai, e, adj. bay; badius; flaiiop. 
bale, s. f. bay. sinus; O.F. b^er, 

to open; see o^ant. 

baigner, v. a. to bathe; balneare, 
see bain. 

baigneor, s.m. se, s. f. bather, bath- 
ing - man , bathing - woman, 
baignoire, s. f. bath (receptacle), 
^theat.) corner -box. 
ball, s. m. pi. lease; see bailler. 
bailler, v. a. to deliver, to give (to 
lease); bajulare, to transfer, to 
send; bajulus, see bailli. 
bailleor, s. m. lessor. 

bftiller, v. n. to yawn, to gape; O.F. 
b6er; see b6ant; comp. bayer. 
bAUkment, s. m. yawning, gaping. 

bAIUrar, 8. m. se, n. f. yawner^ gM^r* 
batllet, adj. (of horses) light red; 

Et. d. 
bailli, s. m. bailif ; bajulns, a carrier. 

bftlllQn, s.m. gag; ba cuius, a stick. 
bAOloner, v. a. to gag, to wedge up 
(a door). 

batn, 8. m. bath; balneum. 
baTonaette, s. f. bayonet; Bay on n e, 
the town where it nas been invented. 

balser, v. a. to kiss; basiare, ba- 

baisar, s. m. kiss. 

baiiemain, s. m. kissing hands, hom- 
age; see main. 

baiiotter, v. a. to be always kissing; 
freq. of baiser. 
baisser, v. a. to lowen to fall; «ee has. 

bailie, s. f. fall (or prices, waters, 
etc.), abatement. 

bal, s. m. ball; O.F. bailer: M.L. 
ballare,balare,todance; balla, 
see balle. Ball playing was in the 
Middle -ages, as with tne Greeks, 
often accompanied by dancing and 
singing, hence Rom. balla re got 
to mean to dance. 

balaft-e, s. f. gash, slash, sear; O.F. 
berlaffe, bis-ber, and O.H.G. 
leffur; F. 16vre, Up, s. th. 
balai!rer, v. a. to scar. 

balal, s. m. broom, brush; prob. of 
Celtic origin. 

balais, s. m. balas-ruby ; It. b a 1 a s c i o , 
so called from Badakshan Ca- 
lash an) near Samarkand where 
it is found. 

balance, S. f. balance, scales; bi- 
lanx, bilancis, wnich has two 
basins, plates, lanx, a plate. 

balaneer, v. a. to balance, to poise, 
to rock, to square (accounts), v. n. 
to hesitate, to waver, pr. v. to 
swin^, to rock, to waddle (in 

balaneier, s. m. pendulum, balancing- 

balan^ire, s. f. see -saw, swing. 

balayer, v. a. to sweep; see balai. 
balayage, s. m. sweeping, 
balayenr, s. m. se, s. f. sweeper, 
balayures, s. f. pi. sweepings. 
balbntier, v. a. to stammer, <to stutter ; 
balbutire, balbus, stammering, 
balbutiemeat, s. m. stammering, stut- 

— 28 — 

Itoleen. 8. m. balcony; It. bale one; 
O.H.G. palcho, palco; Ge. bal- 
ken, beam. 

Ihildaqnin, s.m. baldachin, baldaquin, 
canopy; It. baldacchino, bal- 
dacce; from Bagdad, where the 
coloured cloth was manufactured, 
which was used to m.ake the canopies. 

baleine, s. f. whale, whale -bone; 

bal^yre, s. f. under lip; contraction 
of basse l^vre; s. th. 

balise, s. f. beacon, buoy; Et. d. 
baliTeme, s. f. idle talk, stuff, non- 
sense; £t^ d. 
ballade, s. f. ballad; prop, a dancing 
song; It. ballata; O.F. bailer, 
see Dal. 
ballet, s.m. ballet; dim. ofbal; 
balle^ s. f. ball, shot, bullet; It. 
balla; Prov. Sp. bala; O.H.G. 
balla, palla; (Ge. ball). 
ballon, s. m. balloon, 
ballot, s. m. bale, 
ballotter, y. a. to toss, to ballot, 
ballottage, s. m. ballot, 
ballottement, s. m. tossing,. shaking. 

balonrd, s. m. dolt, dullard, thick- 
skin; ba (see b^ant), lourd, s. th. 
balonrdise, s. f. dullness, heaviness, 
stupid thing. 

balsamique, adj. balmy, balsamic; 
balsamum; see baume. 

balnstre, s. m. ballnster, railing; ba- 

• 1 a us t rum; paXavaTLov^ the flower 
of a pome granate, ballnster being 
similar to it. 
balnttrado, s. f. ballustrade, fence. 

balzan^ s. m. white footea horse; see 
bai; Diez proposes It. balza, 

barabin, s.m. baby, babe; O.F. baabe; 
Ge. bub, btiblein; Engl, babe, 

bamboelie, s. f. puppet, bit of a thing; 
see bambin. 

ban, s. m. ban, banishment ; M.L. b a n - 
num, command; Ge. ban, ba^n, 

banal, e, adj. subject to socome, 
commonplace, hackney, 
banality, s. f. banality, socome, com- 

bane, s. m. bench, bank; It. banco; 

O.H.G. panch; Ge. bank. 
bande, s. f. band, gang, company; 


bande, fl. f. band, strip; O.H.G. pant; 
Ge. band. 

bandage, s. m. bandage, truss, tire 
(of wheels) , belt, 

bandagiste, s. m. truss- maker. 

baadoaa, s. m.. head - band. 

bander, v. a. to bind up, to bend, 
pr. Y. to be tight. 

bandereaa, s. m. trumpet - sling. 

banderole, s. f. banderole, pennon, 
small flag. 

bandonlito, s. f. cross-belt, bandoleer. 
bandit, s. m. ruffian, bandit; It. ban- 
dit o; see ban, prop, exile, outlaw. 

banlieue, .s. f. suburbs; M.L. ban- 
leuca, from bannum^ territory 
belonging to the jurisdiction of a 
magistrate, • or Lord, and leuca, 
mile; see lieue. 

banne, s. f. awning, hamper; O.F. 
benne; It. benna; Ge. benne; 
Et. d. 

banner, v. a. to cover with an awning. 
banneret, adj. m. banneret; M.L. 
banneretus; O.F. banne, see 
ban ni ere, the privilege of the 
title being that the knight was to 
have a banner of his own. 
bannidre, s. f. banner, standard; O.F. 
banne;M.L. bandum, seebande. 
bannir, v. a. to banish; see ban. 
banni, e, adj. banished, exile, 
banaisrament, s. m. banishment. 

banqne, s. f. banking, bank; It. 
banco, banca; see banc. 

banqueroute, s. f. bankruptcy; It. 
banco rotto, broken bench, in 
allusion to the custom practised in 
the middle ages of breaking the 
benches or tables of those money — 
changers who had become insolvent, 
banquerontier, s.m. ire, s.f. bankrupt. 

banquet, s. m. banquet; see banc, 
banqueter, v. n. to banquet, to feast. 
banquette, s. f. small bench, ban- 
quette, footpath; see banc. 
banqnier, s. m. banker, who holds 

the bank; see ban que. 
bapt^me, s.m. baptism; baptisma; 

pdnxiofitt^ see next w. 
baptfser, v. a. to baptize, to christen; 
baptizare, pant^m, pdma^ to 
baptismal, e, adj. baptismal, 
baptistaire, adj. of baptism, 
baptiste, 8. m. baptist. 
baqaet, s. m. tub, bnoket; sea bac. 

— 29 — 

bftiraflroiiiBer, v. a. to jabber; Bret, 
bara, bread, gwin, wine. The 
French called baragouinthe lan- 
guage of the Britains which they 
did not understand. 

baraque, s. f. hut, shed; Sp. barra- 
. ca; Eng. barraks; see oar re. 
baratte,8. f. chum; M.L. barriclus; 

see baril, barrique. 
baratter, v. a. to churn. 

barbar e, s. m. barbarian ; barbarus, 
pd^BaQog, foreign to Greek manners 
or language, foreign. 

barbariay s. f. barbarity, barbarism. 

barbarisme, s. m. barbarism (gram.); 

barbe, s. f. beard; barb a. (barber) 
barbet, s. m. barbet, water-spaniel, 

dog ;barbatus, because of the long 

hair of the dog. 
barbier, s. m. barber, 
barbotcr, v. n. to dabble, to paddle. 

ba^boniller, v. a. to daub, t« smear, 
to besmear, to scribble, to bi^bble; 
It. barbugliare; barbulatus, 
with a great dirtv beard. 

barbu, •, adj. bearded, barbated. 

barbae, s. f. brill (fish). 
barcarolle, s. f. barcarolle; It. bar- 
carola, barca, bark. 

bard, B. m. handbarrow; Goth, bai- 
ran, to bear; £ng. bear, barrow. 

barde, s. m. bard; Ge. barde. 

barde«8.f. bard, armour for horses; 

. Gotn. baurd; Ge. bord, bret; 
Engl, board. 

bardellA, s. f. bardelle (quilted saddle 
for colts); O.F. barde. 
bardot, s. m. little small mule, be- 
cause it carries burdens on a bar- 

bargaigBer,v.n. to haggle, to higgle; 
It. bargagnare; Sco. baragan; 
Engl, bargain. 

baril, s. m. barrel, cask; M.L. baril- 
las; see barre, barrique. 

barioler, ▼. a. to make a meddley of 
(by painting); for y,arioler; va- 

barlong, ue, adj. of unequal length ; 
bis fongus. 

barorndtre, s. m. barometer; fidgog, 
pressure, (isxqov, measure, 
bammtoiqve, adj. barometrical. 

baron, s. m. baron; O.F. ber, man, 
then— strong, brsre man. £t. d. 

baioiiBe, a f. baroness, 
baronnia, s. f. barony, baronage. 

baroque, adj. odd, strange, (of pearls) 
irregular, not round; Sp. bar rue- 
co; Port, barroco, an irregular 
pearl; Et. d. 

barque, s.f. bark, boat, barge; O.F. 
barge; M.L. It. barca; £t. d. 

barre, s. f. bar, cross-bar; It. Sp.Port. 

barra; of Celtic origin, 
barrage, s. m. barrier, wear, 
barreau, s. m. bar. 
barrer, v. a. to bar, to obstruct, 
barricade, s. f. barricade, 
banieader, v. a. to barricade, 
barrite, s. f. barrier, fence, bar. 
barrique, s. f. cask, hogshead; M.L. 

barriclus; comp. bariL 

barrette,s. f. cap (of cardinals); M.L. 

birretum, a sort of cap; It. ber- 

r.etta; Ir. bairead. 
baryton, s. m. baritone; pa^g tifro^, 

strong voice. 

bas, se, adj. low, inferior; bass us,. 
pdacmv, comp. of§€i9vs deep, high, 
(base, bass, etc.). 

baSfS. m. bottom, lower part, stocks 
ing; haut de chausses and bas 
de chausses (seechausse): for- 
n^erly the.trowsers and stockings 
were of one piece. When an in- 
genious tailor cut it in two, the 
two parts became haut dezchaus- 
se and bas de chausse, hence 
bas, stocking. 

basalt, s. m. basalt; basaltes. 

basane, s.f. sheep-leather; Sp. Port, 
bad ana; Arab, bi-t&nah. 
baiaa^, e, adj. tawny, sun-burnt, 

bascule, s. f. see-saw, weighing ma- 
chine; Et. d. ace. to Littr^ for 
bacule, see battre and cul. 

base, s. f. base, basis, foundatiotf; 

basis, §ttaig. 
baser, v. a. to base, to ground. 
ba8-fond« s. m. flat, level, shallow 

water; see bas, fond. 

basilique, s. f. basilica, magnificent 
church; basilica, pccaiXiHtj^ a royal 
mansion, §ocaiXs'6g^ a king. 

basin, s. m. dimity; for bombaain; 
M.L. bambacium; bombyx, silk- 

basque, s. f. skirt of a garment; 
The fashion of garments called k 

— 30 — 

basques i0 supposed to have come 
from Biscay, nence basque. 

bas-relief s. m. basso-relievo, low- 
relief; see bas, relief. 

basse, s. f. bass; bassus; see bas. 

basse-eour, back-yard, poultry-yard; 
see bas, basse, and cour. 

bassesse, s. f. baseness, meanness, 
vileness; see bas, basse. 

basset. s.m. basset, turnspit; see bas. 

basse-taille, s. f. basso-relievo, (vo- 
cal muB.) bass; see bas, basse, 
and taille. 

basslDjS.m. basin; It. bacino; M.L. 
bacinus, prob. the Celtic b a c, ca- 

iMUNdm, s. f. pan. 

bagiiner, v. a. to warm a bed with 
a pan. 

iMUMdiMt, 8. m. pan of firearms, fire- 
pan, prime. 

basifaoire, s. f. warming-pan. 
basson, s m. bassoon; see bas. 
basteme, B.f. bastern (car drawn by 
* oxen); M.L. bastern a, bastum, 
see b&t. 

bastille, s. f. fortress, bastille: M.L. 
bastillus, bastire, see b&tir. 

bastion, s.m. bastion; bastire, see 

bftstonnade, s. f. bastinado, cudgel- 
ling; see baton. 

bftstringae, s. m. public house ball; 
Et. d. 

bfts-ventre, s. m. abdomen, venter; 
see bas and ventre. 

bftt, s. m. pack-saddle ; bastum; Ge. 

bast; £. bast (as bridle). 
bstaciflii, s. m. encumbrance, lumber; 

prob. battre, s. th, 
batttiUe, s. f. battle; It. battaglia, 

M.L. batualia;batuere, seeoat- 

batailUm, B.m. a battalion, squadron; 

bataille formerly meant body of 

soldiers, hence the dim. ba tail! on. 

bUtard, e, adj. and s. bastard; O.F. 
bastard; M.L. bas tardus. Ghe- 
vallet derives the word from bas. 
Fils de bas, enfant de bas mean- 
ing a natural child, is to be found in 
ancient authors. But Grimm shows, 
tlfttthe word ba tar d does not oc- 
cur previously to William the Con- 
queror, who was called and called 
himself Wilhelmus bastardns. 
The expressions fils de bas etc. oc- 

cur in documents of the 13. and 14. 
century only, seem therefore bas- 
ed upon a supposed analogy bet- 
ween bastara and bas. But other 
. documents have fils debast, ve- 
nir de bast, which seems more 
correct. He supposes bast to be 
the Ge. bast Eng. bast (see bat) 
in the signification of res vilis, a 
thing of no value. He shows that 
the word bast art was applied to 
spurious things generally, 
b&tardise, s. f. bastardism. 
bateau, s. m. boat; O.F. batel; It. 
batello dim. of batto; M.L. ba- 
tus; A.S. bat; Ge. boot; Eng. 
boat, according to Grimm of Cel- 
tic origin, Ir. bad; Welsh, bad; 
Gal. bata. 
bateUer, s. m. boatman, waterman. 
bateleur, s. m. juggler, buffoon; 0. 

F. basteleur, see baton. 
bfttir, V. a. to build; M.L. bastire, 
bastum, see b4t. , 

bfttiniAnt, s. m. building, edifice. 
bAtiiie, s. f. building, 
bitisieiir, s. m. builder, one who is 
fond of building. 
batiste, s. fv cambric; Baptiste, 
name of the first manufacturer of 
bftton, s. m. stick, staff; O.F, has- 
ten; bastum, see bat. 
bitoniior, v. a. to cudgel, to basti- 
nado, to score, to expunge, 
batomiier, s. m. staffbearer, batonnier 
(president elect of the order of bar- 
battage, s.m. thrashing; see battre. 
battologie, s.f. tautology; ^attoXoyw. 
battre, v. a. to beat; batuere. 
battsment, s .m. clapping (of hands), 
beating, throbbing, battement. 
batterie, s. f. scufQe, battery, kitchen 
utensils, beat fof drums). 
batto, s, p. p. 01 battre. 
battue, 8. f. (hunt.) battue. 
ban, s. m. beam (of ships); O.H.G. 

balko; Ge. balke. 
baudet, s. m. donkey, jack-ass; O.F. 
baudir, to rejoice, to excite; hence 
O.F. baud, insolent, joyous; O.H.G. 
bald; E. bold. 
baudrier, s. m. cross-belt, baldrick; 

balteus; E. belt. 
baume, s. m. balm, balsam; balsa- 
mum, fiuXaotitov, 
baux, pi. of bail, s. th. 

— 31 — 

baye^ s. f. drivel, slaver; It. bay a; 
Welsb hfLWf filth dirt; onomat. 
bavaxdy 8. m. prater, prattler, 
bavardflr, v. n. to talk^ to chatter. 
bavmrdagt, s. m. talkativeness, talk, 

bayer, v. n. to drivel, id slaver, 
bayiffett, s. f. bib. 

bayrax, m, adj. driveler, slaverer. 
bayochar, v. a. to render uneven. 
bayokt, s. m. bavolet, head-dress. 

baver, v. a. to gape, to hanker; 0. 
F. bee, opening, m b^ant, see this. 

bayonette, s. f. see baionette. 

bazar, 8. m. bazar; an Arabic word 
meaning - traffic. 

b^ant, e, adj. gaping; O.F. beer, ba- 
yer; M.L. badare. Diez sug- 
gests the root ba (onomat.). 

b^at) s. m. devout, pious; be at us. 
btetitude, 9. f. beatitude, bliss; bea- 
titudo, -inis. 

beau, bel, belle, adj. beautiful, fine, 
handsome; belluscontr. from be- 
nulus. benus = bonus, good, 
beautirul. (belle, belletrist, etc.) 

beaueoup, adv. much, many ; see b e a u, 
coup, to make a fine stroke as 
it were, to take a large number. 

beaa-flls, 8. m. step-son; beau, fils, 
8. tb. beau is here a term of 
affection much used in O.f. 

beau-frdre, s. m. step-brother; see 

fr^re, and prec. 
beau-pdre, s. m. father in law; see 

pdre, and beau-fils. 
beaaprd, s. m. bowsprit; £. bow- 
beaat^9 s. f. beauty; see beau. 
bee, 8. m. beak, bill; of Celtic origin; 
Scot, beie; Welsh, pig; Ir. bee; 
Eng. beak. 

bieassa, s. f. wood-cock, snipe; be- 
cause of its long beak. 
beeafBine, s. f. snipe. 
be»-de-Uiyr», s. m. hare-lip; see li6- 

btebe, 8. f. spade, 
•b^oher, v. a. to dig, to spade, 
beeqaster, bequettr, v. a. to pick, to 

bedeao^ s. m. beadle; O.H.G. putil; 
A.S.bydel; Ge.bttttel, fromGe. 
bieten, to bid. 

belfroly 8. m. belfrey, bell-tower, 
alaTmbell;O.F.belfroi; Ge. berg- 
fried, a fortress, a blo'ekhcruBe 

(berg, protection, defence, fried e, 

b^irae, B.m. f. stammerer, stutterer; 
Et. d. 

begayar, v. a. to stammer, to stutter, 
begaiamant, b«gayement, s. ra. stam- 
mering, stuttering. 
b^gaeDle, s. f. haughty, prude; O.F. 
b^e-gueule, beer, to open, see 
b^ant and gueule, mouth, s. th. 

belgnet, s. m. fritter; dim. of O.F. 
bigne, same as bugne, tumour 
bulb; (E. bun) Et. d. 

bel, belle, see beau. 

b^er, y«n. to bleat; belare for ba- 
lare, onomat. 

beiette, s. f. weasel; O.F. b^le, ac- 
cording to Diez bella, the 
beauty, comp. O.E. fairy, weasel. 

•beller, s. m. ram; balarius, bala« 
re, see b31er. 

b^litre, s.m. rascal, scamp; Ge. bott- 
ler, bee^ar, from O.H.G. pittan, 
Goth, bidjan; £. beg for bed. 

bellAtre, adj. of insipid beauty; bel, 
see beau. 

belle, B. f. beauty, fair lady; see 
belle-fllle, s. f. step-daughter, daugh- 
ter in law; see fille, and beau- 

belle-mtoe, s. f. step-mother, mother 
in law; see m^re. 
bella-foovr, s. f. step-sister, sister in 
law; see soeur. 

beUig^rant, adj. beltigerant ; b e 1 1 u m 
gerens, -entis, gerere, to 

belllqaeux, se* adj. warlike, quar- 
relsome; bellum, war. 

b^mol, 8. m. (mus.) flat; b mol, see 

b^n^dleit^, s. m. grace (before meals), 
blessing; benedicite, first word 
of the latin prayer which was said 
before dinner; bene-dicere, to 
gay well. 

b^n^dictloii, s. f. blessing, benedic- 
tion; benedictum, benedicere, 
see prec. 

b^n^fiee, s. m. benefit, benefice, liv- 
ing; beneficium, bene-facere, 
to do kood. 

bendt, adj. and s. sillv, fool; O.F. 
benest; same -as b^nit, s. th.; 
ace. to the saying: ignorance in 

32 — 

hhduj igne, abj. benignant benign; 
benignus, ben root or bonus, 
gen root of gignere, comp. ma- 

b^ii& y. a. to bless, to consecrate; 
O.F. benistre; benedicere. 
btoit, 9f adj. consecrated, hallowed. 
Mnititr, s. m. holy-water basin. 

bequille^ s. f. crutch; see bee. 

bereail, s. m. sheep-fold; M.L. ber- 
bicarius, berbez; see brebis. 

bereer^ v. a. to rock, to cradle; ac- 
cording to Manage and Cheval- 
let, versare, freq. of vertere. 
Diez connects it with berbex, O^ee 
brebis), from the swing of the bat- 
tering ram. 
'btreeau, s. m. cradle. 

Ib6ret.s.m. beret (head-dress); same 
as oarrette, s. th. 

berge, s. f. bank (of rivers); O.F.' 
barge, see barque. 

iMTger, 8. m. dre, s. f. shepherd, 
shepherdess; M.L. berbicarius; 
vervex, comp. Drebis. 
l e ig i i^t s, s. f. shepherd-girl, 
beigtrttte, s. f. drink made of wine 
and honey; O.F. bergerette, shep- 
herds song. 
Itfgeria, s. f. sheepfold, pen. 

berfine, (carriage); inven- 
ted at Berlin. 

berloqoe, see breloque. 

berlae,8.f. dimness, dulness of sight; 
ber, see bis; lue, lucere to glit- 
ter, same as blnette, s. th. 

berme, s. f. bank of canals, (fort.) 
berm; Dutch brem«; £, brim. 

bemer. v. a. to toss in a blanket, 

to ridicnle; O.F. berne, a sort ot 

cloth or cloak; Hi hernia, where 

the cloth came from. 

btrnique, adv. not in the least; £t.d. 

besaccy B. f. wallet; bisaccium, a 
sac with two pockets, see bis and 

besaigre^adj. (ofwine) tartish, sour- 
ish; see bis and aigre. 

besides, B,i. pi. eye-glass; O.F. be- 
riole; ace. to M6nage; M.L. be- 
ryllus, spectacles: beryllus see 
briller, eomp. Ge. brille, spectac- 

baso^e, s. f. work, task; see be- 

besoln, s. m. need, want; see soin. 

bit«9B.f. animal, beast; O.F.beste; 

btitiAl, e, ad|. bestial, beastly, 
•beitialiti, s. f: bestiality, beastliness, 
bettiaax, s. m. pi. cattle; bestialia.. 
bitall, B. f. battle, live-stock. 
bAtiie, s. f. folly, stupidity. 
bette, s. f. beet; beta, 
betterave, B. f. beet-root, mangold- 
wurzel; beta rapa. 

beugler, low, to bellow', O.F. 
buffler; buculus, a young boll, 
to oellow like a bull, (bugle). 
bouglemtnt, s. m. bellowing. 

beurre, s. f. butter; butyrum. 
bBorrsr, v. a. to butter. 

b^vue, s. f . blunder ; see b i s and v u e. 

biais, s. m. slope, slant; bifax, two- 
faced, bis, twice, facies, face. £. 

biberon, s.m. bibber, bibler; bibere. 

bible, 8.f. bible; biblia, §iiiUcc, the 

bibliographie, s. f. bibliography; 

StpUoPy a book, ygaqtwy to describe. 
)liographiqaB, adj. bibliographic. 
bibliotlidqiie, s. f. library; biblio- 
theca, fiifiUo^jjnrif §i§Xiov, a book, 
^ijxTj, a repository. 
bibliotliteair6, s. m. librarian. 
biblique, adi. biblical; see bible. 
biehe. s. f. nind, roe; A.S. bicce; 
£. bitch, (Ge. betze). 
biohon, s. m. ne, s. f. lap-dog. 
bieoque, s. f. rmil.) little paltry town, 
hut, hovel; M.L. bichocha, bico- 
ca; It. bicocca, a watch-tower, 
Et. d. 
bidet, s.m. na^, bidet; from a Celtic 
root. Gal. b i d e a c h, small. 

Men, adv. well, proper; bene. 

biea, s. m. goods, property. 
bien-^tre, s. m. welfare, well-being; 

see bien and Stre. 
bien Mre^ v. a. to do good; O.F. 
bienfaire; bene-facere. 
Uenlusant, •, adj. beneficient, bene- 

bienfaisanoe, s. f. beneficence, bene- 

bienfidt, s. m. benefit, benefactioa> 
boon; benefact^m. 

bien-fonds,s.m. pi. land, landed prop- 
erty; see bien -fond. 

bieuheureax^ se, adj. blissful, bles- 
sed; see bien-henreux. 

biennal, e, adj. biennial; biennis, 
of two years, bis, twice, a-nnus, 
a year. 

— 32a — 

Mens^ant, e^ adj. proper, beeomjng; 
see Men and s^ant. 
biens^anoe, s. f. propriety, decorum. 

bieiitdt. adv. soon; see bien and tot 

bienyeillant, e, adj. kind, friendly; 
bene-volens, -en tis. well-wishing, 
volo, velle, to wisn. 
bienyeilluioo, s. f. kindness, benevo- 
lence; benevolentia. 

bienvena^e, adj. welcome; bien, ve- 
nir B. tlu 

bidre, s. f. beer; Gre. bier. 

bidre^ s. f. coffin, bier; see bard. 

bidvre, s. m. beaver; E. beaver; 
Ge. Diber. 

bUTer, v. a. to cancel, to blot out: 
Et. d. ^ 

bifurquer, ▼. pr. to bifurcate, to fork; 

bifurcus, bis. twice, f urea, fork. 

bifnreatioti, s. f. oifurcation, forking. 

bigamie,s.f. bigamy; bis, twice, ya- 
(lio), to marry. 

bigarrer, v. a. to make a motley, to 
checker; according to M6nage 
bis-variare. Diez thinks it bi- 
carrer, bis-carrer; see carr6, 
square, comp. E. checkered trom 
6chiqnier, s. th. 

bigle, adj. squinting; Et. d. Ace. to 
Diez prob. for bisigle; Sp. biso- 
jo; bis-oculus, bis, in two ways, 
oculus, eye. 
.bigot, s.m.e, s.f. bigot; bigot seems 
to DC bi-gott (by God.), an ex- 
pression used as a nickname ^ the 
Normans. An anecdote gives the 
following account of its origin: 
Bollo, the first Duke of Normandy, 
when called upon to kiss king Char- 
les* foot, answered: ne se bi god 
(not so by God), whence the Nor- 
mans were termed bigots, 
bigoterie, s. f. bigotery. 

bijou, s. m. jewel, trinket; from the 
Celtic according to Chevallet. 
Bret, b i z u , ring. Others propose 
bis -joe are, to play or glitter on 
two sides, 
byouterie, s. f. jewelry, 
b^outier, s. m. jeweller. 

bilan, s. m. balance-sheet; bilanx, 
see balance. 

bilboquet. s. m. cup and ball (play- 
thing); Dille(; boquet from 
bois (s. th.) or It. bocca; Fr. 
b one he, mouth. 

biie, 8. f. bile, ffall; bills, 
bmitiut, euM, adj. biUons. 

bille.8.f. marble (to play with), ball 

in billiards; O.H.G. bickel, knuckle. 

bilburd, s. m. billiards, billiard-table, 

biiicbaude, s. f. confusion; Et. d. 

billet, s. m. bill, hand-bill, ticket, 
billet; for bullet, diminutive of 
bulle; L. bulla, see bnlle, bul- 
letin etc. 
billeter, v. a. to label, to ticket. 

biiliou, s.m. thousand millions; bis, 
two, million, s. th. 

billon, s. m. copper-coin, debased 
coin; E. bullion, Et. d. 

billot, s. m. block; see bille. 

bimbelot, s. m. toy, plaything; see 
bambin, bamboche. 

biner, v. a. (agr.) to dress a second 
time; binus, two by two, bi, bis, 
binstte, s. f. a sort of hoe. 

binoele, s. m. double eye-glass, bin- 
ocle; bini oculi, two eyes. 

biographe, s. m. biographer; ^^$,life 
y^c^tpoo, to write, 
biographie, s. f. biography, 
biographiqne, adj. biographic. 

bipMe, s. m. biped; bi-pes, bipe- 
dis, two-footed. 

bique, s. f. she-goat; see bouc. 
biquet, s. m. kid. 

bis, adv. twice, encore; bis. 

bls,bes^be, bar, a particle used in com- 
position, to denote that which is 
wrong, false, conterfeit;Et.d. per- 
haps L. bis, which n-om the sense 
of double passed into that of ob- 
lique, awry, and then wrong, bad, 


bis, e, adj. brown; Et. d. Diez pro- 

Eoses bombycius, of silk, (bom- 
yx, silk -worm), orig. meaning, 

bisaleul, s. m. great-grandfather; 

see bis and aYeul. 
biscornu, e, adj. odd, strange; bis 

cornutus. with two horns; fig. of 

irregular form. 
biseotte, s. f . rusk ; It. b i s c o 1 1 o ; see 

next w. 
biscuit, s. m. biscuit; It. biscotto; 

bis coctus, twice baked, F. bis 

cuit; 6%e cuire. 
bise, s. f. north- wind; Et. d. 
biser, v. a. to die again, v.n. to get 

brown; see bis, brown, 
biiet, s.m. rock-dove 2 coarse cloth, 

national gard in plain clothes. 
bismuth, B.m. bismuth, tin-glass D. 


— 856 — 

Qe. bissmnthy wissmuth; Da. 


MsoD. s. m. bison; bison, piffmVy 0. 

H.G. wisnnt, the leader (of the 


bisque, s.f. bisk, Ttennis^ odds; £t. d. 

bissae, s. m. wallet; bisaccns; see 

blssei[til,e9 adj. bissextile, leap-year; 
bisextilis, containing an in- 
tercalary day, bis, twice, sextns, 
sixth; the sixth of the calends of 
March, according to the Roman 
reckoning, or the 24th of February 
being counted twice every four 
bist0iirner, v. a. to twist; see bis 

and tourner. 
bistre, s. m. (paint.) bistre, brown 

pigment; £t. d. 
Mtiime, s. m. bitumen; bitumen. 
Mtomliier, v. a. to bituminate. 
Iiitiioiiiieux, §6, adj. bituminous; bi- 

Mrouae, s.m. bivouac; Ge. biwacht, 
or beiwacht, bei =by, wacht 
>» guatd, watch. 
Myoaaquer, v. n. to bivouac. 
bizarre, adj. whimsical, odd, strange; 
Et. d. 
Usarrerie, S. f. oddity, whimsicalness. 
blafiard, e, adj. palish, wan; O.H.G. 
bleih-faro; Ge. bleich, pale, 
far be, colour. 
blague, s. f. tobacco-pouch, humbug; 
Ge. balg, pouch; E. belly. 
blaguer, v. n. to hoax, to humbug, 
blagnenr, s. m. hoaxer, humbug. 
blaireaa, s. m. badger; M.L. blada- 
rius, corn-chandler, bladum, 
wheat; comp. E. badger meanir.g 
comfactor and the quadruped. 
qlftmer, v. a. to blame, to reprove; 
O.F. blasmer; blasphemare, 

blamable, adj. blamable, censurable. 
bUme, s. m. blame, censure. 
blanc.che, adj. white, clean, blank; 0. 
H.G^. planch ;Ge.b lank; E. blank, 
blano-bee, beardless boy, youngster; 
see bee. 
bUnohAtre, adj. whitish. • 
blanohir, v.a.n. to whiten, to blanch, 
to wash, to bleach, 
blanohiiiage, s. m. washing, wash. 
blaaebiiSMie, s. f. bleach-works. 
blaaehiiMttr, s. m. se, s. f. lauudress, 

Uaaqiitftte, s. f. blanquette. 
blaser, v. a. to blunt, to pall, to 

surfeit ; Et. d. 
Mason, s. m. blazon, emblazonry; 

form, shield or scutchon; A.S. 

blase, anything that makes a blaze, 

a torch, E. blaze. 
blaspheme, s. m. blasphemy; ^aa- 

blaiphtaier, v. a. n. to blaspheme. 

blatier, s. m. corn-chandler, corn- 
dealer; M.L. bladarius; M.L. 
bladum. corn. 

Matte, s. r. cockroach; blatta. 

bl6, s. m. corn, wheat; O.F. bled; 
It. h^do, biada; gen. derived 
from A.S. b 1 a e d , fruit. Diez doubts 
this Etym. and proposes L. abla- 
ta, things carried away, auferre 
ablatum, to carry on. 

Mdme, adj. sallow, wan; O.F. bles- 
me; O.N. blami, bluish colour, 
from bla, blue. 

blfimir, v. n. to grow wan, to turn 

Messer, v. a. to hurt, to wound; 0. 
H.G. plez; Ge. bletz, rag, blet- 
zen, to mend and also, to wound. 
blossuM, s. f. wound, injury. 

Met, -te, adj. (of fruit) mellow; Diez 
supposes it to be connected with 
the O.H.G. bleizza, a blue (disco- 
loured) spot caused by a contusion. 

bleu, e, adj. blue; O.H.G. plsio; Ge. 
blou&tre, adi. bluish, 
blenet, see oluet. * 

bleuir, v. a. to blue. 

blinder, v. a. to sheet, to protect 
with blinds ; Ge. blende, from Ge. 
blin d, blind, (what hinders to see), 
blindage, s. m. sheeting, blinding. 

bloc, s.m. block; O.H.G. bloch; Ge. 

blocus, s. m. investment of a fortress, 
blockade; O.H.G. bloc-hus, Ge. 
block-haus, block-house. 

blond, e, adj. and s. fair, light; Et. 
d. Diez mentions A.S. blonden- 
f eax, gray-haired, and O.N. blaud, 
Da. blOd, soft, weak in colour 
and qualitv. 

• blonde, s. f. blond-lace; so called 
from its colour. 

blondin, s.m. e, s. f. light-haired per- 
Mo€[aer,v.a. to blockade; see bloc. 
blotor (se)y pr. v. to cower; Et. d* 

— 32« — 

Diez sa^B it may be a contr. of 
ballotir, see.balloty or the Ge. 
blotzen, to tbump. 

blouse, 8. f. smock-frock, blouse, 
pocket (billards). O.F.bliaut, bli- 
aus, M.L. bliaudus, bliaus, Et.d. 

bluet, B.m. com-centaury, blue-bottle; 
see bleu. 

bluette, s.f. spark, light production 

of wit; O.F. belugette, belluette 

dim.^of O.F. be llugue, spark; bis- 

lux, prop, feeble li^ht. 
blater, y. a. to bolt (sift); M.L. bu- 

letare, to sift flour; O.F. buret el, 

sifter; bure, s. th. 
bintean, blutoir, s. In. bolter, bolting* 

machine, mill' 
bob^ciie, s. f. sconce, socket; prob. 

some as bobine, s. th. 

bobiue, s. f. bobbin, spool: Sau- 
maise proposes bombyx, silk 
worm; Diez suggests bombus, 
humming, because of the noise 
of spooling. 

boeage, s. m. grove, bocage: bos- 
cus, see bo is. 

boeal, s. m. drinking cup, glass- 
jar; fiavHiilioVy M.L. Ducca, mouth. 

boeuf, s. m. ox, beef; bos, *bovis. 

boh^mien, s. m. ne,' s. f. Bohemian, 
gipsy; so called because they were 
supposed to come from Bohemia. 

boire, v. a. n. to drink^ s. m. drink- 
• ing, drink; O.F. boivre, bevre; 

bois, bolt, boiTent,pr. ind. of })oire. 
bois, s.m. wood, timber; It. bosco; 
' M.L. boscus; buscus; ace. to 
Grimm O.H.G. buisc, wood, 
bois^, e, adj. woody, wooded. 
boisseau, boissel, s. m. bushel ; O.F. 
boisteau; boiste for boite; 
boisielier, s. m. cooper, bushel-maker. 
boisson, s. f. beverage, drink; see 

botte, 8. f. box; O.F. boiste; M.L. 

buxida, ace. of buxis, nv^ig (Ge. 

buchse; E. box), 
bolter, V. n. to halt, to be lame; dS- 

boiter, to dislocate, hence prob. 

bolter, to halt; see botte. 
boitenx, le, adj. halt, lame. 
bol, 8. m. bowl, basin; E. bowl, 
bombe, s. f. shell, bomb; bombus, 

pdfi^og, a hollow sound. 

b«mbard«r, y. a. to bombard. 

bMnbardMMAti s. m. bombardment. 

bembtf, y. a. to make convex, to 
barrel a road. 
bon, ne, adj. good, right; bonus (in 
boon, bounty etc.). 
bonbon, s. m. sweet meat, 
bonbonniire, s. f. sweet meat-box. 
bond, s.m. bound, leap; see bondir. 
bonde, s. f. bung, bung-hole; Ge. 
bondon, s. m. bung, bung-hole, a 

kind of cheese. 

bondir, v.n. to bound, to leap; O.F. 
bondir, to roar, to sound; bom- 
bit are, to buzz, 
bondif iomont, s. m. bounding, leaping, 

bonheur, s. m. happiness, luck; see 
bon, and hour. 

bonhonune^ s.m. goodnatured man, 
simple minded man; see bon and 
h o m m e. 

benhomie, s. t. good nature, simpli- 
city, credulity. 

boni, s. m. bonus; boni. pi. of bo- 

nus, see bon. 

bonifier, v. a. to make better,' to im- 

Frove, to make good; bonus, good 
acere, to make, 
boniflcation, s. f. improvement. 
boi^our, s. m. good day, good mor- 
ning; see bon and jour. 
bonne, s. f. servant-maid, nurse; see 

bonnet, s.m. cap; M.L. bone t a, ori- 
ginally the name of a sort of cloth, 
of wich caps were made, prob. from 
bonus, good, see bon. 
bonneterio, s. f. hosiery, 
bonnotier, s. m. hosier. 

bonsoir, s. m. good evening, good 

night; see bon and soir. 
bout^, s.f. goodness, kindness, good- 
nature; bonitas, bonus, see bon. 
bord, s. m. border, board, edge ; O.H. 
G. port; A.S. bord; Ge. bord; 
E. board. 

bordage, s. m. planking (of ships) 
sheathing, planL 

bord^, s.f. broadside (of ships); vol- 
ley, (nav.) tack. • 

bordor, v. a. to border, to edge. 

bordorean, s. m. (com.) memorandum, 

bordnre, s.f. border, biliding, frame 

Bordelais, e, adj. and s. of Bor- 
deaux, native of Bordeaux^ Bor- 
deaux, a town in France. 

bor^aly e, adj. boreal, northern; bo- 

2(1 • 

— 324 — 

re alls, boreas, fio^iag^ the north 

borgue^ adj. blind of one eye, ob- 

Bonre ; It. b o r n i o. D i e z compares 

this word with the Sp. born ear, 

to bow, to bend", £t. d. 
borne* s. f. boundary, limit; O.F. 

bodne. bone, bonne; M.L. bu- 

tina, Dodina, Et. d. ace. to Diez, 

root bod, see bonder, 
bonier, v. a. to set boundaries, to 

limit, pr. v. to limit, to confine o. 

's self. 
bomA, e, adj. limited, narrow-minded, 

bosquet, s. m. grove, bosket ; see b o i s. 
bosse, B. f. nump, hunch; O.H.G. 

bdz, bdzen, to push. 

bosseler, v. a. to emboss. 

boBMlai^y 8. m. embossing. 

bouB, e, adj. hunch-backed. 

bot, adj. c]ub-footed; O.H.G. b5zen 

see prec, 
botanique*, s. f. botany; ^otdviq^ a 


botaaiste, s. m. botanist. 
botte. 8. f. bundle, bunch, cask, boot; 

It Sp.Port bota; £. butte; ^ov- 
tig, pt^rig, a flask. 

bottoler, y. a. to tie^ up in bundles. 

bottaUtge, b. m. trussing. 

botter, y. a. to make boots, to put or 
help o. 's boots on. 

bottler, s. m. boot-maker. 

bottine, s. f. lady's boot. 

boue, s. m. he-goat; Ge. bock; £. 

boncan, s. m. place where the Cari- 
bees smoke their meat or fish, up- 
roar, stew; prob. of Indian ori&^in. 
boncaner, y. a. to smoke meat, fish, 
V. n. to hunt wild beasts. 
boucanier, s. m. bucaneer. 
boBohte, s. f. mouthful. 
boucher, s. m. butcher; see bone; 
originally who kills bucks, he-goats, 
bon^rie, s. f. slaughter-house, but- 
cher's shop. 

Voueher, y. a. to stop, to cork; for 
bosquer; see bois. 
bouobon, s. m. stopper, cork. 

boucle, s. f. buckle, ring, ringlet, 
ourl (of hair), Ge. buckel; M.L. 
bncula ^scuti), the raised center 
of a shield, buccula, a cheek, 
bnooa, see bouohe. 

boneler, y.a. to buckle, to curl (hair), 
bonelier, s. m. shield, buckler. 
bottder, y. n. to pout, to sulk; root 
bod, which means something in- 
flated, swollen. 

boadin, s. m. a kind of sausage, 
boadoir, s. m. boudoir, 
boue, s.f. mud, dirt; O.F. boe. £t.d. 
boueuz, 16, adj. muddy, dirty. 
bou^e, s. f. buoy; O.F. boye; M.L. 
boia, chain; Ge. bole. £t. d. 

bouffer, y. a. to swell, to puflf; in- 
terj. ouf, pouf, (puff); see this. 
boitffoB, 8. m. e, s. t. buffoon. 

bonffonnerie, s. f. bouffoonery. 

booge, 8. m. closet (near a room), 
hole, bulge; O.F. boge, sack; M. 
L. bulgia; bulga; 07H.G.bulga, 
Ge. balg; see blague. 

bougeoir, s. m. tapetstand, flat can- 
dlestick;' see bougie. 

bouger, y. n. to stir, to move; Proy. 
bolegar; It. bulicare, buUire, 
see bouiller, boiling i.e. moving. 

bougie, 8. f. wax-candle, wax-light, 
bougie; Bngie is the name of a 
town in Africa where such cand- 
les were made. 
bottgonner, y. n. to grumble; £t.d. 
boiAlir, y. n. toboil; buUire, bul- 
la, swelling. 

bonilli, 8. m. boiled beef, 
bouillon, 8. m. soup, broth, 
bouillonner, y. n. to bubble, to boU 
bouiUofcte, s. f. boiler, kettle. 

boulanger^ s. m. dte, s. f. baker, 
bakers wife ; prob. from b o ul e, 
boulangerie, s. f. backer's business, 
baker's shop, bakehouse. 

boule, 8. f. ball; bulla in its primi- 
tiye sense of swelling; comp. bulle. 
boulet, 8. m. bullet, ball, shot. 

bouleau, s. m. bircn; betula. 

bouleyard, s. m. bulwark, boulevard 
(walk); Ge. bollwerk; £. bul- 
wark. • 

bottleverser, v. a. to throw down, 
to overthrow, to upset; seeboul^, 
and verser. 

bonleyonomont, s. m. overthrow, sub- 
version, confusion. 

bouline, s.f. bowline; O.F. boeline; 
£. bowline; D. boelijn. 

boulingrin, s. m. lawn, grass-plot; 
corrupt of E. bowling ffreen, 

bonloiiy 8. m. bolt; see bonle. 

— 32« — 

bovqaety s^m. bnnoh, nosegay, bou- 
quet; see bo is. 
boiiqv8tttre» s. f. flower-girl, 
boaqniiiy s. m. old he-goat; seebouc. 
bouquiu^ s. m. old book; 0. Dutch 
boekin. little book, dimin. of 
boek; Ge. buch; £. book, 
bouqvinery y. n. to hunt after old 
books, to read old books. 
braqoinisteyS.m. dealer in old books. 
bourbe, s. f. mire, mud; §6QPo(fog, 

bonrbsu, le, adj. miry, muddy. 
boarde, s. f. fib (untruth), bouncer; 
Prov. bort for Dior t, tournament. 
bonrde, s. f. stick, staff; bur do, 

beast of burden. 
bourdon, s. m. organ pipe, great bell, 
droneny, pilgrim's staff; It. bor- 
done, pilgnm's staff, which he 
might regard as his mule, bur do, 
-on is, a mule. 
boudoniiBr, y. n. to hum. 
honrdoimement, s. m. humming, sing- 
ing (in the ear). 
bourg, s. m. market-town; originally 
a fortified town; M.L. burgns; 
Ge. burg; £. burg, borough. 
bougMii, s. m. s, s. f. citizen, ciyiUan. 
bonrgaeiiie, s. f. citizenship, citizens, 
the middle classes. . 
bourgeon, s. m. tiller, bud, pimple; 
£t d. suggests O.H.G. burjan, to 

boorgeomiar, y. n. to bud, to tiller. 

boargmestre, s. m. burgomaster; Ge. 

biirgermeister, mayor, biirger, 

citizen, meister. master. 

boamons, s. m. bornous (Arabian 

cloak); Arab, al-bornos. 
bourraehe, s. f. borate; borrago. 
bonrrasque, s. f. squall of wind; bo- 
re as, see boreal. 
bourre, s. f. hair (of beasts), wad 
(of firearms); burra; A.S. byrst; 
£. bristle, Ge. borste, comp. 
bonrxelet, s. m. pad. 
bourrer, y. a. to stuff (with hair or 
wool), to wad, to ram (fire-arms), 
bourru, adj. cross, crabbed, surly. 
bourreau, s. m. executioner; Proy. 
borel; Et. d. Diez says, berel 
may come from It. boza, execu- 
tioner, in O.It. chain, fetter; boja, 
a collar, 
bourrlque, 8. f. she-ass. ass, ignorant; 
Sp. borrico; bnrricus, a small 
horse, burr us, reddish. 

bourse, 8. f. purse, bag, seholarhlp; 

bursa, fivQaa, skin, leather, 
bounder, s. m. purse- maker, bursar, 
foundation - scnolar , exhibitioner 
(uniy.), treasurer. 

bourse, s. t. exchange (edifice); the 
first edifice corresponding to what 
is now the Exchange was accord- 
ing to Guichardin at Bruges In a 
house of a patrician family called 
yan den Boerse (of the purse), 
and the arms of which being three 
purses were cut in stone oyer the 
entrance. Hence the name was 
giyen to all similar buildings. 

boursoufler, y. a. to swell ; for o oud- 
sonfler, bond, root bod, see 
bonder and souffler. 

boorsouflut, 8. f. swelling. 

bous, bout, etc. see bouiller. 
bouseuler, y. a. to turn anything 

topsyturyy, to hustle; O.F. bou- 

teculer; O.F. bonter, to put (see 

bout) and cul, s. th. 
boussole, s. f. compass ; It. b o s s o 1 o, 

box-tree, box, dim. of bos so, L. 

buxus, box- tree, objects made of 

box-wood; comp buis. 
bout, s. m. end, bit; It. botta O.H.G. 

bdzen, see bot. 
boutade, s. f. whim, freak. 

bonteille, s.f. bottle; Itbottiglia, 

Sp. botilla; M.L. buticula, fioi^ 

ug, see botte. 

boutique, s. f. shop; It. bottega; 

apotheca, airodi^ij. (apothecary). 

boi^uisr, s. m. shopkeeper. 

bouton, s. m. button, pimple, stud; 

see bout 
bouUnuier, y. a. to button, 
boutoimi^re, s. f. button-hole, 
bouyfer, e. m. ox-driyer, bos, boyis, 
see boeuf. 

boyine, adj. f. boyine; see boeui. 

boxer, y. a. to t|ix; £. box. 

boyan, s. m. gut; u.r. boel; botel- 
lus, dim. of butulus, a small 
sausage, perh. root bod, see bon- 

bracelet, s. m. bracelet; dim. of 0. 
F. brace, F. bras, see this, 
brachial, e, adj. brachial; brachium, 
see bras. 

braconner, y.a. to poach; see bra- 
braeonnier, s. m. poacher. 

brai, s. m. resin, rosin; Sp. brea; 

— 32/ — 

breo; Itbrago, mud; /J^tt^ 

rK (2l«(X * twamp. 

ft. f, napkin, breeches; ProT. 


braea. (E. breeches). 
bnfller, ▼« n« to brawl; Et. d. per- 

h^ia braire, s. th. 
hrwtrtm T. n. to bray; M.L. bragire, 

or r. raire, to bellow; rugire. 
bfiiae, a. t embers; Ptot. Sp. bra- 

aa; O.N. bras a, to solder; A.S. 

briisian, to tnm into ore. 

0« UL bran^ refuse , excrement; 
of CMe origin, Gael. bran. 

s. m. litter, hand-barrow ; 

B.t braneh; H.L. branca; 
£t d. 
inai«fla9 •. vl wine-brandy; Ga. 

brans twein. (brandy). 
bm^frw T, a« to brandisD, to floor- 
iab; O.F. brant, branc, bran, 
Ibe blade of a sword, from the 0. 
SLG. brant, fire-brand. 
bondOlMr, ▼. a. and pr. to swing, to 
abaka aboat 

inMler, ▼. n, to swing, to shake; 
diniin. of brand ir s. th. (brandle) 
ftraata^ a. m. swing, swinging, shak- 
ing, impulse. 
braalffMst, s. m. swinging, shaking, 

bra4|«e9 s.m. Dalmatian hound, brach; 
Qe. bracke, (£. brach). 

bra^iaer, ▼. a. to point (fire arms, a 
teleseop,atc.);Goth.brikan, brak, 
Ge. brechen, to break. 

braa, s. ul arm; O.F. brace; bra- 

ehinuL (brachial, etc.) 
iraaer, t. a. to .solder, Ho braze; 

see braise. 
brMlar, a. m. brasier; see braise. 
braafller, ▼. a. to broil a little, v.n. 

to sparkle; see braise. 
braaaer, ▼. a. to stir up, to concoct, 

to mash (beer), to brew (beer); 0. 

F. bras, ore iee, malt, M.L. bras- 

sium, bracium; Gael, brace. 
fenisear, s. m. brewer. 
krassaris, s. f. brewery. 

brare, adj. brave, gallant; It. Sp. 
Port, bravo; £t. a. 
biayada, s. f. bravado; It. bravata. 
braver, v. a. to brave, to dare. 
hravear, s. f. bravery, gallantery, 
courage; It bravura. 
brajer^ v. a. to rosin; see brai. 

brebis^ t. f. ewe, sheep; M.L. ber- 
bex instead of vervex. 

brdohe, s. f. break, breach, notch; 
M.H.G. breohe; Ge. brechen, to 

bredoniller, v. n. to sputter, to jab- 
ber; O.F. bredir for braidir, to 
sing, to twitter; Et. d. 
bredoaiUemeat, s. m. sputtering. 

brefybrdve, adj. short, brief: b re vis. 
bre^ s. m. brief (pope's letter); It. 
Sp. breve. 

brelan, s.m. game at cards, gaming- 
house; O.F. brelenc; berlenc; 
Sp. berlanga, a game of chance; 
Ge. bretling, bretlin, a little 

breloqnef 8. f. trinket, charm; bre = 
ber see bis, loque, a piece of 
cloth hanging down; from the O.N. 
lockr, something hanging. 

bristlier, v. a. to break small; see 

br^talller, v.n. to fight, to tilt; see 

bretelle, s. f. brace-band, brace (to 
sustain trowsers); Sp. brete, fet- 
ters, Et d. prob. O.H.G. brettan, 
to bind. 

breton, ne, adj. and s. native of Brit- 
tany, Briton; Britannia. 

brette, s.f. long sword; fern, of b re- 
ton (, the first swords of this 
kind having been made in Britain. 

brenil, s. m. thicket; M.L. brogi- 
lus, broilus; It. broglio; Ge. 
brtihl. (E. brook.) 

bTeaYage,s.m. beverage; for beuv- 
rage (comp. abreuver); bib ere, 
see boire. 

brevet, s. m. patent, brevet; dim. of 
bref; s. th. 
brsveter, v. a. to patent. 

brevialre, s. m. breviary; see bref. 

bribe, s. f. hunk of bread, pi. leav- 
ings (of meals); M.L. briba; £. 
bribe; Et. d. 

brie-ft-brae, s. m. old stores, Et. d. 

brlcl^ s. m. brig; E. brig. 

brieoie, s. f. breast-collar (of har- 
ness), back -stroke, straps, toils, 
form, catapult; M.L. bricola; It. 
briccola; M.H.G. br&'chel, brea- 
ker, breche, see brSche. 

bride, s. f bridle, string (of bonnets); 
O.H.G. brittil, pritil; E. bridle, 
bridsr, v. a. to bridle. 

bri^fyidve, adj. short, brief; bre vis. 

— dig — 

bfUritf, B. f. brerity, BhortnesB; bre- 

brlgrade, B. f. brigade, gang; seebri- 

brigadier, s. m. brigadier, corporal, 
non-commissioned officer. 

brigand, s.m. brigand, robber, ban- 
dit; It. brig ante, a busy body, 
a pirate, briga, quarrel, see bri- 

biigaadage, s. m. brigandage, robbery, 

brigantiii, s. m. e, s. f. brigantine; 
It. briga nti no, prop, vessel of 

bngner, v. a. to endeavour, to ob- 
tain hy indirect means, to solicit; 
O.F. brigne, dispute, quarrel; 
It. briga; root brig, meaning rest- 
lessness, activity, Et. d. 

biiller, v.n. to be bright, to be bril- 
liant, to shine; beryllus, ,SijifvXXog, 

briUamment, adv. brilliantly, brightly. 

brillant, e, adj. bright, brilliant. 

brimborlo]i,s.m. bauble, knick-knack; 

"O.F. briber, to beg, see bribe. 

brin, s. m. blade (of plants), bit; 

prob. same as bran s. th. 
brioche, s.f. brioche (cake), mistake, 

blunder; broyer s. th. 

brique, s. f. brick; E. brick, 
briquet, s. m. steel for striking a light, 

briqueter, v. a. to brick, to imitate 
in brick-work, 
briquetage, s. m. brick- work, imita- 
tion brick-work. 

briqueterie, s. f. brickmaking, brick- 

briquetier, s. m. brickmaker. 
brise, s. f. breeze; Et. d. 

briser, v. a. to break, to shatter; 
O.H.G. brestan; Ge. bersten; E. 

bris^i, 8. £. pi. boughs cut off, foot- 
steps; the huntsman breaks branch- 
es of trees on his way to find 
again the way where tne animal 
has been led astray, hence b r i s 6 es 
= footsteps. 

briienr, s. m. breaker. 

brisnre, s. f. break, crack, (her.) reba- 
broe, s. m. jug; see broche. 

brocante, s. f. a technical expression 
fbr work made by workmen not 

for the master, but for their own 
account; M.L. abrocamentnm, 
wholesale purchase of goods, Et. 
d. (E. broke). 

broeanter, v. n. to be a broker, to 
deal in second-hand goods, 
broeantevr, s. m. (meant a wholesale 
merchant, now) a broker, dealer in 
second-hand goods. 
broeard, s.m. taunt, joke; It. broc- 
CO, a^harp stump, a peg, M.L. 
broccus, see broche. 
breearder, v. a. to taunt, to joke, 
broeart, s. m. brocade; It. brooca- 
to, embroidered, b r o ceo, see prec. 
broche, B.f. spit, brooch; O.F. broke, 
broque meant a great variety of 
pointed things of wood or iron; 
M.L.broccus, L. brochus, a prcK 
tuding tooth, Et. d. 
broeher, v. a. to figure (textile fa* 
brics), to stitch books, 
broehette, s. f. skcfwer. 
broehure, s. f. pamphlet. 
brodeqnin, s. m. laced boot; It 
borzacchiyo; E. buskin; D. 
broseken, brosekin, dim. of 
broos, prob. a corruption of byr- 
sa, leather. 
broder, v. a. to embroider, to work 
(needl.); E. broider; W. brodi- 
aw, to darn, brwyd, a broach, 
broderie, 8. f. embroidery, 
brodear, s. m. le, s. f. embroiderer, 
broieiiient, bronncnt, s. m. pound- 
ing,' pul verizati on see ' b r o y e r. 
bronche, 8.f. bronchia; ^Qf^yxitx^ §Q6y» 

xogj the throat, or windpipe. 
broneher, v. n. to stumble, to err; 
O.F.bronche, branch; Ge. bruch; 
£. breach. 
bronze, s. m. bronze; M.L. bronzi- 
nm; rt. bronzo; It. b run 0, brown, 
see brun. 

bronaer, v. a. to bronze, to tan (the 
broquart, s. m. (hunt.) brocket, brook 

A.S. broc. 
broquette, 8.f. tin- tack, tack; same 

as brochette, s. th. 
brosse, s. f. brush; O.H.G. porst, 
Gre. borste; E. bristle, 
broiler, v. a. to brush, to rub. 
brosserie, s. f. brush-making, brush- 
trade, brush-manufactory. 
broo^ s. m. shell (of almonds), peel; 
(of walnuts); O.F. broust; Et. d. 
prob. same as brout, s. th. 

— 32* — 

bron^, B. f. mist; see broailler. 
bromet, s. m. candle, black broth; 

It. brodetto, dim. ofbrodo;M.L 

brodnm; O.H.G. brod; £. broth 
broaette, s. f. wheel-barrow; for bi- 

rontte; bis-rota; see roue; 

wbeelbarrows had formerly two 


broailler, V. a. to mingle, to mix np, 
to confnse; Ge.brndeln,br odeln, 
to boil, brod, broth; se%bron6t. 

brovillar^ s. m. fog, mist, waste-book, 
bnraille, s. f. disagreement, qnarrel. 
bronillerie, s. f. disagreement, mis- 
understanding, dispute. 
brooiUon, s. m. blunder head, rough 

bronir, v.a. to blight; M.H.G. brtie- 
jen; Ge. brtihen, to scald, (broil) 
bronssailleSf s. . pi. brush- wood; 
O.F. brousse, comp. brosse. 

brout, s. m. browse, browse- wood; 
Sp. brote, brota; O.H.G. b roz, a 
brotfter, v. n. to browse, 
broyer, v. a. to pound, to grind, to 
crush ; Goth. brikan; Ge.brechen; 
£. break, comp. briser. 
broyenr, s. m. pounder, grinder, crush- 
bm, s.f. daughter in law; O.F. brut; 
M.H.G. brut;Ge. brant; E.bride. 
bmlne, s. f. drizzling rain; Celt. 

bru, rain, 
bndner, v. n. to drizzle. 

bmire, v. n. to rustle, to roar; ru- 

gire, comp. braire. 

mitf s. m. noise. 
brtller, v. a. to bum ; O.F. b r u s 1 e r ; 

It. brustolare; M.L. per-ustu- 

lare; per-urere. 
bmlA-pourpoint (&), adv. (of shooting) 

with the gun or pistol close up; 

to o. 's face; see pourpoint. 

brtUure, s. f. burn, scald, blast. 

brume, s. f. mist, fog; brum a, winter, 
contr. from brevima, b re vis si- 
ma, the shortest (day). 

bmmaire, s. m. the second month of 
the calendar of the first French re- 

bnunenzi euse, adj. misty, foggy. 
bmn, e, adj. brown, dark; It. bru- 
no; O.H.G. p r ft n; 'M.H.G. bruii; 
Ge. braun. 

brunette, s. f. dark person (woman). 

bmnir, ▼. a. to darken, to bitinisb; 

Ge. breunen; £. burn. 
brusque, adj. abrupt, sudden; It. 
buBCo; O.H.G. bruttisc, dull, an- 
gry, (brisk) 

brasquer, v. a. to offend, to be ab- 
rupt, blunt, to do things in haste, 
brnsqnerie, s. f. abruptness, bluntness. 
brat, e, adj. raw, rough, brutish; 

brutal, e, adj. brutal, brutish, 
brntalitd, s. f. brutality, 
bnite, s. f. brute. 

bruyant, e, adj. noisy; see bruire. 
bruyamment, adv. noisily, clamorously, 

bruydre, s. f. heath; Pro v. bru, heath; 
W. brwg, bush. 

bu, p. p. of boire, s. th. 

bftcfae, s.f. log of wood, stack; bos. 
cus; Ge. busch; E.bush; seebois. 
btloher, s. m. wood- shed, stake. 

budget, s. m. budget; £. budget; 
O.F.boulgette,bougette, pouch, 
dim. of boulge, bouge, s. th. 

baffet,s.m. cupboard, sideboard, buf- 
fet; O.F. buffeter meant to mar 
wine by often tasting it; then— to 
tap, buffetier, tapster; Prov. Fr. 
but = p.ouf int. s. th. 

baffle, s. m. buffalo; bubal us. 
buffleterie, s.f. the belts, straps, etc. 
of a soldier. 

bais, s. m. box, box-tree; buxus. 
bnisBon, s. m. bush, thicket. 
balbe, s. f. bulb; bulbus, §oX§6g. 
bnlbeux, le, adj. bulbous, 
balle, s.f, bull; bulla, ball, because 
of the seal attached to the docu- 
ment; comp. boule. 
bulletin, s. m. ticket, vote, bulletin. 

bare, s. f. drugget; burr us, comp. 

bnraUste, s. m. clerk, office-keeper. 

bureau, s.m. writing-table, desk, bu- 
reau, office; properly a table cover- 
ed with „bure". 

bureaaorate , s. m. bureaucrat, red- 
tapist, comp. aristocrat e, etc. 

bureauoratie, s. f.- bureaucracy, red- 

bureaucratiqiie, adj. bureaucratic. 

burin, s.'m. graver (tool I, manner of 
engraving; O.H.G.pordn; Ge. boh- 
ren; E. to bore. 

buriner, v. a. to engrave. 

burlesque, adj. burlesque; It. bur- 
lesco, Durla, farce; L. burr a* 

— 82< — 

bttfl, Bnt, Mt, eto., see boire. 

l^aste, B.m. bnst; It. Sp. Port, bus- 
to; Et. d. Diezsnffgests M.L. bns- 
ta, bust u la, a cnest, a box, from 
buzida, seebottS, comp. £.che8t 
meaning box and thorax. 

but, B. m. butt, but. aim, purpose; 
same as bout, s. to. 

butin. 8. m. booty, spoil; O.N. 
b^ti; Ge. beute; E. booty. 

butiaer, v. a. to pilfer. 

bntor, 8. m. bittern, coarse fellow, 

clod; M.L. bntor; |0.E. buteor; 

It. bittore; Sp. bitor; Et. d. 
butte^ 8. f. knoll, rising ground; see 

baTaiSfbaTezybuTlez, etc. see bo ire. 
buYantf e, pr. p. of boire, s. th. 
bayard, s.m. blotting-book ; see b o i r e. 
burette, s. f. bib (garment), refresh- 

mentroom ; see boire. 
bureur, s. m. drinker; see boire« 


^ pron. that; contr. of cela, s. th. 

<^ adv. here; contraction oi ecce 
nac; comp. ci and ici. 

eabale, s. t. cabal, caballa; Hebr. 
c a b a 1 a h , tradition, occult science, 
eabaliitique, adj. cabalistic. 

cabane, s. f. cottage, hut; M.L., It. 
capanna; W. caban, dim. of cab, 
abut. (E. cabine, cabinet, etc.) 

cabaret, s. m. public house, cabaret; 
, Et. d. 
eabaretior, s. m. ire, s. f. tavern- 
keeper, publican. 

eabestan, s.m. capstan; E. capstan. 

cabillaud, s. m. cod, cod-fish; D. 

cabine, s. f. cabin; see cabane. 

cabinet, s. m. closet, room, study, 
s cabinet; see cabane. 

eftble, s.m. cable; capulum,caplum, 
a halter for fastening cattle, c a p e r Q| 
to take. 

caboter, v. n. (nav.) to coast; Et. d. 
eidkotage,s. m. coasting, coasting trade. 

cabrer (se^, pr. v. to rear (of horses), 
to fly into a passion; caper, 
capri, buck. 

cabri, B. m. kid; O.F. cabril; ca- 
preolus, a kind of wild goat, 
caprea, capra, a she-goat, ca- 
per,' see prec. 
oabrioler, v. n. to caper, 
oabriole, s. f. caper (leap), capriole, 
eabriolet, s. m. gig, cabriolet, cab. 

eacao, s. m. cocoa; Sp. coco, ca- 
cao; Mexic. kakahuatl. 
oaeaoyer, oaeaotier, s. m. cocoa, cho- 
colate-nut tree. 

caeatoes, s.m. cockatoo; ace. to W. 
caqueter, s. th. 

eaeher, v. a. to conceal, to hide; 
coactare, to force, freq. of co- 
gere, to drive together. 

. eaobe-oaolie, s.m. hide and seek (play), 
eaobe-nei, s. m. wrapper (for tne 
neck), comforter; see nez. 
oaobet, s. m. seal, 
eaobeter, v. a. to seal, to water. ^ 
eaebot, s. m. dungeon. 
caoophonie, s. f. cacophony; namo- 
fpovicL^ yiandg, bad, qxdvrij a sound. 
cadastre, s.m. cadastre (survey and 
valuation of lands); capitastrum, 
prop, the list of the chief or capi- 
tal impost, caput, -it is, head. 
cadavre, s. m. corpse; cadaver. 
Qadav&renx, se, adj. cadaverous, death- 
cadeau, s. m. present, gift; O.F. 
cadel; catellus, dim. of catena; 
comp. the next. 
eadenas, s.m. padlock; O.F. eaten at; 
catena, chain, 
cadenaasw, v. a. to padlock. 
eadenee, s. f. cadence; M.L. caden- 
tia; cadere, to fall, 
eadencer, v. a. to cadence. 
eadet, te, adj. and s. cadet, vounger 
son or brother, younger daughter 
or sister, minor, puisne; capitet- 
tum, a M.L. dim. of caput, -itis, 
ca^an, s. m. dial-plate, dial; qua- 
drans, -antis, quadrare, to 
square, sun-dials being usually 
square, see next w. 
ca^e, s. m. frame; Prov. quadran, 
a sun-dial; quadrus, square, 
oadrer, v. n. to agree, to tally with, 
to square. 
caduc, que, adj. decaying; caducus, 
cadere, to fall, (caducity, etc), 
oadnoitd, ^. f. caducity, decay. 
eafard, s. m. e, s. f. canter, hypo- 

ioafkrderie, s. f. hypocrisy. 
ear6, 8. m. coffee, coffee-house; It. 

— 32k — 

eftffe; Arab, qahvah, prop, wine, 
also a drink prepared from oerries. 

Mfetierr s. m. coffee-house keeper. 

eafeti^, s. f. coffee-pot. 

eadi&n, oaltor, s. m. coffee -tree. 

ea^e, s.f.cage; cave a; comp. rage, 

eagnftrd, e, a^. laz^, coward; O.F. 
eagnardtr, v. n. to laze, 
eagiuyrdiie, s. f. laziness. 

eBgnexoL, euse, adj. crook -kneed, 
crooked; O.F. cagne, see prec. 

tngot^ s. m. bigot; supposed to be 
canes Gotbi, Goths and Arabs 
having fled from Spain to Aqui- 
taine, were so called by the in- 

eagotdrie, s. f. bigotry, act of bigotry. 
oagotisme, s. m. bigotry. 

eahier^ s. m. paper-book, copy-book; 
O.F. cayer; Et. d. Diez proposes 
M.L. codicarium; codex. 

Cfthoter, v. a. to jolt; Et. d. supposed 
to be an onomat. 
eahot, s. m. jolting^ jolt. 
ealiotage, 8. m. jolting. 
eahatte, s. f. hut, small cabin; M.L. 
cohua; Ge. kaue, koje, a hut, 
a cage; E. coy. 

eaille, s.f. quail; It. quaglia; M.L. 

quaqulla; prob. O.H.G. wahtala, 

Ge. wachtel. 
eailler, v. a. to curd, to clot; coa- 

gulare, to coagulate, cogere, 

to drive together. 
Millot, B. m. clot. 

eailloa, s. m. ilint, pebble; calculus; 

comp. calcul. 
eaisse, s. f. case, box, chest, cash- 
box; capsa. 
eaiiiier, s. m. cashier, 
oaisson, s. m. (artil.) powder -cart, 

e^loler, v. a. to cajole; cage, (s. th.), 
to treat somebody like a bird in 
a cage, 
oajolarie, s. f. cajolery, wheedling. 

cal^ 8. m. callus, callosity; callus, 
hardened skin, hardness. 

calamine, s. f. calamine; It. cala- 
minaria; M.L. calamina, cad- 
mi a, xad/ift'a, a stone fromCadmos. 

calamity, s.f. calamity; calamitas. 
ealamiteux, se, adj. calamitous; ca- 

ealandre, 8. f. caliindra, a speeies 

of lark, weevil; %dlavd(fog, 
ealandre, s. f. calender; Sp. calan- 

dria; cylin^rus; see cylindre. 
ealandrer, v. a.' to calender. 
caleair e, s. m . lime-stone ;calcariuB; 

calx, calcis, chalk. 
ealeiner, v.a. to calcine; calcin a re; 

calx, see prec. 
ealoinattony s. f. calcination. 

ealcul, s. m. calculation, calculus; 


oalooler, v. a. n. to calculate, to reckon. 

ealenlateiir, s. m. trioe, s. f. calculator. 

eale, s. f. (nav.) hold of a ship, stocks, 

launch, ducking (punishment); see 


eale, s. f. wedge, prop. 
ealebasse, B.f. calabash, gourd; Sp. 
calabaza; Diez proposes Arab, 
qerbah, a water-skin. 

eal^ehe, s. f. calash, carriage; Pol. 
kolaska, kolo, wheel. 

calecon, s.m. drawers; It. calzone, 
calzo; comp. chausse. 

ealembour, 8.m. pun; said to be so 
called after the name of a German 

calendes, s. f . (pi.) calends ;calendae. 
ealendrior, s. m. calendar, almanack. 

calepin, s. m. memorandum - book, 
scrap-book; Ambrosias Cale- 
pinus published a polyglot ' dic- 
tionary in the 15th century. The 

* name of the author was used to 
express the book. 

ealer, v. a. (nav.) to lower, to sti&e, 

V. n. to sink; Prov., It, Sp. calar; 

It. calare; chalare; xaXdm, to 

calfater, v. a. to calk (ships); It. 

calafatare, calefatare; Arab. 

calfeutrer, v. a. to stop nip the 

chinks; same as prec. 
calfeutrage, s. m. stopping up of chinks. 
calibre, s. m. caliber, size; Arab. 

kalib, qalab, model. 
calice, s. m. chalice, cup; calix. 

ealifonrehon (k), adv. astride; M.L. 

caloturcium; calo, Et.d. furca, 


calin, e, adj. cajoling, wheedling; 

Et.d. Scheler proposes chat, cat. 

oBlinar (se), pr. v. to take o.'sease, 

to loll about. 

«alineriA, s. f. cajolery, wheedling. 

— 82J — 

ealleiix, se, adj. ealloiis; oallo- 

SUB, callus, see cal. 
oaUoiitd, 8. f. callosity; callositas. 
oallisrraphe, s. m. good penman', 

ndXXogy beauty, ygdqxo^ to write, 
oalligrai^e, s. f. calligraphy. 
ealme, adj. and s. m. calm, stillness; 

prob. %avfui, heat, the heat of the sun 

produces cessation of work, stillness, 
eabner, y. a. and pr. to calm, to 

quiet, to get quiet, calm, 
ealmant, adj. and s. m. soothing, 


ealomnie, s. f. calumny, slander; ca- 

ealonmiatenr, s. m. trice, s.f. calum- 
niator, slanderer; calumniator. 

ealomnier, y. a. to calumniate, to 
slander; calumniari. 

oalomnienz, le, adj. calumnious, slan- 

ealorifdre^ s. m. air-stoye, hot air- 
stoye, calorifere; calor, heat, 
ferre, to carry. 

ealorique, s. m. caloric; calor, 
-oris, heat; see chaleur. 

calotte 9 s. f. calotte, cap, box on the 
ear; dim. of O.F. cale, a sort of 
ladies' cap; Et d. 

ealquer, y. a. to trace, to counter- 
draw; calcare, calx; E. chalk. 

ealnmet, s. m. calumet, pipe; cala- 
mus; see chalumeau. 

calus, 8. m. callus, callosity; callus; 
see cal. 

calvitie , s. f . baldness ; c a 1 y i t i e s, 
calyus, see chauye. 

camaieo, see cam^e. 

eamaradc^ c. m. companion, comrade; 
It. came rata from cam era, cham- 
ber, those who liyeinthesame room, 
eunaraderie, s. f. companionship, 

eamard, e, adj. and s. fiat, snub- 
nosed, snub -nose; see camus. 

eambrer, y. a. and pr. to bend, to 
camber; camerare, to yault, ca- 
mera, a yault. 
oambrore, s. f. cambering, bending. 

eam6e, camalen^ s. m. cameo ; camaieu ; 
Et.d. ace. to Mahn M.L. cammae- 
us for gemma, gem; ace. to 
Ldttr6 xfffAvoo, to toil. 

eam^l^ou, s. m. chsLmeleon^xf^f'Ctt^^otv^ 

Xocfiai, on the earth, Xicav, a lion. 

camel of , s.m. camlet ; c a m e 1 u s,camel. 

eam^rier) s. m. chamberlain (of the 

pope): It. oam^rlere; eamera, 
see en am b re. 

eamiou, s. m. small pin, dray, dray- 
cart; Et. d. 

eamisole^s. f. short night-dress, gown; 
camisia, see chemise. 

eamomille, B.f. camomile; xafta^" 
Xov, litterally an earthen appel, the 
flower of the eamomille scenting 
like apple. 

eamouflet, s. m. smoke of lighted 
paper blown into the face, affront v 
calamo flatus, blown withareed; 
calamus, a reed, flare, to blow. 

camp, s. m. camp; campus, 
oampagne, s. f. country, field, cam- 

eamjpagnard, s. m. countryman, rustic, 
eampement, s. m. camping, encamp- 
oamper, y. a. to encamp. 

eamphre, s.m. camphor: M.L. cam- 
phora; Sp. al-caniora; Arab, 
eamphri, e, adi. camphorated. 

camus. e, adj. flat-nosed, disappoint- 
ed; It. camuso, Et. d. 

canaille, s. f. rabble, mob, rascal; 
canis, dog; comp. chien. 

canal, s.m. channel, canal; can alls, 
oanalisation, s. f. canalization. 

eanap^, s. m. sofa; conopeum; 
movmnstov^ an Egyptian bed or 
couch with mosquito-curtains, xoo- 
v(yipj a mosquito. 

canard, s. m. duck, hoax; M.L. ca- 
nardus, a boat; O.F. cane, a 
boat and a waterbird; Ge. kahn, 
a boat; comp. cane. 

eanari, s. m. canary; a bird from the 

eanean, s. m. tittle-tattle, cancan 
(danse); corrupt, of L. quanq nam, 
because of the controyersy in the 
middle-ages about the pronuncia- 
tion of this word. 

cancer, s. m. cancer, crab; cancer; 
comp. can ere. 

canere, s. m. crab, crab-fish; cancer. 

eand^labre, s. m. candelabrum.; can- 
delabrum, candela, see chan- 

candenr, s. f. purity, candour; can- 
do r, candere, to shine. 

eandi, s. m. candy, sugar-candy ; Arab, 

eandidat, s. m. candidate; candi- 
datus, candidate for office (do- 

— 32m — 

tbed in a wbit» toga), Candidas, 
see next w. 

oandidatnre, 8. f. canditature. 
candlde, adj. pure, candid; candi- 
dus, white, brignt, candere, to 
eandir (se), pr. v. to candy; see 

eane, s. f. dack; see canard, 
oaneton, s. m. dackUng. 
Mnette, s. f. young duck. 

eanette, s. f. can, jug; Ge. kanne. 
canevas, s.m. canvass, sketch; M.L. 

canava; cannabis, hemp. 
eaniche, s. f. poodle, water-dog; 

can is, dog. 
canieole, s. L canicula,pl. dog-days; 

canicula dim. of canis, a dog. 
eanicnlaire, adj. canicular, 
eanin, e, adj. canine; caninus. 
eanlf, s. m. pen -knife; O.N. knifr; 

Ge. kneif; E. knife. 

eanne, s. f. cane, stick; canna;xav- 
t'ff, a reed. 

oanneler, ▼. a. to flute, to groove. 

oanneUe, s. f. cinnamon, the rolls of 
cinnamon resembling canes. 

Qannelnre, s. f. fluting. 

oasziette, s. f. spigot, tap. 
eannlbale, 6. m. cannibal; Garib, 
the name of th^ people who were 
first known to have been in the 
habit of eating human flesh. 
canon, s.m. cannon, gun; It. canno- 
ne, seecanne. 

oanonnade, s. f. cannonade. 

oanonner, v.* a. to cannonade. 

canonnier, s. m. gunner. 
canon, s. m. canon ; c a n o n, mavtov^ rule. 

oanoBial, e, adj. canonical. 

eanonioat, s. m. canonicate, canonry. 

eanonique, adj. canonical. 

oaneniser, v. a. to canonize. 

canot, s. m. ships -boat, boat; see 
cane, and canard, 
oanotier, s.m. boat-keeper, bargeman. 

cantate, s. t. cantata; It. cantata; 

/cantare, see chanter. 

cantatrice, s. f. female singer; can- 
tatrlx; comp. chanter. 

eantharide. s. f. cantharis, Spanish- 
fly; cantnaris; %av^aQ(i. 

cantil^iic, s. f. cantilena, melody; 

cantine, s. f. bottle case, canteen; 
Diez connects it with canton (s. 
th.), Tardieu proposes quint ana. 

a market, the camp -market was 
held in the quintan a, a street 
in the camp, which separated the fifth 
(quintus) maniple from the sixth, 
caattnlsr, s. m. ere, s. f. sutler, can- 
cantiqac, s. m. canticle, song; can- 
ticum, a song; cantare; see 

canton, 8.m. canton; O.F. cant, cor- 
ner; can thus, xcrvdoV, comer of 
the eye, and wheel -tire. 

oantonal, e, adj. cantonal. 

oantonnament , s. m. cantonment. 

eentonner, v. a. to canton. 

oantonnier, s. m. road -labourer. 

canolc. 8. f. fosset, canula; see cane. 
caoutehonc. s. m. caoutchouc^ India- 
rubber; the aborigines of Brazil 

call it cahuchu. 
cap. s. m. head, cape; caput; comp. 

capable, adj. capable, able; M.L. ca- 

pabilis; capax, capere,to take. 
capacity, s. f. capacity, capability; 

capacitas, capere, to take. 
capara^n, s. m. caparison; Sp. ca- 

parazon; M.L. caparo, hood, 

capa; see cape. 
eapara9onner, v. a. to caparison. 

cape, s. f. cloak with a hood, riding- 
hood; It. cappa; M.L. capa; comp. 

capendn, s. m. court-pendu (sort of 
apple); corruptionofc our t-pendu, 
court, short, pendu, suspended, 
because of the short stalk of this 
kind of apples. 

capillaire, adj. hair-shaped, capillary ; 
capillar is, capillus, the hair. 

capitaine, s.m. captain; M.L. capita- 
nus; (O.F. chevetain, E. chief- 
tain), caput, -itiS) the head. 

capital, e, adj. capital, principal; ca- 
pitalis, caput, -itis, the head, 
capital, s. m. principal thing, capital, 

oapitale, s.f. capital, chief city, capital 
oapitaU8te,s.m. capitalist, fund-holder. 

capitation, s. f. capitation, poll-tax; 
caput, -itis, the head. 

capitenx, se, adj. (of wine, etc.) 
neady; It. capitoso; caput, see 

capitolaire, adj. capitulary ; c% p i t n- 
laris, capitulum, aeechapitre. 

— 32n — 

oapituler, v. a. to capitulate; capi- 
tulum; comp. chapitre. 
oapitiUatlon, 8. f. capitulation. 

eapou, B.m. hypocrite, cheat (at play), 
coward; probably another form of 
cbapon; s. th. 

caporal, s. m. corporal; It. capo- 
rale; It. capo, head; caput. 

eapote, s. f. capot, cloak, hood; see 

eftpre, s. f. caper; It. capper o; cap- 
pariSyXaTTTrttpfff; Arab, al-kabar. 

eaprice. s.m. caprice, whim; capra, 
goat, because of the excentric move- 
ments of the goat, like v e r v e (s. th.) 
from vervex; comp. cabrer, ca- 

eaprideaz, le, adj. capricious, whim- 

eapricorney s. m. Capricorn; capri- 
eornus, caper, -pri, the goat, 
cornu, a horn. 

capsule 9 s. f. capsula, capsule, per- 
cussion-cap; capsula, dim. of 
capsa, a box. 
eapiiilaire, adj. capsular. 
eaoter, v. a. to captivate; c apt are, 
ireq. of caper e, to catch, 
eaptation, s. f. (law) undue influence, 
eaptieoac, M, adj. captious ; c a p t i o s u s. 
ftaptif, re, adj. captive; captivus, 
capere; comp. ch^tif. 
eaptitver, v. a. to captivate, to take; 
eaptivit^ s. f. captivity; capti vitas. 

capture, s. f. capture; captura, 
captare; see capter. 
eaptnier, v. a. to capture, to apprehend. 
eapuee, s. f. capuchou, s. m. hood; 
see cape. 

capndn, s. m. capuchin, 
eapndne, s. f. Indian cress, nastur- 
tium; the flower of this plant re- 
sembling a hood. 

eaque, s. f. keg, barrel; E. cag; A.S. 
caeggi an, to lock,to shutfa8t(cask). 
eaqueter, v. n. to cackle, to chatter ; 

eaquet, s.m. cackle, chit-chat, 
eaqoetage, s. m. cackling, chattering. 
ear, conj. for, because; O.F. quar; 

carabine, s. f. carabine, rifle; O.F. 
calabrin; Prov. calabre, an in- 
strument of war to throw stones; 
M.L. oadabula, see acoabler. 
•aKibiaitf, 8. m. carabineer. 

' oaraeole. s. f. caracole ;It. caracollo; 

Arab, sarkara, to turn in a circle. 

earao«ler, v. n. to caracole. 

earaetdre, s. m. character, hand- writ* 

ing; character; Grr. j^a^axtr/p, 

stamp, xaQaaaoDf to cut by furrows. 

earaetiiiier, v. a. to characterize. 

earaotMftiLque, adj. caracteristic; %«• 

carafe, s. f. decanter (bottle); It. ca« 

raffa; Arab, gerif, a measure, 

garafa, to draw water, 
earafon, s. m. cooler(vase), small bottle, 
caramboler, v. a. (billards) to cannon, 

to make a cannon; the second part 

of the word is undoubtedly the same 

as b o u 1 e , ball, the first is unknown, 
earambolage, s. m. (bil.) cannon. 
caramel, s. m. caramel; ace. to Littr6 

Sp. Port carameto; Arab.kora, 

ball, mochalla, sweet. 
earapaee^ s. f. carapace; £t. d. 
earatf s. m. carat; Arab, qirat, a 

weight, from uBQatiav^ the fruit of 

the locust-tree, and a weight 
carsvane, s. f. caravan; Arab, kai- 

ravan; Turc. kervan. 
earavaniirail, s. m. caravansary ; Port 

earbone, s.m.carbon;carbo,-oni8; 

comp. charbon. 
oarbonique, adj. carbonic. 
earboniMT, v. a to carbonize, to char, 
oarbonisation, s. f. carbonization. 
carcau, s. m. carcan, caroanet; O.H.G. 

querca; O.N. qverk, neck. 
carcasse, s. f. carcasse, frame-work ; It. 

carcasBo; Et d. Diez refers it to 

car o,flesh,and c a p s u 8.a receptacle. 
earde, s. f. card, chard; carduus; 

see chardon. 
oarder, v. a. to card. 

eardenr, s. m. le, s. f. carder. 
cardinal, adj. and s. m. cardinal; 

cardinalis, principal, cardo, 

cardinis, pivot. 
eardon, s. m. cardoon; carduus; 
* see chardon. 
eardme, s. m. lent; It quaresima 

contraction of quadragesima, 

forty, (forty days of lent). 
ear due, s. f. keel, careen; carina, 
earesser, V. a. to caress; It carez- 

zare; It caro; carus, dear. 

oareise, s. f. caress, endearment. 
eargaisoii, s. f. cargo, freight; car- 

guer for charger, s. th. 
carioaturey s. f. caricature; It. earl • 

— 32o — 

catnra, carricare; see charger, 
to overload. 
earie, s.f. caries, brown, rust; caries. 

* earimr, v. a. and pr. to rot, to make, 

to become carious. 

earillon, s. m. chime of bells; Sp. 
c^uadrilla, chimes nsnally con- 
sisting of four bells, 
earillonner, y. n. to ring a peal. 

earme, a. m. Carmelite (friar); friar 
of the order of Monnt C arm el. 
eamtiite, s. f. Carmelite (nun). 

^armiiu 8.m. carmine; It. carmesino, 
cremisino; M.L. carmesinus; 
Arab.qermazi qermez,(E. crim- 
son); Pott refers it to Sans, krimi- 
ja, worm-born, comp. cramoisi. 

carnage, s. m. carnage, slaughl^r; 
caro, carnis, flesh, 
eanmsiier, s. m. ferine, flesh -eater, 
eama t ion, s. f. carnation, flesh-colour. 

earnaval. s.^. carnival; It. carne- 
vale;M.L.carne levamen carnis 

* levamen, alleviation, i. e. taking 
away of meat. 

eariie, s. f. comer, edge; car do, 
-inis, a hinge; comp. oharniere. 

eamel;, s. m. memorandum-book, note- 
book; £t. d. 

eamivere, adj. carnivorous; carni- 
vorus, caro, carnis, flesh, vo- 
rare, to devour. 

earogne, s. f. hag; same as ch ar ogn e, 
8. th. 

earotide, s. f. carotid; naqanxiSBq, 
%ttQ6m, to produce sleep; -— the 
carotid -arteries are so named 
from the opinion entertained by 
the ancients, that an increased 
flow of blood through them pro- 
duced sleep and stupefaction. 

earotte, s. f . carrot ; c a r o t a, xoporoV. 

earpe, s. f. carp; M.L. carpio; Ge. 

earquols, s. m. quiver; same as car - 
casse, s. th. 

€arr6, e, adj. square; quad rum, 

something square, quatuor, four. 

Mmavy s. m. square, pane of glass. 

earrefoar, s. m. cross-road, public 
road; Prov. carrefore, a place 
where four roads meet ; q u a d r i f u r- 

" eus, with four divisions. 

earreler, v. a. to pave with tile; see 

•andagt, s. m. brick -paving, brick- 
-"ilmr^ a. m. paver. 

earrdet, s. m. plaice (fish), square 
fishing -net, awl. 
carrer. v. a. to square; quadrare; 
quadrum, see carre. 
earr&mMit, adv. squarely, firmly. 
carridre, s. f. career, race, course; 

carrus, a car. 
earri^re, s.f. quarry; M.L. quadra- 
ria; Ge. quader, squarestone; 
comp. cadre.- 
earrier, s. m. quarry -man. 
earroBse, s. m. coach, carriage; It. 
carrozza, carro; carrus, ear. 
earrosiiMTf s. m. coach -builder. 
carrousel, s. m. tournament; It. ca- 
rosello, garosello (dim. of ga- 
roso, quareller) prop, tumult. 
carte, s. f. card, ticket, map, chart; 
chart a, ajapr^ff, a leaf of paper, 
eartel, s. m. challenge, cartel, 
earton, s. m. paste-board, portfolio, 

eartonneri v. a. (bookb.) to put in 

eartonnage, s. m. putting in boards. 

eartonohe, s. f. case (for fireworks), 

cartouche; It. eartoccio. 

cartilage, s. m. cartilage, gristle; 


eartilagineux, §•, adj. cartilaginoas, 

gristly; cartilagineus. 
cas, s. m. case; casus. 
casanier. dre, adj. domesticated; 

cas a, nouse. 
casaqae, s. f. cloak, cassock; casa, 
something which covers, see prec^ 
cascade, s. f. cascade; It. cascata, 

eascar, to fall; cadere. 
case, s. f. house, hut, box; casa; 
comp. chez. 

easer, v. a. to place, to find a place, 
easier, s. m. set of pigeonholes. 
casemate, s. f. casemate; It. casa- 

matta; Et. d. 
caserne, s.f. barracks; It. caserna; 

casa, a house. 
casino, s. m. casino, club; It. casa, 

a house, see prec. 

casque, s. m. helmet, casque; Sp. 

casco, potsherd, skull, eascar, 

to break; quassare, see next w. 

easqnette, s. f. cap. 

casse, s.f. (print.) case; see caisse. 

casse, s.f. cupel; O.H.G. chezi, Gre. 

kessel, see casserole. 
casse, s. f. cassia; casia, Tiaaun, 
castse, s. f. breakage, breaking; see 

-^ Z2p — 

eaflge-eou, s. m. break-neck. 
oasM -noisette, s. m. nut-cracker; see 
eaiie-iLoiz, a.m. nut-cracker ; see n o i x. 
cmsie-tMe, s. m. club, tomahawk, 

casser, v. a. to break; O.F. cass, 
broken; quassus, quassare, to 
shake much, freq. of quatere, 
to shake. 

easser, v. a. to annul; It, Sp, Port, 
cassare; L. cassa<re, to annihil- 
ate; cassus (It c ass o), empty, 
cassation, s. f. cassation, annulment, 

easserole, s. f. saucepan; stew-pan; 
O.F. casse; O.H.G. chezzi;M.H.Gr. 
kezzel; Ge. kessel; E. kettle. 

cassette 9 s. f. casket, cash-box; see 

cassine, s. f. little country-house; 
M.L.cassin&, cassa; casa,ahouse. 

eassis, eaeis, s. m. black currant; £t. d. 

eassolette, s. f. perfuming pan, scent- 
box, see casse, cupel. 

cassonade, s. f. brown coarse kask- 
sugar; casson for caisson, s. th. 

cassare^ s. f. breaking, fracture; see 

castagrnette « s. f . castanet ; Sp. c a s - 
tanetas, castana, chestnut, be- 
cause of the similar shape of the 
chestnuts and castanets. 

caste, s. f. caste, cast; cast us, pure. 

castei,, s. m. castle; castellum; 
comp. chateau. 

castor 9 s. m. beaver, castor, beaver- 
hat; castor, %datu3Q. 

eastrat, s. m. castrate; castratus, 
castrare see chatr'Cr. 
castration, s: f. castration. 

easael) le, adj. casual, accidental; 
s. m. perquisites; see cas. 
casualitS, s. f. casualty, 
easniste, s. m. casuist. 

eataclysme, s. m. cataclysm (great 
inondation); %ataiiXva[i6s^ xaro;- 
•nXvicDj to wash over. 

eatacombes, s.f. pi. catacombs ; instead 
of catatombe; Roman, catar, 
to see, (comp. catafalque) and 
tomba, tomb. 

eatafalqiie, s. m. catafalco; O.F. es- 
cadafaut, (hence 6chafaud, 
d. th.), scaffold; Rom. catar, 
captare, to see It f alco, instead 
of palooi scaffold. 

catalogue, s. m. catalogue ; Hcetd-Xoyogf 

a counting up, enrolement, xorva- 
Xiyoa^ to lay down, to pick out. 
cataplasme, s. m. poultice, cataplasm ; 

Hccrd-nXaafiaj itXaaacoy to spread. 
eataraete, s. f. cataract, water-fall; 
cataract.'a; Maraffdynrigj xara^- 
(rjywfiL, to break. 
catarrhe, s.m. catarrh; catarrhus; 
Tuardffovg^ nata^fim, to flow down . 
catarrhal, e, adj. catarrhal. 
catastrophe 9 s.f. catastrophe; xaia- 
at(foq>ijf yujcta'CTQifpa, to overturn. 
cat^chiser, v. a. to catechise, to teach; 
%azri%ii<Oj -Aaxr^iita, to sound a thing 
in o.'s ears, to teach by word of 
mouth, xara, d«(7n, ijx^a, to sound, 
cat^ehisme, s.m. catechism ; iicczrjx'^afi,6g. 
eat^chiste, s. m. catechist. 
cat^cliamdne, s. m. f. catechumen; 

MottTjiovfisvog, KuttixstOy see prec. 
cat^gorie, s.f. category; tmzrjyo^ia^ 
noit'TjyoQicpy to speak against, 
categoriqne, adj. categorical. 
cath^draie, s. f . cathedral ; cathedra, 

a seat 
catholique, adj.and s. catholic; c a t h o - 
' Ileus, TLud-oXinogy universal, %ct&6' 
Xov for %u^' oXovy on the whole, 
xara, upon, oXog, whole, 
catholioisme, s. m. Catholicism, Roman 
catholic religion, 
catholicity, s. f. catholic countries. 
catir, V. a. to give a glass-lustre, to 
press; coactare; comp. cache r. 
catissear, s. m. presser. 
eauchemar, s.m. incubus, nigfat-mare; 
O.F. caucher (calcare), to press, 
to tread, and Ge. mare; E. mare, 
night mare. 
cause, s. t. cause, motive; causa; 
comp. chose, 
causal, e, adi. causal, 
causality, s. f. causality, 
causer, v. a. to cause. 
causer, v. n. to converse, to talk; 
O.H.G. chosdn; G. kosen. 
eaoserie, s. f. talking, chit-chat, talk, 
causeur, se, adj. and s. talkative, 
causeuse, s. f. small sofa. 
eaustique, adj. caustic; causticus; 

cautdle, s. f. craft, cunning, precau- 
tion; (;^utela, caution, 
cauteleux, se, adj. crafty, cunning. 
cautdre, s. m. cautery; cauterium; 
%avTiiiiov'^ navti^ffy a burner, nuitOy 
to bum. 

— 32g — 

MutiriMr, v. a. to cauterise; xoti- 

eautiriiation, 8. f. cftuterization. 

cautiouy 8. i. bail, snrety; cantio, 
-onis, cave re, to beware, (caution) 
eantionner, v. a. to bail, to become 
oMitioiiiMBMnt, s. m. security, bail. 

GAYaleade, s. f. cavalcade, ride; It. 

cavalcata, cavalcare, see che- 

eavale, s. f. mare; caballus; comp. 

cheval. (cavalry, etc.). 

cavalier J s. m. horseman, rider; It. 
cavalier e; see cavale, and che- 
valier. * <► 

eavaleria, s. f. cavalry, horse. 

eavalitremditt , adv. gentleman - lilce, 
cavalierly, disdainfully. 

eave. adj. hollow; cavus. (cave, ca- 

eavo, s. f. cellar. 

eaveau, s. m. small cellar, vault (for 
the dead). • 

eavte, B. f. hollow way. 

eaver, v. a. n. and pr. to hollow, to 
undermine; cava re. 

' eaveme, s.f. cavern, cave; cave ma. 

eavemeuz, le, adj. cavernous, cavemla. 

eavitA, s. f. cavity, hollow. 

eavlliation, s. f. sophistry, derision; 

cavillatio, -onis, cavilla, a 

ce« cet^ eette, adj. demons tr. this; 

O.F. icist, cist; ecce iste. 

e^ans, adv. within, here, in this house; 
O.F. 9aienSp c6ens, ^a (s. th.), 
and ens «» intus, inside. 

eeciy pron. this*, see ce and ci. 

e^eit^f 8. f. blindness, cecity; cae- 
citas, caecus, blind. 

e^der, v. n. to yield; to cede; ce- 

e^diile^ s. f. cedilla; It. zediglia 

dim. zeta of the letter z. 

c^draty 8. m. cedra, cedrat; It. ce- 

drate; citrus. 
e^dre, a.m. cedar; cedrus, usSQog. 
eeindre. v. a. to surround, to gird, 
to encircle; cingere,likepeindre, 
pingere, etc.*) 

eelntiiM, 8. f. girdle, belt, (cincture) 
oeintiiriAr, s. m. *girdle-ma»er, belt- 

otintaroa, 8. m. waist-belt, sword- 
cela. pron. that; see ce and Ik, 
c^ldbre, adj. celebrated; celeber. 
•iuhrar, v. a. to celebrate; cele- 

o^bration, s. f. celebration, cele- 
bratio; -onis. 
ctiibrlt^ s. f. celebrity; c eleb rit as. 

e^ler, v. a. to conceal, to hide; oe- 

lare; comp. recel. 
c^leri, 8.m. celery; It. sedan o; Ve- 

nit. seleno;Ge. selleri; selinum, 

ahivovj age (tree). 
c616rit6, s. t. celerity, speed; cele- 

ritas, celer, quick. 
c61este,adj. celestial, heavenly; coe- 

lestis, coelum, heaven. . 
e^libat^ s. m. celibacy, single life; 

caelibatus, caelebs, unmarried, 
etiibataire, s. m. unmarried, single 


eelle, celles, pron. f. she, her, they, 
those, them, that; fern, of c e 1 u i, 
cellier, s. p. cellar on the ground- 
floor; cellarium, cell a, cell, 
cellule, 8. f. cell; cellula, cella. 
oaUnlaire, adj. cellular. 
celui, ceux, pron. he, him, they, 
those, them, that; ecce ille, ecc' 
illius; comp. ce. 
cement, e.m. cement; caementum, 
contr. of caedimentum; comp. 
eementer, v. a. to cement, 
eementation, s. f. cementation. 

cendre, s. f. ashes, cinder; cinis, 

eendr^, e, adj. ashy, ash-coloured. 
eendriUon, p. f. Cinderella. 
ecus, s. m. census; census. 
eense, e, adj. reputed; cense re, to 

count, to estimate. 
eensenr, s.m. censor; censor, cen- 
se re, see prec. 
censure, s. t. censorship, censure; 
censura, cense re, seo prec. 
eeniarer, v. a. to censure. 

cent, s.m. hundred; centum, (cent, 

percentage, century, etc.). 
oentaine, s. i. hundred, 
oentenaire, s. m. a person hundred 
years old. 

oenti^me, adj. and s. m. hunderdth. 
centigrade, adj. centigrade ; - eegr ade. 

*) see on P. uu laiiffuaf(e p. p. 52 ft. 

— Sir — 

eentre, s. m. centre, middle; ceti- 

trnm, yiivrgov. 
oentral, e, adj. central, 
centralinr, v. a. to centralize. 
oentralisatUm, 8. f. centralization, 
oentrifuge, adj. centrifugal; fugere, 

to flee, 
eentripite, adj. centripetal; petere, 

to seek. 

ceiittlple, adj. a hundred-fold, cen- 
tuple; centuple X. ^ 
oemtapler, v. a. to centuplicate, to 
increase a hundredfold. 

eep, s. m. vine-stock ; c i p p u s , a pale, 
a stake. 

eepeudaiity adv. in the mean time, 
mean- while, yet, however; for ce 
pendant, pendant cetemps la, 
during that time; see pendant. 

e^ramique. adj. ceramic, flctile; xi- 
Qceitog, tile. 

eerat, s. m. cerate; cera, wax. 

eereeau, s. m. hoop; circellus, cir- 

culus, see cercle. 
cercle, s. m. circle, ring, sphere, 

hoop; circulus, dim. or circus, 

see cirque, 
oeroler, v. a. to hoop. 
eereueil, s. m. coffin ; O.F. s a r c u e u, 

sarkeu, O.H.G. sarch, Ge. sarg. 
e^r^al, e, adj. cereal; cereal is, Ce- 
res, the Goddess of harvest. 
c^r^bral, «, adj. cerebral, of the 

brain; cerebralis, cerebrum, 

brain, see cerveau. 

c4r4inoiiie, s. f. ceremony; caeri- 
monia, also written cerimonia, 
from Caeres, a town in Etruria, 
which seems to have stood in a 
very ancient religious connection 
witn Rome; hence the Romans in 
the Gallic war carried their sacred 
relics there; Ace. to others from 
Ceres. Bopp derives it from Sans, 
kri, to make. 

oir^monialyS.'m. ceremonial, ceremo- 

oer^onidttx, se, adj. ceremonious. 

eerf, s. m. deer, stag; cervus. 
eerf-volant, s. m. home-beetle, kite; 
see voler. 
eerfeuil, B. m. chervil; caerifolium, 
XcttgiqivlXov, Xalgm, to rejoice, 
q>vlXov^ a leaf. 
cerise, s. f. cherry; cerasus, lUqu- 
eerisier, s. m. cherry-tree. 

cemer, V. a. to encircle, to surround; 
O.F. cerne^ circle, ring; circi- 
nare, circinus, lUgMvog, a pair 
of compasses, 
oamean, s. m. kernel of a green wal- 
nut, green walnut. 
certain, e, adj. certain, sure; certus. 
eertdBAinsnt, adv. certainly, 
oertet, adv. surely, indeed, 
oertitade, s. f. certainty. 

certifier, v. a. to certify; M.L. cer- 
tificare; certus, certain, faceifd, 
to make. 

oertifleat, s. m. certificate, testimo- 
nial; certificatum p. p. of cer- 

e^rumen, s. m. cerumen, ear-wax; 
M.L. cerumen; cera, wax. 

ceruse, s.f. white-lead, ceruse; cer- 

eerveaa, s. m. cervelle, s. f. brain; 
O.F. cervel; cerebellum dim. 
of cerebrum, brain, (cerebral), 
oervelas, s. m. cervelas, saveloys 
oarvalet, s. m. cerebellum. 

eervoise, s. f. cerevisia, a kind of 
beer; cerevisia, cervisia, beer, 
cesser, v. n. to cease, to discontinue, 
cessare,freq. ofcedere, to yield, 
oesiatioii, s. f. cessation, intermission; 
cessatio, -onis. 
oeise, s. f. ceasing. 
cession, s.f. transfer, surrender, ces- 
sion; cessio, -onis, cedere, to 
OMsionnaire, s. m. transferee, assignee. 

ceste, ft.m. cestus, gauntlet; cestus, 

ensure, s.f. caesura, pause; caesura, 

a section, caedere, caesum, to 

cet, eette, eeux, see ce. 
o6tae6, e, adj. cetaceous; cetaceus, 

cet us, M^roff, a whale. 
ehablis, s. m. wood blown down; 0. 

F. cadable, see accabler. £^d. 
ehaeal, s. m. jackal; Pers. and Tnre. 

ohaeun, e, pron. each, every one; 

O.E. chascun; quisque unus, 

quisc' unus, see chaqueand un. 

cliafoain, e, adj. and s. slender; 0;F. 
chat-fouin, slender as a pole-eat 
or marten, see chat and fouine. 

chagrin, s.m. grief, sorrow, chagrin, 
shagreen. According to Diez its 


— 32« — 

original signification Is shagreen; 
It. zigrino; Turc. sagri, crup- 
per, the shagreen being made of 
the skin from the crupper of the 
donkey or mule. 
ehagziner, v. a. and pr. to afflict, to 
chagrin, to shagreen. 

ehalne, s.f. chain; O.F. chatne; ca- 
ehainette, s. f. little chain, (arch.) 

sliainoii, s. m. link of a chain. 

eliair, s. f. flesh, meat; O.F. car, 
cam, charn-, caro, carnis. (car- 
nal). „ 

ehaire, s. f. pulpit, chair; O.F. cha- 
6re, (5hay6re; Prov. cadeira; ca- 
thedra, xadf^pa; comp. chaise. 

chaise, s. f. chair, stool, chaise (car- 
riage); same as chaire (s. th.), r 
and s interchange frequently. 

ehaland, s. m. lighter, barge ,cu8tomer ; 
landium,chelinda; M.Gr. x«^cfv- 
atov; Et. d. Ace. to Diez perh. a 
corrupt, of xiXvSffog, a turtle. 

ehftle, 8. shawl; Ace. to Littr6 Arab, 
schal, a woolengarment, with which 
men and women cover themselves 
in the £ast. 

chalet, 8. m. Swiss -cottage; Ace. 
to Littr6 a contr. of castelletum, 
small castle. 

ehaleur, s. f. heat, caloric; Prov.Sp. 
calor; calor, -oris; calere, to 
be warm. 

ohalereux, se, adj. hot, ardent, animat- 
ed, impassioned. 

ehftlit, 8. m. bedstead (of wood); It. 
cataletto, a bed of state; M.L. 
cadeletus; catar, to see (see 
catafalque), and It. letto, see lit. 

ohaloupe, s. f. launch, ships-boat; a 
corruption of the Dutch sloep, E. 


ehalumeau, s. m. corn-pipe; cala- 
mellus dim. of calamus, reed; 
Ge. schalmei. 

ehamade, s. f. parley, chamade; It. 
chiamata; Port, chamada, ap- 
peal, chamar, to call; clamare. 

ohamailler. v.n. to scuffle, to bicker; 
Et. d. Sender derives it from cla- 
mare, to cry, (clamour etc.). 

ehamarrer, v. a. to trim with lace, 
to bedizen; Sp. chamarra, zamar- 
ra, gown from sheepskin, zamar- 
ro, sheepskin. 

ehambellaD. s. m. chamberlain; M.L. 
chambellanus;It. camerlingo, 
camera, see chambre. 
ehambranle, s. m. chambranle, cas- 
ing of doors, windows, etc.; Et. d. 
chambre, s. f. room, chamber; ca- 
mera; Ge. kammer. 
ehameau, s.m. camel; camelus, from 
the Semitic gamal. 
ohamelier, s. m. camel-driver. 
chamois, s. m. chamois, shamoy; 

O.H.G. gamz, Ge. gemse. 
champ, s. m. field, country; cam- 
pus, see camp, 
champ^tre, adj. rural, 
champignon, s. m. mushroom, 
champion, 8. m. champion; M.L. cam- 

champagne, s. m. champagne; from 
the province of Champagne in 
France, where the wine is made. 
chance, s. f. chance, luck; O.F. 
cheance from cheant, p. p. of 
choir, s. th.; It. cadenza; M.L. 
cadentia; cadens, -entis, pr.p. 
of cade re, to fall, to happen. 

chanceler, v. a. to totter, to stagger. 

ohancellement, s. m. tottering, stagger- 

ohanoeux, se, adj. lucky, doubtful. 

ehaiicelier, s. m. chancellor; Prov. 

cancelier: M.L. cancellarius, 

a porter, doorkeeper, chancellor. 

can ce 111, an inclosure, a railing, 

dim. of cancer, a lattice, 
chancellerie, s.f. chancellor's office; 

chaneir, v. n. and pr. to get mouldy; 

canescere, togrow white, can us, 


chanciflsore, s. f. mould. 

chancre,^, m. canker: cancer. 
chandelle, s. f. candle; candela, can- 
dere, to shine, 
chandelier, s. m. candle-stick, tallow- 

changer, v. a. to change, to alter; 
O.F. cangier; It. cambiare; Prov. 
cambiar; M.L. cambiare for 
cambire, to exchange. 

change, s. m. exchange. 

changement, s* m. change, alteration. 

changeor, s. m. money-changer, deal- 
er in bullion. 
chanson, s. f. song; It. canzone; 
cantio, -onis, canere, to sing; 
comp. chanter. 

— 321 — 

ehanionnetta, s. f. little song. 

chaaicnnier, 8. m. ^re, 8. f. ballad- 
maker, 8ong8ter, song- book. 

ehant, B.m. singing, chant; cantus, 
cane re, to sing. 

oluuitag«, 8. m. extortion. 

chanter, v. a. to sing; can tare, freq. 
of can ere, to sing. 

chanterelle, s. f. first string (of vio- 
ehanteor, s. m. se, s. f. singer. 

ehaiitier, s.m. wood-yard, dock-yard; 
According to Scheler O.F. cant, 
corner (comp. canton), meaninff 
the place to put pieces of wooa 
into the corner, that is to say, aside. 

ehantre, s. m. songster (of birds), poet; 
see chanter. 

ehanvre, s. m. hemp; canabi s; comp. 

ehaoS) 8. m. chaos, x^og. 

chape, s.f. cope: It. cappa; se.e cape. 

chapeau, s. m. hiat, bonnet, cap; O.F. 
cnapels, chapel; It. cappello, 
dim. of cappa; M.L. cap a, cape, 
(quia totum quasi capiat hominem), 
capere, to take, 
ehapelier, s. m. hatter. 

chapelain, s. m. chaplain; M.L. ca- 
pellanus; Ge. kaplan. 

chapeler, v. a. to rasp (bread), to 
chip; Prov. capolar^ M.L. ca- 

• pellare; capulare, to beat, ca- 
pulus, a handle, 
ehapelore, s. f. raspings of bread. 

chapelet^ s. m. chaplet, beads; origi- 
nally a wreath or „chapeau" of 
flowers, then a number of beads to 
count the number of Ave Marias, 
the monks had to say; dim. of 
chapel, see chapeau. 

chapelle, s. f. chapel; M.L. capella, 
dim. of capa (see cape) meant a 
shrine, a reliquary. 

chaperon, s. m. hood, chaperon; M.L. 
caparo, capero; capa, see cape, 
chaperoxmer , v. a. to chaperon, to 

chapiteaa, s. m. top, capital, head; 
Prov. Sp. capitel; capiltellum, 
dim. of caput, head. 

ehapitre, s. m. chapter; capitnlum 
dim. of caput, see prec. 

chapou, 8. m. capon; Prov. Sp. ca- 
pon; It. cappone; capo, -onis, 

chaqnc, adj. each, every; O.F. chas- 
que; Prov. quecs; quisque. 

char, B.m. car, chariot; oarrus, Ge. 

karren, E. ear, cart. 
charade, s. f. charade; Et. d. Ace. 

toDiezprob.N.Prov. charada=It. 

ciarlata, talking, tattling. 
charanQon, s. m. weevil; Prov. ca- 

rence; M.L. calandrus; ndXav- 

dgog, see c aland re. 

oharbon, s. m. coal, charcoal, carbon; 
carbo, -onis. 

charboimier, s. m. coal-man. 

eharbonniire, s. f. coal-woman, oven 
for making charcoal. 

charcutier, s.m. pork-butcher; O.F. 
chaircutier; char, chair,, (see 
this) and cuite, cooked (see c ai- 

chareaterie, s. f. pork-butcbers meat, 
pork-butcher's business. 

chardon, s. m. thistle; car duns. 

charger 9 v. a. and pr. to load, to 
burden, to charge: Prov.Sp. car- 
gar; It. caricare; M.L. carri- 
care; car r us, car. 
charge, s. f. burden, load, 
ehargement, s. m. lading, ship-load, 
freight, registry (of letters, etc.). 
ohargeur, s. m. loader, shipper. 

chariot, s. m. wagon, chariot; see 

charity, s. f. charity; caritas, ea- 
rns, dear, comp. cher. 
oharitable, adj. charitable, benevolent. 

charivari, s. m. mock-serenade, dis- 
cordant music; M.L. charivarium; 
Et. d. 
charlatan, s. m. quack, charlatan; It. 
ciarlatano. It. ciarlare, to prattle, 
charlatanerie, s. f. charlatanery. 
eharlatanisme, s. m. charlatanism. 
charme, s. m. charm; carmen, a 
tune, a magic formula, 
oharmaat, e, adj. charming, 
charmer, v. a. to charm. 

charnel, le. adj. carnal; earn alls 

caro, carnis, see chair. 

ohamu, e, adj. fleshy, cameous; car- 


ohamnre, s. f. flesh, fleshiness, skin. 

charnidre, s. f. hinge; car do, -in is. 

charogne, s. f. carrion; It. carog- 

na; caro, see chair. 
charpentier, s. m. carpenter; car- 
pentarius, wheel-wright, carpen- 
tum, chariot. 

ehaxpente, s. f. timber- work, frame- 


— 32U - 

tlkiKppnUa^ 8. f. carpentry, timber- 
eharpie, s. f. lint; O.F. cbarpir, to 
tear; It. carpia; carpere.topick, 
to pluck. 
eharrette^ s. f. cart; see char, 
eluurretier, s. m. carter, carman, 
oharrier, v. a. n. to cart, to wagon, 
(of rivers) to drift ice. 
eharriage, s. m. cartage, wagoning 

eharroi, b. m. cartage, wagoning. 
tHuanwi, s! m, cart-wright; wheel- 

eharroimage, s. ra. cart-wright's work, 
wheel- Wright's work. 
ebartreiix, s. m. Carthusian friar; 
Cartusiensis, Gatorissium, F. 
Chatrousse, the place where their 
first monastery was established. 
ehartreiiM, s. f. Cartusian nun, li- 
queur made at the monastery of 
Carthusians in Grenoble. 
elismi e, s. f. plough ; c a r r u c a, a sort 
of four-wheeled travelling carriage, 
carruB, car, comp. carrosse. 
eliarte, b. f. charter; It. carta; 

cfaarta, see carte. 
ehartre, s. f. charter ; same as char te, 

8. tb. 
ehartre, s. f. prison, decline; It. 

oarcere; career, -eris. 
ehas, B. m. eye of needle; ace. to 
Littr6 the masc. of chasse, s. th. 
ebtoe, s. f. reliquary, shrine; cap- 

aa, comp. caisse. • 

ehasser, v. a. to drive away, to ex- 
pel, to hunt; O.F. chacier; Prov. 
eagsar; It. cacciare; captare, 
freq. ot cap ere, to take. 
oluuM, B. f. chase, pursuit, huntiig. 
olMMteir, 8. m. hunter, huntsman. 
ehassle, ffif. blear ; ace. to Menage ca e - 
cutia, feeble sight, caecus, blind. 
ehaMknx, sa, adj. blear. 
eha^siS) s. ni. sash-work, sash; see 

ehaete, adj. chaste, pure cast us. 
ohasteti, s. f. chastity; castitas. 
chasuble, s. f . chasuble ; It. c a s i p o 1 a , 
casupola; M.L. casibula, dim. 
of casa, a covering, comp. case. 
chat, s. m. chatto, s. f. cat; catus. 
eh^taigne, s. f. chestnut castanea. 
ed^^ t a ig nic r , s. m. chestnut-tree. 
ehAtaizL adj. m. chestnut-colour, au- 

1. castle; O.F. chastel; 

castellum, dim. of castrum, a 

ohAtoIain, s. m. castellan; castel- 

ehAtolmine, s. f. castellans lady, cha- 
telaine, (a kind of ornament). 

eh&telAt, 8. m. castlet, small castle. 

ehat-hnant, s. m. screech-owl; lit. 
shouting cat, see chat and huer. 

ehfttier, v. a. to chastise, to correct ; 
O.F. chastier; castigare, to 
make clean, cast us, pure. 

«h&ti]iient, s. m. chastisement. 

ehatoiiiller, v. a. to tickle; O.F. ca- 
tiller, catouiller; catulire, ca- 
tulus, a young dog. 

ohatouillAment, s. m. tickling, titilla- 

ohataailleux, m, adj. ticklish, touchy. 

ehatoyer, v. n. to be chatoyant, to 
change colour; from chat (see this), 
cat, Uke an eye of a cat. 

ehfttrer, v. a. to emasculate, to cas- 
trate, castrare. 

ohatte, B. f. cat; see chat. 

ohatttr, V. n. to kitten. 
chaud, e, adj. hot, warm ; O.F. c h a 1 d ; 

ohaudeau, s. m. caudle O.F. c ha ud e 1. 

ohaudiire, s. f. boiler; M.L. c alder la. 

ohaodron, s. m. kettle. 

ohaudronaier, s.m.coi:)per-8mith, tinker. 

ohaudronnerie, s. f. copper-smith's 

business copper-smith's wares. 
ebanlTer, v. a. n. to heat, to warm; 
calefacere. (chafe) 

ohauffage, s. m. firing, fuel. 

ohaofEiBrette, s. f. foot-warmer, chaf- 
ing pan. 

ohaofEeur, s, m. fireman, stoker. 
chanfour, s.m. lime-kiln; see chaux 
and four. 

ohaufoumier, s. m. lime-burner. 
chanme, s.m. stubble, thatch, cala- 
mus, reed, stem. 

chaumer, v. a. n. to cut stubble. 

chanmage, s. m. cutting stubble, time 
of cutting stubble. 

chanmito, s. f. cottage (house cove- 
red with thatch). 
ehansse, s. f. stocking, strainer, pi. 
breeches; OF. cauche, It. calzo; 
calceus, shoe. 

chauBier, v. a. to put on (stockings, 
shoes, boots), to make o.'s shoes, etc. 

ohaufiOB, s. m. sock. 

ehauMtta, s. f. sock. 

-^ 32« — 

eluNunM, 8. f. covering for the foot, 
boots, BDoes, etc. 

elianss^e, s. f. embankment, cause- 
way, road; calciata p. p. of cal- 
ciare, formed from calx, lime, a 
road made with limestone, (cause- 

ehauTe^ adj. bald; calvus. 

ebanye-souris, s. t bat; prob. instead 
of choue-souris; see chouette, 
and Bouris. 

ehanx, s. f lime; calx, (chalk) 
ehaTirer, v. a. to capsize, to upset; 
cha or ?a for cap (s. th.) and 
virer, s. th. 
chef, s. m. head, chief; Sp. xefe; 
Prov. eap; caput. 
ohfiM'oeuvre, s.m. master-piece; see 

ohef-lieo, s. m. chief town; see lieu. 
olMYet, s. m. bolster, pillow. 

ebemin, s. m.way, road; Prov. c ami; 
Sp. camino; It. cammino; M.L. 
caminus, a way, from the Celtic; 
W. cam, a step, caman, a way. 
oheminer, v. n. to walk, to travel. 
ohemin-d»-fer, s.m. railway, railroad; 
lit. road of iron, see fer. 
ehemin^e, s. f. fire-place, chimney; 
caminus, ndfiivog. 

ebemise, s. f shirt, chemise; Prov. 

Sp. camisa; M.L. camisia, £t. d. 

Dietz suggests Gael, cairn is; Arab'. 

gam 19, a kind of garment. 
ohemisette, s. f. under- waistcoat, front, 

ehenal, s. m. channel (of harbours, 

rivers) gutter, track; canal is, comp. 

ehenapaii, s. m. scamp, blackguard; 

Ge.sch nap p-hahn,robber,sch nap- 
pen, to snap, and hahn, cock. 
chdne, s.m. oak; O.F. chesne, ^ues- 

ne; M.L. casnus; quercinus, 

of oak, quercus. 
ehdnaie, s. f. oak-grove, 
chfinean, s. m. young oak. 

eh^nean, s. m. leaden pipe; can alls. 

cbenet, s.m. fire-dog, dog (chimney- 
iron); see chien. 

ehenevis^s. m. hemp-seed; canabis, 
comp. chanvre. 
ohenevi^re, s. f. hemp-field. 

ebenil, s. m. dog-kennel; canile, 
oanis, see chien. (kennel) 

chenille, s. f. catterpillar, chenille; 
canicula, dim. ofcanis, dog, be- 

cause the heads of eertain oatter- 

pillars look like those of dogs. 

ehena, e, adj. hoary; Prov. can at; 

It. canuto; canutus, canus, 

white, hoary; Sansc. kas, to shine. 

eheptel, s. m. lease of cattle,^ O.F. 

ciiatel; Prov. captal; capitale, 

capitel, chattel, (K chattel, cattle). 

eher, eb^re, dear; It. caro; cams. 


eh^, e, adj. cherished, dear, dar- 

eUrir, ^. a. to cherish, 
ohert^ s. f. deamess, high price. 
ehereher, v. a. to search, to seek, to 
fetch out; It. cercare; circa re, 
to go round, circus, a ring. 
ehdre, s. f. cneer, fare, reception; 
form, face, head Sp.Prov.ML.cara, 
face; auQa^ the head, 
ch^tif, ve, adj. mean, wretched, thin; 
O.F. chaitif, £. caitiff; capti- 
yus, comp. captif. 
ch'eval, s.m. horse; It. cavallo; Sp. 
c a b a 1 1 o ; c a b a 1 1 u s,xa^of22ijc,a naff. 
ehAvalet, s. m. wooden-horse, easeL 
chevalier, s. m. knight, cavalier; It. 
cavaliere; M.L. caballarius, 
comp. cavalier, 
chevalerle, s. f. knighthood, 
ohevalereiqne^ adj. chivalrous, 
chevaline, adj. f. of the horse family. 
chevaucher, V.n. to ride; It. caval- 
care; ML. caballicare; cabal- 
lus, see cheval. 
chevan-l^ger, s. m. light horseman, 
light cavalry; see cheval, and 16- 
chevela, e, adj. hairy; see cheven. 
chevelore, s. f. head of hair, hair. 
chevetj s.m. bolster, pillow; dim. of 

chei, B th. 
chev^tre s.m. halter, trimmer; Prov. 
cabestre; It. capestro; capis- 
trum, cap ere, to take. 
eheyen, s. m. hair; O.F. cavel; ca- 

p ill us. (capillary) 
chevllle, s. f. wooden pin, peg ; Prov. 
cavilla; clavicula, dim. ofcla- 
vis, key, comp. cl6. 
oheviUer, v. a. to pin, to peg. 
chftvre, s. f. she-goat; capra. 
chevreaa, s. m kid. 
chivrefeaille, s m. honey-suckle; ca- 
pri-folium, see feuille. 
cheviette, s. f. roebuck, 
chevreail, s. m. roe, roebuck; capre- 


— 32t9 — 

, 8. m. chevron, (mil.) stripe. 

elMTroter, v.n. to kid, to be tremu- 

elwrrotin, 8. m. curried kid. 

dwrrotine, 8. f. buck shot, deer shot. 
eliez, prep, to the house of, among, 
with, in. O.F. k chez, en chi6s; 
in casa, in the house. 
ekie, 8. m. knak; Et. d. 
ebieane, 8. f. caviUing, chicanery; game 
of mall; L.Gr. rtvxovf'fw, to play 
at mall, zivyidviov, game of mall; 
Pers. tchaugan, racket* game of 

ebieaiiMr, v. a n to chicane, to ca- 

6tai6fl]iari«, s. f. chicanery, cavil. 

eliieaatBr, a.m. sa, s.f. chicaner, shuff- 

ehiMuler, to, adj. and s. cavillous, 

ebiche, adj. stingy; ciccum, trifle; 
comp tffifx^dff, small, opLtng^vi p, miser. 

eliieor^e, s. f chicory; cichorum. 

eUeot, 8. m. stump (of teeth), stub, 
8tump (of trees); see chiche. 

ehleotiii, 8. m. juice of bitter apple ; 
for sucotrin, a kind of aloe, so cal- 
led from the island ofSocotara. 

ehien^ s. m. ne, s. f. dog, hound; 0. 
F. chen; canis. 

eUendent, s. m. couch-grass, dogs 

frass; see chien and dent, verb, 
ogs tooth. 
ehiife, 8. f. ehiiron, s. m rag. Et. d. 
elUffonner, v. a. to rumple, to crum- 
ple, to ruffle. 

eUffomiler, s. m. rag-gatherer. 
ehiffre, s.m figure, number, cypher; 
Arab. 5 afar, empty. 
ehi£Ar8r, v. a. n. to cypher. 
ehignon, s.m. nape of the neck, hair 
twisted behind; O.F. chanignon 
for chaignon. chaine (see this). 
ebimdre, s. f. chimera; chimaera; 
xCy^cciga^ a goat, a monster. 
ehlm^riqne, adj. chimerical. 
ehimie, 8. f. cnemistry; Et. d. Diez 
givesArab. al-kimifi, whichhow- 
ever has no native root, others 
propose %viJL6g^ j"ice, or xwiu^ one 
of the names of Egypt, 
ohimiqne, adj. chemical. 
ohimi8t«, B. m. chemist. 
chinois, e, adj. and s. Chincese; F. 

Chine, China. 
ehlper, v. a. to pilfer; O.F. chipe, 
rag, strip; E. chip. 

chlqnenaude. b. f. fillip; Et. d. Aoc. 

toG6nin cnique, trifle, and small 

coin (see chiche), and nande, 

cont. of nasaude (nasus), like 

the Ge. nasenstilber, nase, 

nose, stiiber, a coin. 
ehiqner, v. a. to chew tobacco; cic- 
cum, comp. chiche. 
chiragre. s.f. chiragra, %HQiiyga, x^iq^ 

hand, dfy^a, catching. 
chirargie, s. f. surgery; x^^^^'^Qy^^^ 

Xi^Qi hand, igyov, work, 
chirorgieal, e, adj. surgical, 
ehimrgien, s. m. surgeon. 
ehlore, s. m. yellow- wort, chlorine; 

Xi'CHQosy pale. 
ehoc, B.m. collision, shock; Sp. cho- 

que; It. cioco; E. shock; Ge. 

ehocolat, s. m. chocolate; Mexican 

choco, cacoa, lattle, water. 

choeolatier, s. m. dealer in choco- 
ehoeolatiire, s. f. chocolate-pot. 
choeur, s.m. choir, chorus; chorus, 

choir, v.n. to fall; OF. cheoir; ca- 

dere, comp. chute. 
choisir, v. a. to choose, to select; 

Goth, kausian, to examine. 

ohoix, 8. m. cnoice. 
chOmer, v. n. to stand still, to rest; 
« see calme. 

oli6ittage, s. m. stoppage, standing 

ehopine, s. f. chopin (pint); Ge. 

chopper, v. n. to stumble; O.F. 

chope. log, stump; It. zoppo; 

Ge. scnupfen, to push. 
e1ioqtter,v.a to shock; Ge. schock en, 

E. to shock, see choc. 
ehoriste, s.m. chorist; chorus; comp. 

chose, s. f. thing, object; Prov. Sp. 

Port.It.cosa; causa, comp.cause; 

Ge. sache; E. sake, 
chou, s. m. cabbage, cole; O.F. chol; 

caulis, colis. 
ehonan, s. m. originally brown owl, 

later chouan, legitimist soldier in 

the first French revolution; Et. d. 

ace. to Littr6 perh. chat-huant, 

8. th. 
ehoncroute, s. f. sourkrout, pickled 

cabbage; corruption of the Ge. 

sauerkraut, sauer, sour, kraut, 


— 32a? — 

ehoaette, s. f. owl ; O.F. choe ; M.H. 

G. chouch^Ge.kants: E.chough. 
ehott-fleor, s. f. cauliflower; see 

chon ana fleur. 
ehoyer, v. a. to nursa; £t. d. 
Chretien, ne, adj. and s. Christian; 


chr6tienti, s. f. Christendom. 
. ehriitiaiiisnie, s. m. Christianity. 
ehromatique,^ adj. chromatic; xffto- 

(tatindg, xQ^I^'^j colour, 
ehromo-lithographie, s. f. chromo- 

lithography; tP'»f'*f» colour, litho- 
graphic, s. th. 
chronique, adi. chronic, chronical; 

XQOVLTiog, XQOvog time. 

ohnmique, s. f. chronicle. 
ehronologrie, s.f. chronology ; xQovoko- 

y^Uf a^poVoff, time, loyog, a discourse. 

chronologiqud , adj. chronological. 
chii, p. p. of choir, s. th. 
ehncboter, v. n. to whisper; O.F. 

chucheter; onom. imitation of the 

noise heard when people whisper; 

comp. chut, 
dmohotement, s. \n. olmchoterie , s. f. 

whispering, whisper. 
chut, int. hush; onom. 
chute, s. f. fall; see choir, 
ei. adv. here; same as ici (s. th.) 
cible-s. f. target; O.H.G. sciba; Ge. 

scneibe; E. snive. 
eiboire, s, m. ciborium; ciborium, 

%Lp6oQiov, the Egyptian bean, and 

a drinking cup made of its leaves. 
eiboiile, s. f. eschalot, young onion; 

caepuUa, dim. of caepa, Ge. 

zwiebel, E. chibbal. ^ 
eieatriee, s. f. scar, mark, cicatrix; 

cicatrix, -icis. 
oioatriser^ v. a. to cicatrize. 
cidre, s. m. cider; sic era. 
ciel, s. m. heaven, sky; coelum. 
cierge, s. m. taper, cierge; cereus, 

of wax, cera, wax. 
cigale, s. f. cicada, grass-hopper; 

eigare, s. m. segar, cigar; iSp. ci- 

garro, cigarra, grass-hopper 

(cicada) from the resemblance of 

the slender body of a grasshopper 

to a cigar. 

cigarette y s. f. cigarette. 
cigogne, s. f. stork; ciconia. 
eiguB, s. f. hemlock; cicuta. 
cily 8. m. eye-lash; cilium. 
oilier^ 7. a. to wink, 
efllement, s. m. winking, twinkling. 

eime, s. f. summit, top, cyme; cyma, 
shoot, germ. 

eiment, s. m. cement; caementum, 
a rough stone, caedere, to fell, 
oimenter, v. a. to cement. 

eimetidre, s. m. cemetry; coemete- 
r 1 u m, xotiiriTiiQiovy prop, place oi rest. 

cimier, s. m. crest; see cime. 

einabre, s. m. cinnabar; cinnaba- 
ris, HLvvd^ocQi'^ Ge. z in no be r. 

cin^raire, adj. cinerary, sepulchral; 
cinerarius, cinis, -eris, ashes. 

ciDgler, v. a. to lash, to shingle ; O.F. 
cingle, sangle, thong; cingulum. 

cingler, v. a. to sail; O.F. sigle, sail, 
Ge. segel, sail. 

cinnamome, s. m. cinnamomom; cin- 
namomum, KivvafiiofU)v, 

einq, adj. five; quinque. (cinque) 
cinqni^me, adj. and a. fifth, 
cinqaante, adj. fifty ; quinquaffinta. 
cinqaantaine, s. f. fifty, age of fifty, 
oinquanti^me, adj. and s. m. fiftieth. 

eintre, s. m. semi-circle, centre; see 
cintrer, v. a. to arch, to curve. 

ciragc, s. m. waxing, blacking ; see ci re. 

cireoncire, v. a. to circumcise; cir- 
cumcidere, circum, around, 
caedere, to cut. 
cironcieion, s. f. circumcision. 

eireonf^renee, s. f. circumference; 
circumferentia; circum-ferre 
to carry around. 

cireonflexe, adj. and s. m. circum- 
flex; cir cumflexus, p.p. of cir- 
cum -fleet ere, to bend round. 

eireonlocutioii, s. f. circumlocution; 
circumlocutio, -onis; circum 
about, lo qui,. locutum, to speak. 

cireonscription, s. f. circumscription; 
circumscriptio, -onis, circum- 
scribere, scriptum, see next w. 

cireonserire , v. a. to circumscribe; 

cireonspeet, e, adj. circumspect, cau- 
tious; circumspectus, p. p. of 
circum -spicere, to look about, 
specere, to look at. 
circonspection, s. f. circumspection, 
caution; circumspectio, -onis. 

cireonstaDCe, s. f. circumstance, par- 
ticularity; circumstantia; cir-: 
cum-stare to stand round, 
ciroonstancier, v. a. to detail, to state 

eirconyallation, v. f. circumvallation ; 
circumvallatio, -onis;circum- 

— 32y — 

vallare, to wall round, vallam, 

a wall, a rampart, 
elrenit, 8. m. circuit, circuitus; cir- 

cum-ire, to go round. 
etreolaire, adj. and s. f . circular ; c i r - 

cularis, circulus, see cercle. 
oirevlation, s. f. circulation; circu- 

latio, -onis. 
eiroulsr, v. n. to circulate, to go 

round; circular!. 
etre^ s. f. bees' wax, wax; cera 

(cere, cerate). 

oiier V. a. to wax, to black. 
. eirier, B. m. wax-chandler. 
eirque, s. m. circus; circus, xtpxog; 

Sansc. karkas. 
eiBeaiiyS. m. chisel, pi. scissors; O.F. 

cisel; E. chisel; scissus p. p. 

of scindere, to cut. 
eiieler, v. a. to carve, to sculpture, 

to chisel. 

«iBel««r, 8. m. carver, chaser. 
iUMlvre, s.f. carving, chasing, chas- 
ed work. 
eitadelle, s. f . citadel, tower; It. cit- 

tadella dim. of citta, see cit6. 
eltadlBy s. m. 6, s.f. citizen; It. cit- 

tadino, citta, city. 
eltfttion, s. f. quotation, summons, 

citation; citatio, -onis, see citer. 
eit6, s. f. city; It. citta; civitas, 

civ is, a citizen. 
f^ter^ V. a. to cite, to summon, to 

quote; c it are. 
eiteme, s.f. cistern; cist em a, cista, 

niatfj, a chest. 
eitoyen^ s. m. -ne, s. f . citizen ; see c i t e. 
^tron^B.m. citron, lemon; citreum. 
eitrouille, s. f. pumpkin; citreum, 

see prec. because of its colour. 
dve, civette, s. f. shive ; Prov. ceba; 

civet, s. m. hare-ragout. 
dvette^ s. f. civet; Ge. zibet; Med. 

Greek ianstrig ; Arab, z e b e d , scent. 
eividre, s. f. hand-barrow, litter; M.L. 

coeno-vehum, coenum, mud, 

vehere, to carry, 
civil, 6, adj. civil, polite; civilis, 

civis, a citizen, 
eivilisateor, trioe, adj. and 8. civilizing, 

eivilisatien, s. f. civilization, 
eiviliser, v. a. to civilize. 
eiviUt*, s. f. civility, politeness, at- 
tention; civilitas. 
elvique, adj. civic; civic us; civis^ 

flee prec. 

elabaud, s. m. babbler, (hunt.) liar; 
Ge. klaffen, to bark, klappen, 
to clap (claping, clap-trap), 
elabaader, v. n. to babble, 
olabaadage, s. m. babbling. 
elair, e, adj. clear, bright; clarus. 
olairet, adj. (of wine) pale-coloured. 
(E. claret). 

elaxri^re,8. f. glade (of forests). 
oloir-Min^, e, adj. thin-sown, (of plants, 

trees) thin; see semer. 
elairon, s. m. clarion; M.L. clario, 

-onis; clarus, clear. 
clairvoyant, e, adj. perspicacious, 
clear-sighted, clairvoyant; see clair 
and voir. 
clair-obscar, s. m. clare-obscure ; see 
clair and obscur. 
elairvoyanoe , s. f. clearsightedness, 
clameur, s. f . clamonr, outcry; clamor. 
clandestin, c, adj. clandestine, se- 
cret; clandestinuSjClam, secretly. 
clapir, (se), pr. v. (of rabbits) to 
run to burrow; clepere, to steal, 
elapier, s, m. clapper (a place for 
rabbits to burrow in). 
clapoter. v. n. to chop; Ge. klap- 
pen, E. to clap, clapper. 
claque, s. f. slap, clappers of the 

theatre, etc.; onomat. 
elaqoer, v. n. to crack, to clap. 
claqaemurer , v. a. to immure, to 
shut up, claque, and mur (s. th.). 
elarifler, v. a. and pr. to clarify, to 
clear; clarifi care; c larus, clear, 
fa cere, to make. 
clarifioatioxL s. f. clarification. 
clarine, s. t. bell (cow-bell); clarus, 
clear, because of its clear sound, 
elarinette, s. f. clarinet. 
. elart^, s.f. clearness; claritas, cla- 
rus; see clair (clarity).. 
classe, s. f. class, rank, order; class is. 
elasser, v. a. to class, 
olasiement, s. m. classing. 
olassifioation, s. f. class incation. 
elassiqae, adj. classic, classical. 
clause, s. f. clause ; M.L. clausa;clau- 
dere, clausum, to shut, to close. 
claustral, e, adj. claustral; claus- 

trum, see cloitre. 
clavecin, s. m. harpsichord; contr. 
from clavicymbalum, It. clavi- 
cemballo; clavis (comp. cla- 
vier), and cymbalum, cymbel. 
clavicttle, s. f. clavide, collar-boti^; 

— 33 — 

elaTler, s. m. key-board; clavis key; 
Ge. klaTier, harpsichord. 

clef, el6, B.f. key clavis; comp. nef 

el^menee, s. f. clemency, mercy; de- 

element, e, a^j. clement; clem ens. 

* clerc, 8.m. clerk; cleric us, xXif^cxoff, 

cleras, nXiJQog, clergy; originally a 

clerk in holy orders, 
elerg^, 8.m. clergy; clericatus; see 

elieher, ▼. a. to stereotype; Ge. klat- 

schen, to clack, 
elieh^, 8. m. stereotype-plate. 
client, s. m. e, s. f. client, customer; 

clientele, s. f. clients, patronage, bn- 

siness; clientela. 
. cligner, ▼. a. to wink; O.F. cliner; 

clinare to incline; to lean. 
climat, 8. m. climate ; c 1 i m a, Gen., - at is 

clin, s. m. wink; see cligner. 

clinique, ady. clinical; clinic us, nXi- 
vinog, yXCvji^ bed. 

eliniqne, s. f. clinical medicine, clini- 
cal surgery. 

elinciaant , s. m. tinsel, Dutch gold, 
glitter; Ge. klingen. to sound, to 
tingle (clinc^uant, cHnK). 

clique, s. i. clique, coterie; onom. like 
claque see this; F. cliquer, to 

cliqnetisl^s. m. din, clang of arms, 

cliyer, cleave ; M.H.G. klieben; 

A.S. cleafan. 
cloaqae, s. f. sink, cloaca; cloaca, 

cluere to wash. 
cloche, 8. f. bell, bell-glas£r; M.L. c 1 o c a ; 

O.G.H.clocca;Ge.glocke;E. clock, 
doclwr, 8. m. steeple, bell-tower. 
clocher, v. n. to limp, to halt; M.L. 

cloppicare; Ge. kloppen, to 

knock; comp. clopin. 
doison, 8. f. partition; closio, Clau- 
de re to close. 
clottre, 8. m. cloister; claustrum, 


clopin-clopant. adv. haltingly, hob- 
bingly;O.F.cio per, from O.F. clop, 
lame; M.L. cloppus; Ge. kloppen, 
klopfen to knock. 

clore, v.a. to close, to shut; claudere. 

clos, se, closed, part, of clore; clau- 
dere, past, part clausus. 

doierid, 8. f. small close. 

eldtoxt, 8. f. enclosure, close. 
doa, 8. m. nail, clove; clavus. 
doner, V. a. to naU, to confine; M.L. 

dab, 8. m. clnb; Engl. club. 
clysoir, s. m. enema, clyster-pump; 

mXviBiv to wash. 
dystdre, s. m. enema, clyster; xXv- 

CO, prefix, with, co; cum. 

coaguler, v. a. to coagulate; coagu- 
lare; comp. cailler. 

coaliser, v. a. to combine, to form a 
coalition; coalesce re. 

eoasser, v. n. to croak; coaxare. 

cobalt, 8. m. cobalt; Boh. kow, ore, 
kowalty, metallic. 

cocagne, 8. f. properly a sort of bread 
or cake, hence pays de cocagne, 
a country where every thing is to be 
had in abundance, m&t de cocag- 
ne, a greased pole for amusement 
at feasts; coquere to cook, £. co- 
kaygne, hence cockney prop, a spoil- 
ed cnild. 

cocarde. s. f. cockade, supposed to 
come nrom coq cocl^ because of it 
resemblance to a cocks comb. 

cocasse, a^j. laughable, funny; coq, 
see this and coquet. 

coche, 8. m. coach; conchula, con- 
cha shell, 
eooher, s. m. coachman, 
porte eoehire, s. f. carriage entrance. 

cochenille, s. f. cochineal ; coccinus. 

eochon, s. m. swine, pig; O.F. coche; 
Et. d. 

cMdionnerie, s. f. beastliness, filthi- 

coco, 8. m. cocoa, cocoa-nut, an Ame- 
rican word. 

cocon, 8. m. cocoon; see coque. 

cocotte, 8. f. hen; see coq. 

coco, 8. m. cuckold, variety of c o n c o u ; 
see this. 

code, 8. m. code, law; codex, 
eodidlle, s. m. codicil. 

coereitif, ve, adj. coercive; co-er- 
cere to force. 

coeur, 8. m. heart; It. cuore; cor. 

coffre, 8. m. trunk, box, coffer; co- 
phinus wtpivog, 

cognac^ 8. m. brandy, name of a 
town m France where the best bran- 
dies are produced. 

cogner, v. a. to knock in, to strike 
cuncus; see coin. 

— 34 — 

eohabiter, v. n. to cohabit; cohabi- 

coherent, e, adj. coherent, cohae- 

cohesion, s. f. cohesion, coherency; 

cohorte, s. f. cohort; cohors-tis. 
eobne, s. f. formerly country -court- 
house, now rout, crowd; M.L. co- 

eoi, te, adj. still, quit; quietus, 
coiffe^ s. f. hair-dress; M.L. cofea, 

cofia; cuphia; Ge. kappe (coiff). 
ooiffer, y. a. to dress the hair, 
edffenr, s. m. hair-dresser. 
MUfltare, s f. head-dress. 
coin, 8. m. comer, coin; O.F. coing; 

cuneus (quoin, coin). 
eoineider, ▼. n. to coincide; co-in- 

cidere, (cadere to fall). 
eoing:, s. m. quince; cydonia nvda- 

viov fruit, so called after the town 

Gydon in the isle of Greta, 
col, 8. m. neck, collar; coUum. 

eoldre, s. f. anger, wrath; cholera, 

%oXiqa^ bile. 
colibri, s. m. humming bird, probably 

a word of the language of the Garib- 

eolifichet, s. m. trinket, toy; see col 

and fichet. 
coHma^on, s.m. snail; cochlo-limax. 

eolique, s. f. colic ; c o 1 i c a xolixij, xco- 

lov intestine. 
eolis, 8. m. package; Et d. 
eoUaborer, to labour or work jointly; 

coUaboratenr, s. m. assistant, fellowla- 

bourer, contributor. 
collateral, e. collateral; collatera- 


collation, s. f. collation, slight repast; 
collatio, conferre. According 
to Ducange the signification slight 
repast, comes from the refrechments, 
the monks used to take after a „col- 
latio" or conference. 

eolle, 8. f. paste, glue; xdUa. 
eoller, y. a. to glue, to paste. 

collecte, s. f. collection; M.L. col- 

lecta; colligere,to collect, 
eollectaar, s. m. collector. 
eollectif, ve, adj. collectiye; collec- 

tiyns, collectus, colligere, to 

collection, s. f. collection; coUectio, 

see pr. 

coU^Src, s. m. college, grammar-school; 

collet, s.m. collar dim. of co 1 (see this). 

collier, s.m. collar, necklace; see cou. 

colline, s. f. hill, hillock, col lis. 

collision, s. f. collision, colli sic, 
collidere to stricke, to hit 

colloque, s. m. dialogue, colloquy, col- 

collusion, s. f. collusion; collusio. 

colombe, s. f. doye; columba. 

colon, s. m. cultiyator; colonist; colo- 

eolonie, s. f, colony, settlement; colo- 

colonel, s.m colonel; O.F. cor on el, 

the head oi the „c o 1 o n n e" ; see this. 
colonne, s.f. collumn, row; columns, 
eolonnade, s. f. colonade. 
colophane, s. f. colophony, rosin; co- 

lophonia rosin from colophon. 
coloquinte, s. f. colocynth ; c o 1 o c y n- 

color er, y. a. to colour; col or are. 
eokniB, 8. m. colouring, colour; see 

colosse, 8. m. colossus ; c o 1 o s a u 8, xo- 

colporter, y. a. to hawk, to peddle; 
see col and porter to carry round 
the neck. 

colza, 8. m. colza, rape; Ge. kohl cab- 
bage, saat seed. 

combattre, y a. to fight, to combat; 
see con and battre. H^ 
combat, s. m. fight, battle, combat. 

combien, ady. how muchj how many, 
' quantum bene, bene m the sense 
or instead of multum much. 

combiner, y. a to combine, to contrive ; 
combinare, bini two. 

comble, s. m. heaping, summit; cul- 
men (incumber). • 

eombler, y. a. to heap, to fill; cuniu- 
combustion, s. f. combustion, confla- 
gration; combustio, combustum, 
sup. of comburere. 
combustible, adj. combustible. 
com^die, s. f. comedy, theatre; co- 
moedia niofupd^a, 

comestible, adj. edible, eatable; co- 
mestum sup. ofcomedere, to eat. 

comdte, 8. f. comet, cometes, hoiitI' 
T1J5, xdfwy hair. 

eomique, adj. comic, comical; comi- 
cus xoofuxdff. 

— 35 — 

eomit^^ 8. m. committee, small party; 
comittere to delegate, to commit. 

commander, ▼. a. to command, to 
order; commendare, (mandare,) 
to confide, to transmit, and inM.L. 
to order, 
eommtxidite, s. f. commandite. 

comme, adv. as, like, quo modo; 
comp. comment 

commemoration, s. f. commemoration; 

commeneer, ▼. a. to begin, to com- 
mence; cum-initiare, initium 

commender, v. a. to commend, to re- 
commend; commendare. 

commensal, s.m. guest, boarder; com- 
mensalis, mensa, table. 

eommensorable, adj. commensurable; 

cum-mensurare to mesure with. 
comment, adv. how, what ; qu o m o d o, 

comp. com me. 
eommentaire, comment, commentary ; 

commenter, v. a. to comment; com- 


eomm^rage, s. m. gossiping; con- 
mere mother; see this. 

commerce, s. m. trade, commerce; 

eommdre, s. f. commother, female 
gossip; M.L. commater, seem^re. 

eommettre, ▼. a. to commit; com- 

eommlnatoire, a^j. comminatory; 
comminaterius, comminari, to 

eommis, s.m. clerck, shop-man; eom- 
mettre, see this. 

commiseration, s. f. commiseration; 

commissaire, s. m. commissioner, com- 
missary; see eommettre. 

commission, s. f. commission, errand ; 
see eommettre. 

commissionaire, s. m. errand porter, 

agent; see eommettre. 
eommode, ady. convenient, comforta- 
ble; commodus. 
Qommode, s. f. chest of drawers. 
Qommoditi, s. f. convenience, accommo- 
dation, water-closet. 

commotion, s. f. commotion, shock; 

commotio, movere to move. 
eommaer, v. a. to commute; commu- 

eommnn, e, acy. common, usual; com- 

eommime, s, f. commune, parish. 

eommimwiiftnt, adv. commonly. 

eommnniqiwry v. a. to communicate. 

commiiniime, s. m. communism. 
compaete, a4j • compact ; compactus, 

compingere, to press, to contract. 
compagne, s. f. female companion, 

consort; O.F. compaign; cum and 

p a n i 8 bread, who eats bread with you. 

eompagnie, s. £ company, society. 

compagnoii, s. m. companion, partner. 
comparaitre, v. a. to appear; com- 

parescere; see paraitre. 
comparer, v. a. to compare; compa- 


eompanison, s. f. comparison. 

comparativMiient, adv. comparatively. 
compartiment, s. m. compartment, 

O.F.compartir to distribute; com- 

compas, 8.m. compass; compassare 

to circle, 
compassion, s. f. compassion, mercy; 

compatir, v. a. to compassionate, to 

be compatible; com-patiri, lit. to 

suffer with. 

eompatible, acy. compatible. 
compatriote, s.m. and f. fellow coun- 
tryman or woman, compatriot; M.L. 

com^atriota, cum-patria; see 

eompenser, v. a. to compensate; com- 

pensare; see also recompenser. 
compaiBation, s. f. compensation. 
compare, s. m. god-feither, confederate; 

M.L. compater; see p^re. 
computer, v. n. to be due ;competere 
eompitent, e, adj. competent; com- 


eompititenr« s. m. competitor, compe- 
compiler, v. a. to compile; compilare. 
eomplaignant, e, adj. complaining; 

see comp.laindre. 
complaindre, v. a. to complain, like 

plaindre; see this; plangere. 

*) Orimm (Dictionary I. 335) says: The It. oomlnciare Pro?, comensar. Fr. 
commeneer is difficult to explain, it can scarcely be derived from inltiare, rather from in- 
cipere, notwithstanding the strange com. But ensar, encer lead imperatively back 
tocemmentare, oommentari, the meaning of which, to consider thoroughly, to invent, ap- 
proaches that of beginning* 


— 36 — 

complainte, s. f. lamentation, complaint, 
eomplaire, to please ; com-placere; 
see plaire. 

eomplaiiaat, e, adj. complaisant. 
eolhplement, s. m. complement ; com- 

complet,e, a^j. whole, complete; com- 

sompMter, v. a. to complete. 
eomplexe, adj. complex ;complexas. 
complice, s. m. accomplice, complex, 

cum-piicare to fold. 
compliment, s. m. compliment, com- 

pie re comply. 
eompliqaer, v. a. to complicate ; c om- 

complot, 8. m. plot; complicitam; 

see complice, 
eomporter, ▼. a. to admit of, se com- 
port er, pr. Y. to behave; compor- 
tare; see porter. 
composer, v. a. to compose, to com- 
pound; componere. 
eompositevr, s. m. composer, compo- 
sitor; compositor, 
eomposifion, s. f. composition; com- 
compote, s. f. stewed fruit ;composita, 

componere; comp. composer, 
eomprlhensible , comprehensible ; 
comprehensibilis; see com- 
eomprendre, v. a. to comprehend, to 
contain, like prendre (see this); 
. compresse, s. f. compresse ; p r e s s u s 
p. p. of pr em ere; see comprimer. 
comprimer, v. a. to compress; pre- 

mere to press. 
eompromettre, v. a. to implicate, to 
compromise; compromittere. 
eompromis, s. m. compromise; M.L. 
eomptahle, adj. accountable; see 

comptabilit^jS. f. accounts, book-keeping. 
compter, ▼. a. to compute, to calcu- 
late, to count; computare. 
eonpte, s. m. computation, account; 
M.L. computus, 
eomptant, adv. in cash, 
comptoir, s. m. counter, bar, office, 
compulser, v. a. to compel, to oblige, 
to inspect, to examine papers etc.; 
M.L. compulsare. 
comte, s. m. count, earl; comes, Gen. 
comtMie, 8. f. countess. 

comt6, 8. m. earldom, county; M.L. 

eoneaye, adj. concave; concavus. 
eone^der, v. a. to grant, to concede; 

eoncentrer, t. a. to concentrate; see 

conception, s.f. conception; concep- 

tio, concipere. 
coneerner, ?. a. to concern, to regard ; 

M.L. concernere, cerneretosee. 
eoneeirter, v. a. to concert; to settle, 

to practice for a concert; concer- 

tare, to fight, to struggle. 
coneert, s. m. concert, music. 
concession, s. f. grant, concession; see 

conecToir, ▼. a. to conceive; conci- 
pere, capere, to take. 

eonesTAbto, adj. conceivable. 

concierge, s. m. porter, door-keeper. 
Comte desCierges was the name 
of the commander of a building, erec- 
ted by Hugh Capet, and used as barraks 
and a prison, the „conciergerie^^ 

concilier, v. a. to conciliate, to recon- 
cUe; conciliare. 

concis, se, adj. concise; brief; conci- 
sus, concidere, caedere, tocut; 
comp. precis. 

eoncitoyen, s. m. fellow-citizen; con- 
citoyen, see this. 

eonelaye, s. m . conclave ; conclave 

coBelarje, v. a. to conclude, to close; 
conciudere, claudere, to close, 
eondniion, s. f. conclusion, end; con- 
clusio, conclusum sup. of con- 

eoneombre, s.f. cucumber; cncumis, 

Gen. cucumeris. 
Concorde, s.f. concord, harmony; Con- 
coneorder, v. n. to live in concord, 

to agree; concordare. 
eoneourir, v n. to concur, to compete; 

concoan, s. m. concourse, concurrence, 

competition; concursus. 
coneret, e, ac(j. concrete ; concretus, 

concurrence, s. f. competition; see 


concussion, s. f. peculation, bribery; 

eondamner, v. a. to condemn, to con- 
vict; condemnare. 

— 37 — 

condenser, v. a. to condense; con- 

eondeseendre, v. a. to condescend, to 
comply; condescendere, to des- 

eondiment, s. m. condiment; condi- 
mentum, condire. 

eondlseiple, s. m. condisciple, school- 
fellow; con-discipulus, discere, 
to learn. 

condition, s. f. condition, qaality ; c o n- 

condoI^ance,s.f. condolence; O.F.con- 
douloir, to condole; condolere. 

conducteur, s. m. leader, conductor; 
conductor (see next w.). 

conduire, v. a. to conduct; condu- 
eondnite, s. t conduct, .behaviour. 

cone, s. m. cone; conus, xotpog, 

confection, s. f. execution, confection ; 
confectio, conficere. 

conf6d6rer, v. a. to confederate ; con- 
faederare, foedus a compact; 
comp. federal. 

conf^rer, ▼. a. to compare, to con- 
fer; conferrer. 
conliirenee, s, f conference. 

confesser, y. a. to confess, to avow; 
confessari, freq. of confiteri. 

confier, v. a. to confide, to » trust; 

eoniiance, s. f. confidence, trust; con- 
oonfideiitiel, le, adj. confidential. 

configroration, s. f. configuration ; c o n- 
figurer; configurare. 

conflns, s. m. confines, borders; con- 

confire, ▼.. a. to preserve, to pickle; 

Gonfisenr, s. m. confectioner. 

confitare, s. £ preserve. 

conflrmer, v. a. to confirm; con fir- 

confisquer, v. a. to confiscate; con- 
fiscare, see fisc. 

conflagration, s. f. conflagration; con- 

conflit, s. m. conflict, collision; con- 
flictus, confligere, to shock. 

confluer, v. a. to be confluent; con- 

confondre, v. a. to confound, to con- 
fuse; coufundere, to mix together. 

conforme, adj. conformable, according 
to, congenial; conformis, of the 
same shape. 

conforteis v. a. to comfort, to strong* 
then; M.L. confer tare. 
emfmrt, s. m. help, comfort 

confrere, s. m. confriar, brother, fel- 
low-member of a society; I1I.L. con- 
frater; see frere. 

confronter, v. a. to confiront, to com- 
pare; frons, frontis, forehead. 

conAis, e, adj. confused, confounded; 
see confondre. 
conftidon, 9. l confusion. 

conftiter, v. a. to confute, to refute; 

cong6, s. m. leave, permission, dis- 

chai^e; O.F. conget; commeatus, 

permission to ^0, me are, to go; 

comp. singe, simia. 

•ongMier, v. a. to discharge, to dismiss. 

congeler, v. n. to congeal, to freeze; 
con-gelare; see geler. 

congesnon, s. f. congestion; conges- 
tio, congerere. 

conglom^rer, v. a. to conglomerate; 

conglomerare, glomus-eris. 
congratuler. v. a. to congratulate; 

congregatioi^, congregation; congre- 

gatio, grex, flock. 
congr^s, s. m.« congress; congres- 

sus, meeting, congredi. 
congru, e, adj. congruous, proper; 

coniqne, acy. conic; see cone. 

coi^ecture, s. f. conjecture, surmise; 

conjectura, conjicere. 
coi^oindre, v. a. to join, to conjoin, 

to unite; conjungere. 
eoi^aint, e, adj. joined, conjoint. 
eoBJonetion, s. f. union, conjunction. 
coi^oguer, v. a. to conjugate; con- 

coi^urer, v. a. to conjure, to entreat; 

connaissance, s. f. knowledge; ac- 
quaintance; see next w. 
connattre, v. a. to know; O.F. cog- 

noistre; cognoscere. 
eomiaissear, s. m. connoisseur, good 

connetable, s. m. constable, office of 

high dignity; O.F. conestable; 

comes stahuli like: master of the 

connexion, s.f. connexion; connexio. 

conniver, v. a. to connive, to wink; 

connate, adj. known; seeconnaitre. 

— 38 — 

eonqu^rir, ▼. a. to conqaer; conqui- 

eonqnerant, s. m. conqueror, 
eonqneto, s. f. conquest 
eonsaerer, ▼. a. to consecrate, to de- 
dicate; consecrare. 
eoDsangruiiiit^ , s. f. consanguinity; 
consanguinitas, sanguis, blood. 
eonseienee, s. f. consciousness, con- 
science; conscientia. 
eoBidendenx, m adj. consciencious. 
eonscription, s.t conscription; con- 
scriptio, con-scribere, to write 

eonierit, s. m. conscript (young sol- 
dier); conscriptus. 
eons^eration, s. f: consecration, dedi- 
cation; consecratio; comp. con- 
eons^eutif, Te, adj. consecutive; con- 

sequi, consecutum, to follow. 
eonseil, s. m. advice, counsel; con- 

coneiUar, v. a. to advise, to counsel. 
eonsentir^ v. a. to consent to ; c onsen- 

eonMntemont, s. m. consent. 
consequence, s. f. consequence; con- 

consequent, e, a^. consistent; con- 

conseryer, v. a. to preserve, to main- 
tain; conservare. 
eoniervtteiir, s. m. preservative, con- 

eonienratioB, s. f. preservation, conser- 

Mnserratoire, s. m. conservatory, aca- 
demy of music. 

eonierve, s. f. preserve, pickle. 
eonsid^rer, v. a. to contemplate ; c o n- 

eauidirable, adj. considerable, 
eoiudd^nuit, pres. part, and adj. con- 

wmndtation, s. f. consideration, regard. 
consigner, v. a. to deposite, to confine, 
to consign; con sign are. 
oondgnatioB, s. f. consignement, de- 
conngne, s. £ orders, instruction. 
consister, v. a. to consist ; consistere. 
eonsistanee, s. f. consistence, stability, 
eontiitoire, s. m. consistory ; c o n s i s t o- 
console, 8.f. consol, bracket; conso- 

lidare, (solid) see consolider. 
consoler, V. a. to console; conaolarL 

enuolattoi, s. f. consolation, comfort 

consolider, t. a. to consolidate; con- 

consommer, v. a. to consummate, to 
consume; consummare to finish. 
coMoiinnatiOii, s. f. consummation, ex- 

eomommi, s. m. gravy-soup (verb, per- 
fect soup). 

consomption, s. f. consumption; con- 
sumptio, consumere. 

consonne, s. f. consonant; con son a. 

consorts, s. m. pi. associates, husband 
and wife; consors-tis. 

conspirer, V. a. to conspire; cons pi- 
conipiratioii, s. f. conspiracy, plot 

constant, e, adj. constant, steady; 
constans, constare, to stand firm, 
oonitammtnt, adv. constantly. 
constanM, s. f. constancy, consistency, 

constater, v. a. to ascertain, to state; 
status, state. 

constellation, s. f. constellation; con- 

eonstemer, v. a. to dismay, to throw 
into consternation; consternare. 

constiper, v. a. to constipate; con- 
stipare to press. 

constituer, v. a. to constitute; con- 

oonititiiant, e, adj. constituent, 
eonititntioii, s. f. constitution, temper ; 

constmire, v. a. to build, to construct; 

eonstnietfliir, s. m. builder, construc- 

conitrnotion, s.f. building, construction; 

consul, s. m. consul; consul. 
, eoninlat, s. m. consulate ; consulatus. 

consultcr, v, a. to consult; consul- 
tare freq. of consulere to examine. 
eonraltati«n , s. f. consultation; con- 

consumer, v. a. to consume, to bum ; 

contact, s.m. contact, connexion; con- 
tactus, con-tingere to touch. 

contagion^ s. f. contagion, infection; 
contagio, con-tin^ere. 

contagieux, se, contagious, infectious ; 

contaminer, v. a. to contaminate ; c o n- 

conte, s.m. tale,, story; see center. 

~ 39 — 

eontempler, v. a. to contemplate; 

eontemporain, s. m. contemporary; 

eontenir, v. a. to contain, to keep; 

eontenaiiee, s. f. countenance. 

content, e, a^j. content, contented; 

contentus, continere. 
contenter, v. a. to content, to satisfy. 
contention^ s. f. contention, keeping; 

contentio, contendere. 
coBtentieoz, adj. contestable, s.^ m. 

affaire of litigation; disputed claims. 
conter, v. a. to relate, to tell, variety 

of compter; see this (like: count 

and account). 
contester, v. a. to contest; contes- 

tari, testis, witness. 
contexte, s. m. text, context; con- 

textus contexture; contexere. 
contigu^ e, adj. contiguous, ad[joining; 

contiguus, contingere. 

continent, s. m. continent; see con- 
tenir, what keeps together. 

contingrent, s.m. contingent; contin- 

continn, e, adj. continued, continuous; 

eontinner, v. a. to continue; conti- 

eontondant, e, adj. blunt; conton- 
dere; see contusion. 

eontorsion, s. f. contortion; contor- 
tio, contorquere to twist. 

contoumer, ▼. a. to sive a proper 
contour, to distort; M.L. contor- 
nare; see tourner. 
eontonr, s.m. outline, circuit, contour. 

contraeter, v. a. to contract; con- 
t^actare freq. of contrahere. 
contraetlcn, .s. f. contraction. 

contradietenr, s. m. contradicter, ad- 
versary; contradictor. 

contradiction, s. i contradiction; 

contradictoire, adj. contradictory; 

contraindre, ▼. a. to compel, to con- 
strain; contingere. 
eontrainte, s. f. compulsion, constraint. 

contraire, adj. tontrary, adverse ; con- 
trarius, contra, against, 
eontrarier, v. a. to contradict, to annoy. 

contraster, v. a. to contrast; It. con- 
trastare; M.L. contrastare, to 
make opposition. 

contrat, s. m. contract, agreement; 
contractus; see contractor. 

contrayention, s. f. contravention, 
infraction; contravenire; seecon- 

centre, prep. against, opposite to; con- 
tra (counter- act etc.). 

contrebande, s. f. contraband, smugg- 
ling; see ban. 

contreearrer, ▼. a. to thwart, to cross; 
centre ana carrer; quadrare, to 
square, to arrange. 

contredanse, s. f. quadrille; contre- 
danse; see danser 

contredire, v. a. to contradict; con- 

contr^e, s. f. country; M.L. con- 
trata; contra, the country before 
you, opposite (contra) to you. 

contrefaQon, s. f. counterfeiting, piracy 
of copy -right, imitation ; see next w. 

contreiaire, v. a. to imitate, to coun- 
terfeit, to forge; see faire. 

contrcmander, v. a. to countermand ; 
see mander. 

eontre-temps, s. m. mischance, dis- 
appointment; see temps. 

contrcTenir, ▼. a. to act contrarily, to 
offend; contra venire; see venir. 

contreyent, s. m. window -shelter; 

see vent. 
contribaer, v. n. to contribute; con- 

oontiibatiAn, s. f. contribution, con- 

contrister, v. a. to afflict, to grieve; 

contrit, e, adj. contrite; contritus, 

conterere, to crush. 
eontritioB, s. f. contrition; contritio. 

contrdle, s.m. control, contre-rdle 
(see this), a second roll, or list, to 
verify (control) the first. 

controaycr, v. a. to fabricate, to forge, 
to invent; see trouver. 

controyerse, s. f controversy; con- 

eontamace, s. f. contumacy; contu- 
macia, contumax. 

contusion^ s. , f. contusion, bruise; 
contusio, contundere. 

conyaincre, v. a. to convince, to con- 
vict; convincere. 

conyalescent, c, adj. convalescent; 

conyenablc, adj. proper, suitable; see 

next w. 

— 40 — • 

eonyenir, v. n. to agree , to suit, to 
be proper; convenire. 
coiiTeiitioii, B. f . agreement, convention. 

eonyerger, v. a. to converge; cum- 
verger e to verge. 

eonverser, v. n. to converse; conver- 

convariation, s. f. conversation; con- 

eonversion, s. f. conversion; conver- 
sio, convertere; see next w. 

eonvertir, v. a. to convert; conver- 
convert!, s. m. convert 

eonvexe, adj. convex; convexus, 

eonvietion, s. f. conviction; convic- 
tio see convaincre. 

convier, v. a. to invite; M.L. convi- 

eonvive, s. m. f. guest; con viva. 

convocation, s. f. convocation, sum- 
mons; convocatio; see convo- 

convoi, s. m. funeral, convoy, train; 
see conveyer. 

convoiter, V. a. to covet; O.F. covoi- 

convoquer, v. a. to convoke, to con- 
vene; convocare. 

conveyer, v. a. to convoy; M.L. con- 
viare; via, way. 

convulsion, s. f. convulsion; con- 

coop6rer, v. a. to cooperate; coope- 

coordonner, v. a. to arrange; o r di- 
nar e (coordinate, order). 

copeau, s. m. chip, shaving ; O.F. eou- 
peau, coupel, from coper = 
couper; see this. 

copie, s. f. copy; copia, quantity, 
copier, v. a. to copy, 
oopienz, le, adj. copious, ample; co- 

coq, s. m. cock; onomatopoeia. 

coque, s. f. egg-shell, shell, cockle, 
hull: concha. 

coquelicot, s. m. coquelicot, corn-pop- 
py, the cry of the coq, probably be- 
cause of the colour of the cocks 

coqueluche, s. f. formerly hood, now 
hooping cough; cucullus hood, it 
is said because of people, suffering 
from hooping cough, wear or aught 
to wear a hood. 

coquet, te, adj. coquetish; coq; see 

eoqnille, s. 1 shell ; conchy 1 ium ; woy- 

coqnin^ s. ro. knave, rogue; Et. un- 
certain. Diez proposes O.N. kok 
gulf, koka, to swallow, to devour. 

cor,8.m. com, horn; O.F.corn; cor nu. 

eorail, s. m. coral; corallium, xo- 

corbeau, s. m. crow, raven; O.F. cor- 
bel dim. of O.F. corb; corvus. 

corbeille, s. f. basket, wedding pre- 
sents, corbel; corbicula, dun. of 
corbis; 6e. kerb, 
eorbillard, s. m. hearse, properly: car- 
riage of wicker-work. 

corde, s. f. string, cord, rope; cho rda, 


cordelier, s. m. cordelier, gray-friar. 

cordial, e, adj. cordial, hearty; M.L. 
cordialis; cor, cordis heart. 

cordon, s. m. twist, string, cord, rib- 
bon; see corde. 

cordonnier, s. m. shoe-maker; O.F. 
cordouanier; It cordovaniere, 
£. cord-wainer from cordouan(3ee 
this) leather from Cordova. 

cordouan, s. m. cordovan, cord-wain; 
see prec. 

coriaee, adj. tough, miserly, cartila- 
gineous; coriaceus, from corium, 
skin, hide; comp. cuir. 

coriandre, s. m. coriander; corian- 
drum, %oQCav8qov. 

cornac, s. m. elephant -driver, show- 
man, Et d. 

eornallne, s. f. cornelian, cornelian 
stone, see next w. 

corne, s. f. horn; cornu. 
coni6, e, actj. homy, 
cora^e, s. f. comea. 
eoniette, s. f. mob-cap, comet, standard, 
comette, s. m. cornet, officer who 
bears the standard, 
eomiehon, s. m. comicle, gherkin. 

corneille, s. f. carrion-crow, crow; 
cornicula dim. of comix. 

cornemuse, s. f. bag-pipe, F. corner 
to trumpet; see corne; muse, mu- 
sette, (see this) bagpipe. 

corniche, s. f. cornice ; c o r o n i s xo^oo- 
viq the crowning. 

corollaire, s. m. corollary; cor oil a- 
rium, corolla, dim. of corona. 

corps, s. m. body, corps ^ corpus, 
eoxporatioii, s. f. corporation, 
corporel, le, adj. corporal, bodily. 

— 41 - 

corpulent, •, ad], corpulent, stout, 
eorpmeato, s. m. corpuscle. 
eorreet, e, adj. accurate, correct; cor- 

rectus, corrigere, see corriger. 
eorrMti<mel, 1«, a^. relative to misde- 
corr^latif, re 9 adj. correlative; see 

eorrespondre, v. n. to correspond, 

to communicate; con-respondere. 
corrMpondiaee, s. f. correspondence. 
corridor, s. m. corridor, gangway; It 

corridore from currere, to run. 
eorrigrer, v. a. to correct, to amend; 

corrigere, regere, to direct 
corroborer, v. a. to corroborate, to 

strengthen; corroborare, robur, 

corroder, v. a. to corrode; corro- 

dere, rodere, to gnaw. 
corroi- s. m. currying (of leather), 

puddung; see corroyer. 
eorrompre, v. a. to corrupt, to spoil; 

corrumpere, sup. corruptum. 
eorrosif, ve, adj. corrosive; see cor- 

eorroycr, v. a. to curry (leather) to 

puddle; O.F. conroi, preparation, 

arrangement; O.F. roi, ordre(inar- 

rois); O.H.G. reiti; comp. arrois. 
corruption, s. f. corruption; see cor- 

corsage, s. m. trunk, body of a dress; 

see corps. 
corsaire, s. m. privateer, corsair; It. 

corsare, corsale, course, see 

tMs; currere to run. 
corset, s. m. corset, bodice; see c rp s, 

body (like body and bodice). 
cortege, s. m. retinue, train, proces- 
sion; It corteggio. It corte, 

corr^e, s. f. base service, statute la- 
bour, corvee; M.L. c or vat a, formed 

from corrogata, meaning: order; 

rogare, to ask. 
corrette, s. f. sloop of war, corvet; 

coryphee, s. m. corypheus, leader; 

VLo^tpaios, noQVfpi], summit. 
cosm^tique, adj. cosmetic ; xoff/Ltijrtxd^, 

what adorns, xoafticD. 
cosmopolite, s. m. cosmopolite, citizen 

of the world, %o0iionoX£t7is, noofiog 


cosse, s. £ pod,^usk; shortened from 

ecosse; Ge. schote; £. sheath, 
costume, s. m. costume, dress; M.L. 

costuma, from con suet udo, cus- 
tom; comp. coutume. 
cote, s. f. letter to show the order, 

number, quota, share; quo t us. 
cOte, s. f. rib, sea-shore, coast; O.F. 

coste; costa. 
c6t6, 8. m. side, way, flank; O.F. c 08- 

tet; M.L. costatum*). 
coteav, s. m. hill, declivity. 
edtelette, s. f. chop, cutlet. 
coterie, s. f. coterie; see cote, 
cotillon, s. m. petticoat, cotillon ; O.F. 

cotte; E. coat; M.L. cotta. 
cotiser, v. a. to assess, to rate; see 

coton, s. m. cotton; It cotone; Ge. 

kattun; Sp. algodon from Arab. 

qoton, al-qoton the cotton, 
cottage, s. m. cottage. 
cou, s. m. neck; see col. 
couard, s. m. coward; cauda, tail 

(animals draw in the tail, when they 

are frightened). 
couther, v. a. to lay, to lay down, 

to couch, to put to bed; O.F. col- 

cher; collocare. 
coaci-couci, adv. so so, middling; imi- 
tation of the It cosi-cosi. 
coucou, s. m. cuckoo; cu cuius. 
coude, s. m. elbow, turn; cub i turn, 


eondte, s. f. arms-length, 
eondoyer, v. a. to elbow, to jostle. 
coudre, v. a. to sew; consuere**). 
coaler, v. n. to flow, to run, to trickle ; 

col are to filter. 

coalaat, e, adj. flowing, fluent, easy, 
couleur, s. f. colour; color. 
couleuTre, s. f. snake; colubra. 
coulisse, s. f. groove, coulisse; see 

couloir, s. m. filter; passage, lobby; 
• see couler. 
coup, s. m. blow, stroke; O.F. colp; 

colaphus, ii6Xaq>os punch. 
coupable, adj. guilty, culpable; F. 

coulpe; culpa sin. 
couper, V. a. to cut, to carve; see 

eonpe, s. f cutting, 
eonpe, s. f. cup; O.F. cope; cuppas 

cupa; see cuve. 

*) Comp. Pick on language p. 14. 
**) See Pick on language p. 47. 

— 42 — 

•onpi, s. m. compartment of a car- 
riage, small carriage. 

couple, s. m. couple, pair; copula, 

conplar, y. a. to couple, 
eonplety s. m. couplet (chain or series 
of verses) song. 

coupole, s. f. cupola;* It. cupola, from 
coppa; cuppa; see coupe. 

coupon, 8. m. remnant, part, coupon; 
see couper. 

cour, 8. f yard, court; O.F. court; 
M.L. cortis; chors, cors, -tis. 

courage, s. m. courage, gallantry; 
M.L. coragium; cor heart. 

courant, e, adj. running, current; see 

conrbatnre, s. f. lumbago ; see co urb e. 

courbe, s. f. curve; curvus. 
eonrber, v. a. to bow, to bend. 

coureaillet, s. m. cry of the qaail, 
quail-whistle; caille, see this. 

conrg:e, s. f. pumpion, pumpkin.; cu- 

courir, v. n. to ran, cur re re (cou- 

couronne, s. f crown, coronet; coro- 

courre, s. m. course (hunting). 

courrier, s. m. courier, messenger; 
see courir. 

courroie, s. f. leather strap; It cor- 
regia; corrigia, a shoe-tie. 

conrruux, s.m. anger, wrath; It. cor- 
ruccio contr. of colleruccio 
from cholera, bile, anger. 

cours, 8. m. course, flow, current; 
cursus, currere, to run. 

coarse, s. f. running, race, course; 
eonrner, s« m. steed, courser. 

court, e, adj. short; curt us. 
eouTBoxi, s. m. the shoot of a wine. 

courtage, s. m. brokerage; see cour- 

coorte-pointe, s. f. counterpane; for 
coulte pointe; culcita punc- 
ta, quilt-cover. 

courtier, s. m. broker; contr. from 
O.F. couratier; M.L. curatarius, 
from curatus, cura care; comp. 

courtille, s. f (antiq.) a small garden ; 
see cour. 

courtine, s. f. curtain; M.L. cortis 
(instead of aula) court. 

courtisan, s. m. e, f courtier, cour- 
tesan; see cour. 

courtoisie, s. f . courtesy; see cour. 

cousin, s. m. cousin; cos inus, conso- 

cousin, s.m. gnat; culicinus dim. 
of culex, gnat. 

eoussin, s. m. cushion ; culcita; comp. 
eouisinet, s. m. pad, cushion. 

couteau, s. m. knife; O.F. coltel; 
cultellus dim. of culter (cut). 
coutelaB, 8. m. m. cutlass. 

codter, V. n. to cost; O.F. c ouster; 
Ge. kosten; constare. 

coutil, s. m. ticking; O.F. coute, 
colte; culcita; comp. courte- 
pointe (quilt). 

coutre, 8. m. coulter; culter, -trL 

coutume^ s.f custom, habit; see cos- 

couture, s.f. sewing, seam; see cou- 
contnriere, s. f. sempstress. 

convent, s. m. convent, monastery; 
conventus; see convenir. 

couver, v. a. to brood, to cover, to 
smoulder; cubare (incubate). 

couver cle, s.m. cover, lid; co oper- 
culum, cooperire. 

convert, s. m. cover, fork and spoon ; 
coopertus; see couvrir. 

couvrir, v. a. to cover; O.F. covrir; 

eoavertnr«, s. f. cover; blanket/ gua- 
convrenr,. s. m. tiler, slater. 

crabe, s. m. crab; 6e. krabbe. 

crac, 8. m. cracking ; onomt ; 6e. k r a c h. 

cracner, v. n. to spit; onomt. 
craehat, s. m. spittle, star of an order 
of knighthood. 

craie, s. f. chalk; creta; It creta; 
Ge. kreide. 

craindre, v. n. to fear, to be afraid ; 
O.F. cremre, criembre, cremir; 
erainte, s. f. fear, aprehension. 

cramoisi, e, adj. crimson, scarlet; see 

crampe, s. f. cramp; Ge. krampf, 
krUmmen to bend, krumm, croo- 
ked, curved. 

crampon, s. m. clasper, cramp-iron; 
Ge. crampe see prec. 
Be cramponer, pr. v. to cling. 

cran, s. m. notch, crank; crena. 

crlne, s. m. skull, craninm; %qccvlov, 

crapand, s. m. toad; M.L. crabald&s ; 
Ge. kriepen, kriechen, to creep. 

— 43 - 

erapule, s. f. low debauched people; 
crapula, inQmndlfj. 

eraquer, v. n. to crack; see crac. 

erasse, adj. gross, thick; crassus. 

enste, s. f. mrt, nlth. 

eratdre, s. m. crater; crater, %^€cti}q. 

craTaehe, s. f. horse -whip; Buss, 
korhatsch; Ge. karbatsche. 

erarate, s. f. cravat, neck-cloth, from 
Groate, Croatian, the Groatians ha- 
ving introduced a sort of neck-cloth. 

crayon, s. m. chalk, pencil, crayon; 
see craie. 

er^anee, s. f. credence, credit, trust, 
debt; old form of croyance; cre- 
dens; O.F. errant, see croire. 
crtender, s. m. creditor, debtor. 

er^che, s. f. crib, manger ; O.F. c r e b e ; 
O.H.6. krippa; Ge. krippe; £. crib. 

credence, s. f. credence; M.L. cre- 
dentia; credere, to believe. -The 
wines and dishes used to be tasted 
before served, this tasting was called 
credence, later this name was gi- 
ven to the table, on which it took 

credibility, s.f. credibility; credibi- 
litas, credibilis. 

credit, s. m. credit; ere di turn, cre- 
dere, to believe. 

cr^dule, adj. credulous, easy; cre- 

erMnlit^, s. f. credulity; credulitas. 

er^er, v. a. to create, to produce; 

er^mailldre, s. f. pot-hanger, pot-hook ; 
M.L. cramaculus. 

erdme, s. f. cream; crema, cremor 

er^neau, s. m. battlement, embrasure; 
see cran. 
erfoeler, v. a. to embattle, to indent. 

er^ole, s. f. creole; Sp. criollo, cri- 
ar to produce^ creare. 

erdpe, s.m. crape; crisp us, crisped. 

er^paseule, s. m. twilight, crepnscu- 
le; crepusculum, creper, dark. 

cresson, s. m. cress, water-cress; M.L. 
cresso; Ge.kresse; crescere, to 
erow, because it grows so quickly. 

Crete, s. f. crest; crista. 

cretin, s. m. cretin, idiot; Et. d. 

ereuser, v. a. to hollow, to dig; see 

ereuset, s.m. crucible; see creux. 

creux, se, adj. hollow, empty; Et. d. 

crevasse, s. f. crevice; see crever. 

crever, v. a. to burst; ere pare. 
crevette* s. f. prawn, shripip; dimin. 

of crabe (see this). 
cri. s. m. cry, shout; see crier. 
erible, s. m. sieve; crib rum. 
eribler, v. a. to sift, to riddle, to pierce 
all over. 
crier, v. n. to cry, to scream; qui- 
niy s. m. cry. 

crime, s. m. crime, felony; crimen, 
cero, cerno. 
eiimlnal, It, adj. criminal. 
erin, s.m. hair, horse-hair; O.F. crine; 

crini&re, s. f. mane. ^ 
crinoline, s. f. crinoline. 
criquet, s. m. cricket (insect). 
erise, s. £ crisis; nqicig^ judgement, 

crisper, v. a. to shrivel; crispare 

crisser, V. a. to grate; O.F. croissir; 

It. crosciare. 
cristal, s. m. crystal; crystallus, 

critique, adj. critical; %ffiu%6gy ngivm 

to judge. 
croasser, v. n. to croak; crocire, 

x^oofflo, onomt. 
croc, s. m. hook, canine tooth; O.N. 

krokr; E. crook, crutch, 
eroe-en-jambe, s. m. tript dirty trick; 

see jam be, leg. 

crochet, s.m. hook, crochet, crotchet. 
crocodile, s.m. crocodile ; c r o c o d i- 

lus; nf^oHodsiXog, 
croire, v. a. to believe; O.F. ere ire; 

eroiser, v. a. to cross; see croix. 
eroiiede, s. f. crusade, 
croii^e, s. f. window, for fen^tre 

crois^e; see fen^tre window, 
croissant, e, adj. growing; see croitre. 
croissant, s. m. crescent; see croitre. 
crottre, v. n. to grow; O.F. croistre,, 

creistre; crescere. 
croix, s. f. cross; crux, crucis. 
eroquer, v. n. to crackle, to crunch, v. 

a. to crush with the teeth, to catch 

up greedily, to sketch; see croc, 
croqne-mort , s. m. undertakers man; 

see mort, death, 
croqoignole, s. f. fillip, cracknel, 
croqnii, s. m. sketch. 
crosse, s. f. crosier, butt-end of a 

musket, bat; Qe, krUcke crutch; 

E. crook. 

— 44 — 

erotte, s. f. dirt, mud; O.H.6. chot; 

Ge. koth; £. crottles. 
eronler, v. n. to fall in, to sink; O.F. 

crodler, crosier; cofotulare 

contracted in crotulare, crotlare, 

comp. rouler (roll). 
croup, s. m. cronp; E. croup. 
croupe, s. f. crupper, croup, rump; 

see gronpe. 

eronpier, s. m. partner (with a player), 
eronpion, s. m. rump, 
cronpir, v. n. to stagnate 
croftte, s. f. crust; O.F. crouste; 

crnsta; Ge. kruste. 
cronton, s. m. small crust, dauber (bad 

eroy able, adj . credible ; see c r o i r e. 
croyance, s.f. belief, creed; seecroi- 

cru, pass. part, of croire to believe 

(see this). 
cru, s.m. growth, vineyard; seecroi- 

era, e, adj. raw, crude; crudus. 
craaat^, s. f. cruelty; see cruel. 
cruche, s. f. pitcher, jug; O.H.G. 

chruoc; Ge. krug; E. krook. 
craelfler, v. a. to crucify; crucifi- 

emeiflx, s. m. crucifix, cross: crnci- 

flxus pass, part of crucitigere. 
erudite, s.f. rawness, crudeness, cru- 
dity; see cru. 
erne, s. f. rising, increase, growth; see 

cruel, le, adj. cruel; crudelis, cru- 
crural, e, adj. crural, femoral; cru- 

ralis, crus, cruris, thigh. 
crustace, e, adj. crustaceous; crus- 

taceus, crust a crust. 
crypte, s. f. crypt; x^vwroj hidden. 
cube, s. m. cube; cubus, %v§og. 
cneillir, v. a. to gather, to pluck; 

O.G. coillir; colligere, legere. 
cuiller, s. m. eullldre, s. f. spoon; 

Cttir, s. m. skin, hide, leather; ce- 

eniraase, s. f. cuirass. 
coire, v. a. to cook, to dry fruit, to 

bake; coquere (cook), 
enit, e, pass, part of cuire. 
eniiant, e, adj. smarting, sharp, 
euiiine, s. f. kitchen, cookery; M.L. 

. eniiiiiier, s. m. man-cook. 
eoiBiniire, s. f. cook. 

caisse, s. f. thigh, leg; coxa, 
caisson, s. f. cooking, roasting, baking ; 
see cuire. 

cnivre, s. m. copper; cuprum. 
eul, s. m. bottom, rump; cuius. 
cnlaiM, s. f. breech of iire-arms. 
enlbnter, v. n. to fall head over heels ; 
buter from but (see this) and cul. 
eol-de-sae, s. m. blind alley (verb, bot- 
tom of a sack). 
cullnaire, adj. culinary; culinarius, 

cul in a kitchen. 
culmlner, v. n. to culminate; culmi- 

nare, culmen, top. 
culotte, s. f. breeches; see cul. 
colotter, V. a. to put on breeches, 
to blacken a pipe. 

culpability, s.f.guilt, culpability; see 

culte, s. m. worship, religion, creed; 
cultus, colere; comp. cultura. 
eoltiver, v. a. to cultivate, 
culture, s. f. cultivation, culture. 

cumin, s. m. cumin; cuminum; xv- 
luvov^ Ge. ktimmel. 

cumuler, v. a. to accumulate; cumu- 
lare; comp. combler. 

cnn^iforme, acy. cuneated, cuneiform ; 
see forme, and coin; cuneus. 

cupide, adj. covetous; cupidus. 
cupidity, s. f. cupidity; cupiditas. 

curable, adj. curable; see curer. 

Curasao, s. m. Curasao, liquor from 
the isle of this name. 

cure, s. f. care, cure, living, parso- 
nage-house; cur a care, 
curi, s. m. the curate, the vicar; cu- 
rat us. 

cure-dent, s. m. tooth-pick; see cu- 
rer and dent. 

cur^e, s. £ quarry (hunt); cor heart 

cnrer, v. a. to cleanse, to clean; cu- 
rare, to take care of ; curer meant 
formerly to cure, to heal. 

curieux, se, adj. curious, eager; 
enriont^, s. f. curiosity. 

cursif, ve, adj. cursive; cursivus, 
currere, sup. cursum. 

cutan^, e, adj . cutaneous ; cutaneus, 
cutis, skin. 

cuTC, s.f. vat,tub; cupa; see coupe, 
euvte, s. f. vat full, 
envatte, s. f. basin. 

cycle, s. m. cycle, hvxIo^ circle. 
cyclope, s. m. cyclop; xvidanpy the 
round eyed. 

— 45 — 

eygrne, s. m. swan; cygnus; %v%9og. 
cyUn^e, s. m. cylinder; cylindrus; 

cymbale, s. f. cymbal; cymbal urn; 

cyniqne. adj. cynic, cynical ; c y n i c u s, 

eyprd8« s. m. cypress; capres8a;B 

czar, s.m. czar, a Slavonic 'word, pro- 
bably connected vrith Caesar. 
narowits, s. m. son of the czar. 


da. partic. indeed, forsooth ; O.F. diva, 
dea; va, an ancient inteijection 
(imperatif of all er, to go) strengthen- 
ed by di (impt. of dire to say). 

d'abord, adv. first, at first; see abord. 

daetyle. s. m. dactyle; dactylus 

dada, s. m. hobby-horse, rocking-horse, 
infantine exclamation, like: to dade 
a child, 
dadais, s. m. booby, blockhead. 

dagrae, s. f. dirk, dags of deer etc.; 
M.L. dag a, dagger; E. dagger. 

daguerreotype f s. m. daguerreotype; 
Daguerre the name of the inven- 
tor and type see this. 

dahlia, s. m. dahlia; Dahl a Danish 
botanist, to whom M. Cavanilles 
dedicated this plant. 

daigrner, v. n. to deign, to condes- 
cend; O.F. deigner; dignari. 

d'aillenrs, adv. oesides, moreover; 
see ailleurs. 

daiin9 8. m. deer; O.F. dain; cervus, 
daittt, s. f. doe, deer. 

dais, s. m. canopy, dais;. O.F. do is; 

dalle, s. f. flag-stone, flag, slice of a 
large fish;0.H.6. deilan; A.S. dae- 
lan; E. deal. 

damas, s. m. damask (linen etc.) Da- 
maskus blade; Damaskus, where 
it was first produced, 
damasqtdner, v. a. to damaskeen. 

dame, int well, indeed ; d o mi n a (the 

dame, s. f, married lady, lady, dame, 
rammer; domina. 

dander, s. m. draught-board ; see d a m e. 

damner, v. a. to damn, damn are. 

damoiseau, s. m. page; see dame. 

damoiselle, s. f. see demoiselle. 

dandlner, v. n. to waddle; Ge. tand, 
trifle, t&ndeln, to trifle, to play, 

dangler, s. m. danger; damnarium, 

dangertnx, se, adj. dangerous. 

dauH, prep, in, within; de int us. 

danser, v. n. to dance; O.H.G. dan- 
s d n ,\d i n s a n , to draw, to tug, dance 
meaning prop, a file, a string. 

dard, s.m. dart, sting; A.S. darddh; 
E. dart. 

darne, s. f slice of a large fish ; Cymr. 
and Brit, darn, piece; Sansk. da- 
ran a, division. 

dartre, s. f. tetter, eruption of the 
skin; E. tetter; Sans, dardru. 

date, s.f. date; datum Romae, con« 
eluding formula in documents etc 
dater, v. a. to date. 

datif, s. m. dative case; dativus, 

dare to give. 
datte, s. f date (fruit); O.F. dacte; 

dactylus; 6e. dattel. 

dattler, s. m. dat^tree. 
dauphin, s. m. dolphin; delphinus. 
dauphin, s. m. dauphin, formerly the 

title of the heir presumptif to the 

throne of France; Dauphin^, one 

of the French provinces. 
d'autant, adv. see a u taut. 
davantage, adv. more; d' a vantage; 

see avantage. 
de, prep, of, from; de. 
De, des, pref. the lat. dis, asunder, 

separated from, consequently : not. 
d6, s. m. thimble, die F. doigt; di- 
gitus finger; E. die. 
d^bftcler,^ V. n. to break up (of ice); 

see heeler. 

d^baller, v. a. to unpack de (dis) 

and balle; see this. 

d^ballage, s. m. unpacking. 
d^bander, v. a. to unbind, to unbend; 

dis-bande see this. 
d^barbooiUar, v. a. to wash the face 

of, to extricate, dis-barbouiller 

see this. 

d^barcaddre, s. m. wharf, landing 
place, terminus; see debarquer. 

d6barder, v. a. to unlade wood; see 

— 46 — 

d^ftrqaer, v. a. to land, to disem- 
bark, to unship; see barque. 

d^barrasser. v. a. to clear, to clear 
away, to disembarras; see barre. 

d^barrer, ▼. a. to unbar; see barr^. 

d^bat, 8. m. contest, debate; seede- 

d^battre, v. a. to debate, to discuss; 
see battre. 

d^bancher, v. a. to debauch; O.F. 
bauche, shop, workshop (Et d.); 
debauch er to lead one away from 
his workshop. 

d^bile, adj. debilitated; de bili s, cont. 
of de-habilis; see habile. 
dibiUti, 8. f. debUity, debilitas. 

d6blt, s. m. sale, market, debit; debi- 
tum, due, debere. 
dibiter, v. a. to sell, to retail, to debit. 

deblayer, v. a. to clear, to clear away; 
* M.L. debladare, bladum; see 

d^boire^ s. m. after-taste, bitter, mor- 
tification; de bibere; see boire. 

d^bonnaire, adj. compliant, easy; de- 
bon-aire; O.F. aire now air in 
the sense of temper; of good temper. 

d^border, v. n. to overflow; see bord. 

d^boneher, v. a to open, to uncork; 
see boucher and oouche. 

d^boorser, v. a. ft disburse, to ex- 

Send; see bourse, 
out, adv. upright, standing ; see b o u t. 

debris, s.m. remains, rubbish; see 

d^broidller, v. a. to disentangle, to 
clear up; see brouiller. 

d^bucher, and d^busquer, v. a. to 
start (hunt); see bois. 

d^but, 8. m. lead, first throw, begin- 
ning, outset, first appearance of ac- 
tors, debut; see but. 

de^a^ prep, on this side of; see 9 a. 

deea- (comp. in measure etc.) ten times 
the unit, ^ixa ten. 
dteade, s. f. decade, ten men, or ten 

decadence, s. f. decay, decline, deca- 
dence; M.L. decadere for deci- 
der e; cade re to fall. 

d^eamper, v. n. to decamp; see camp. 

d^eanat, s.m. deanery; decanatus, 
decanus; E. dean. 

decanter 4 v. a. to decant; Scheler 
suggests decan^ter fromcanette 
see this; E. decanter. 

d^capiter. v. a. to behead, to deca- 
pitate; M.L. decapitare; caput. 

d^eatir^ v. a. to spunge; see catir. 

d^e^der, v. n. to die, to decease; 
decedere, to go away. 

d^celer, v. a. to disclose, to reveal; 
see, celer. 

d^eembre, s. m. December; dec em- 
ber, decern, ten, the tenth month 
of the old Koman calendar. 

decent, e, adj. decent; decens, de- 

deception, 8. f. deception, deceit; de<» 
ceptio, decipere; comp. dece- 

d^eerner, v. a. to bestow, to confer; 

d^ei^s, 8. m. death, demise; deces- 
sus, decedere; see decider. 

d^eevoir, v. a. to deceive ; decipere. 

d^ehanter, v. n. to change one's tone, 
to lower one^s pretensions; de- 
chanter; see this. 

d^chargrer, v. a. to unlade, to dis- 
charge, to release; see charger. 

d^ch^anee, s. f. forfeiture; see d6- 

d^chet, s. m. waste, loss; see d^ choir. 

d^chilnrer, v. a. to decipher, to read 
at sight; see chiffre. 

d^ehirer, v. a. to tear, to lacerate; 
de, and O.F. eschirer; O.H.G. 
skerran, 6e. scheren, divide; 
E. shear, share. 

d^ehoir, v. n. to fall, to sink, to for- 
feit; decidere. 

dtehn, e, pres. part fallen, lost , for- 

deci- (comp.) the tenth part of a unit; 

decider, v. a. to decide, to persuade; 

deciaere, caedere. 
d^cime, s. m. decime, the tenth part 

of a franc; decimus. 
didmal, e, adj. decimal, 
dieimar, v. a. to decimate, to destroy 

(kill a great number), 
deeimitre, s. m. decimeter, tenth part 

of a meter (French measure). 
d6cisif, ve, adj. decisive; see decider. 
decision, s.f. decision; see decider. 
d^elamer, v. a. to declaim, to recite; 

declamare, clamare. 
declarer, v. a. to declare, to proclaim; 

declarare, clarus, clear. 

d^eliner, v. to decline; declinare. 
d^elive, adj. declivous, sloping; de- 
clivis, clivus, slope, 
dteliviti, s. f. declivity, declivitas* 

— 47 — 

d^eoetion, s. f. decoction; decoctio, 

coquere to cook. 
d^eoller, v. a. to behead, to unglue, 

see col and colle. 
d^colleter, v. a. to bare o's neck and 

shoulders, to wear a low dress; see 

d^eolorer, v. a. to discolour; de-co- 

lorare; comp. colorer. 

d^combres, s. m. pi. rubbish; M.L. 

combrus for cumulus; comp. 
' comble. 
d^conflture) s. f. discomfiture, havock, 

slaughter, ruin; see confire. 
d^eorer, v. a. to decorate, to adore, 

to kn^ht; decorare, decus, or- 
d^cortiqaer^ v. a. to decorticate, to 

bark; decorticare, cortex the 

d^eornm, s. m. decorum, propriety; 

d^coueher, s. n. to sleep out, to stay 

out all night; see coucher. 
d^eoudre, v. a. to unsew; see coudre. 
d^couler, V. n. to How gently and con- 

tinually, to run down; to trickle. 
d^conper, v. a. to cut up, to carve; 

see couper. 

d^eouragrer, v. a. to discourage, to 
dishearten, to deter; see courage. 

deeonyrir, v. a. to uncover, to dis- 
cover; see couvrir. 

d^erasser, v. a. to clean, to wash off 
tiie dirt; see crass-e. 

d^erediter, v. a. to discredit; see 

d^cr^pit, e, adj. decrepit; de crepi- 
tus, crepare, to rattle, to crack. 

d^cret, s. m. decree; decretum, 
dtariter, y. a. to decree, to enact. 

d^erier, v.*a. to cry down, see crier. 

d^crire, v. a. to describe; descri- 
bere; see 6crire. 

d^erocher, v. a. to unhook, to take 
down; see accrocher and croc. 

d^croitre9 v. n. to decrease, to dimi- 
nish; see croitre. 
dkroiiianM, s. f. decrease, diminution. 

d^crotter, v. a. to brush off the dirt, 
to brush, to clean; see crotte. 

decuple, a4j. tenfold; d ecu plus. 

d^daigrner, v. a. to scorn, to disdain; 
see daigner. 

d^dale, s. m. maze, labyrinth; daC- 
daXog, Daedalus, proper name of 

the artist, of Cnossus in Crete, 
maker of the labyrinth of Crete. 

dedans, adv. inside, in, within; de- 
dans, see this. 

d^dier, v. a. to dedicate; de die are. 
dMieaea, s. f. dedication, inscription; 
dedicatio, dedicare. 

d^dommager, v. a. to indemnify, to 

compensate; see dommage. 
d^duire, v. a. to deduct, to infer; de- 

dMnetion, s. f. deduction, inference; 

d^esse, s. f. goddess; dea. 
d^faillir, s. n. to fail, to decay; see 

d^faire, v. a. to undo, to annul; M.L. 

defacere for deficere ; see faire. 
d^ftdte, 8. f. defeat. 

d^falquer, s. a. to deduct, to defal- 
cate; falx see faux, or according 
to Diez: O.H.6. falgan to take 

d^faut. s. m. defect, fault, failure; 
see a e faillir. 

d6fectif, ve, adj. defective; defec- 
tivus, deficere, to fail, 
dtfectnanz, ••, adj. defective. 

d^fendre, v. a. to defend, to forbid; 
dtfenie, s. f. defense, prohibition. 

d^f^rer, v. a. to confer, to send over, 
V. n. to defer, to pay deference, to 
comply; defer re. 
d^f^ronce, s. f. deference. 

d6fet, s.m. waste, waste sheet; defec- 
tus, deficere. 

d^fi, s. m. defiance, challenge; see 

deficit, s. m. deficit, deficiency; defi- 
cit, deficere. 

d^fler, v. a. to defy, to challenge; 
M.L. diffidare. 

defier, se, pr. v. to distrust; diffi- 

d^flgurer, v. a. to disfigure, to de- 
face; see figure. 

d6fller, v. a. to unstring, v. n. to de- 
file; see fil and file. 

d^finir, to define, to determine; de- 

definitif, ve, adj. definitive, decisive, 

d<Aagration, s. f. deflagration; de- 

d^fleurir, y- ^' to deflour ; deflorere, 

to cease to blossom. 

— 48 — 

d^florer, V. a. to defloar; deflorarCi 
d^foneer, v. a. to stave (a cask), to 

stave in; see fond. 
d^former, v. a. to defonn, to distort; 

defrayer, v. a. to defray; see frais. 
d^fricher, v. a. to clear (agr.) to ccd- 

tivate; see friche. 
d^froquer, ▼. a. to unfrock ; see froc. 
d^fiint, e, adj. deceased; defunct us, 

defungi, to die. 
(L€g»gerj v. a. to redeem, to clear 

(from obstruction), to disentangle, to 

free; see engager and gage. 
degainer, v. a. to unsheathe; see 

d^gftt, s. m. ravage, devastation, ha- 

vock; O.F. degater; see gSiter. 
d^geler, v. a. to thaw; see geler. 
d^elt s. m. thaw. 
d^g^n^rer, v. a. to degenerate; de- 

cenerare, genus. 
degorger, v. a. to clear, to overflow, 

to cleanse, se d. to disgorge; see 

d^gourdir, v. a. to restore the circu- 
lation (to a part benumbed), se d. 

to get sharp ; O.F. gourd, sti£^ clum- 
sy; ff Urdus, a dolt. 
d^godt, s. m. distaste, disgust; see 


dflgoAtaat, e, a^. disgusting. 
d^goutter, v. n. to drop,' to drip ; see 

d^grrader. v. a. to degrade, to debase ; 

degraaare, gradus. 
d6grafer, v. a. to unhook; see agra- 

d^griiisser, v. a. to take the fat out, 

to clean, to scour; see graisse, 

and engraisser. 
d^grainenr, s. m. scourer. 
degr6, s. m. step, stair, degree; de- 

d^gringoler, v. n. to tumble down, 

to fall; £t. d. 
d^griser, v. a. to sober, to cool; see 

d6gaenlll^9 e, adj. ragged, in rags; 

see gnenille. 
d^gaerpir, v. a. to give up, to quit, 

to abscond; O.F. guerpir, wer- 

pir; M.L. guerpir e to abandon, to 

quit; Goth, vairpan; Ge. werfen 

to throw; E. warp, 
d^guiser, V. a. to disguise; see guise. 
d^guster, v. a. to taste (wines etc.); 


d^hont^, e. adj. shameless, nnbluBh- 

ing; see nonte. 
dehors, adv. outside, out ; O.F. d e f o r s ; 

see hors. 

d^ifier, v. a. to deify; M.L. deifi- 

care; deum facere. 
d^isme, s. m. deism; deus. 
d^iste, s. m. deist; deus. 
d^it6, s. f. deity, divinity; M.L. dei- 

tas for divinitas; deus. 
d^jl^ adv. already; O.F. desjk, des 

(see this) ; O.F. j a; jam ; comp. j adis, 

d^jeter, (se) pr. v. to warp (wood), 

to deviate; dejicere. 
d^'Mtion, s. f. dejection, ejection; de> 

lectio, dejicere. 
d^euner. v. a. to break-fast, to break- 
fast; M.L. disjejunare; see jeti- 


d^joaer, V. a. to counteract, to baffle; 
see jouer. 

dell^ prep, beyond, on the other side 
of; de Ik (see these). 

d^labrer, v. a. to tear to rags, to 
shatter; see lambeau. 

d^lai, s. m. delay; see delayer. 

d^laisser, v. a. to abandon, to for- 
sake; de-laisser (see th.) 

d^lasser, v. a. to .refresh; de-lasser; 
see las. 
dilaiiemfliit, s. m. repose from fati- 
gue, relaxation, recreation. 

d^lateur, s. m. informer, accuser; de- 
lator (deferre). 

d^laver, v. a. to dilute, to defer; M.L. 
dilatare; differre. 

delayer, to delay; M.L. disliquare; 
liquare to make liquid. 

d^leeter, v. a. to delight; delect are. 

d^l^guer, V. a. to delegate; delegare. 

d616tdre, adj. deleterious; drjlvitrlQ ^ 
destroyer Srilioficci. 

d61i][»6rer, v. n. to deliberate; deli- 
berare, libra, balance. 

d^lieat, e, adj. delicate, tender; de- 

• licatus, deliciae. 

delices, s. £ pi. delight ; *d elici a e. 
dilicianz, ae, adj. delicious. 

deli^, e, adj. slender, slight; d e li- 
catus; corap. pli^ =^ plicatus. 

duller, V. a. to untie, to release; dis- 

ligare; see Her. 
delimiter, v. a. to fix, to settle the 

limits; aelimitare, limes-itis. 
delineation, s. f. delineation; deli- 

neare, linea. 

— 49 — 

dtflinf aant, s. m. delinquent, offender; 
delinqaens. delinquere, to fidl. 

d^lire, 8. m. aelirium, frenzy; deli- 

d^lit, 8. m. misdemeanour, delin- 

auency; delinquere. 
iTTor, y. a. tolree; M.L. delibe- 

d^logrer, ▼. a. to unhouse, to turn out, 

to dislodge; see loser. 
. d^oyal, e. a^j. disnonest, unfair; 

see loyal. 

diloyintA, s.f. dishonesty, unfairness. 
d^lngre, 8. m. flood, deluge ; d i 1 u ▼ i u m, 

d^magrogrue, s. ro. demagogue; di^jua- 

ytoyog a popular leader; oi^liiog, mob, 

<9fyo>, to lead. 
domain, adv. to-morrow ; It. d o m a n i ; 

piane, morning. 
demander. v. a. to ask, to demand; 

d^manger, v. n. to itch ; see manger, 
dtouoigoaiion, s. f. itching. 
dtoanteler, v. a. to dismantle; see 

d^mantibuler, v. a. lit to break the 

jaw-bone, to break, to put out of 

order; mandibula, jaw-bone. 
demarcation, s. f. demarcation; see 

demarquer and marque. 
dtoarehe, s. f. gait, step, proceeding; 

O.F. d^marcher to move; see 

dtoarquer, v. a. to take away the 

mark of; see marquer. 
d^marrer, v. a. to unmoor; see 

d^masquer, v. a. to unmask; see 

d^m^Ier, v. a. to unmingle , to disen- 
tangle, to discern; see rodler. 
d^membrer, V. a. to dismember, to 

dispoint; see membre. 
d^menager, v. a. to remove (change 

residence); see manage. 
d^mence, s. f. insanity, madness, de- 
mentia; dementia. 
d^mener, (se) pr. v. to throw one- 
self about, to struggle; see mener 

ddmentir, v. a. to give the lie to, to 

deny; dementi re. 
ctomenti, s. m. lie, contradiction. 
d^m^riter, v. n. to demerit; see m6- 

d^m^sare, e, a^j- immoderate; see 


d^mettre, v. a. to dislocate, to dis- 
miss; see mettre. 

demeurer, ▼. n. to reside, to stay, 
to remain; demorari, morarL 
dsmeure, s.f. residence, abode, delay; 

demi, e, a4j. half, demi; dimidius. 

demission, s. f. resignation of func- 
tions; see demettre (dismiss). 

d^mocratie, s. f. democracy; di}fM- 

demoiselle, s. f. younff ladv, girl, single 
woman, paving-beetle; O.F. damoi- 
selle; aominicella, dim. of do- 
mi n a (damsel). 

d^moiir, V. a. to demolish, to break 
up; demoliri, moles a pile. 
dfanoUtioa, s. f. demolition; demoliri. 

d^mon, s. m. demon, devil; daemon; 
dteumiaqM, a^j. demoniac. 

d^mon^tiser, v. a. to withdraw mo- 
ney firom circulation; mono ta; comp. 

d^monstrateur, s m. demonstrator; 
demonstrator; comp.demontrer. 

demonstration, s. f. demonstration; 
demonstratio; comp. d6mon- 

d^monter, v. a. to dismount, to dis- 
joint; see m outer. 

demontrer, V. a. to demonstrate, to 
prove; O.F.demonstrer; demon- 

d^moraiiser, v. a. to demoralize; see 

d^mordre, v. n. to let go ones hold 

Swhen bidng), to give up; see mor- 
d^naturer, v. a. to alter the nature 

of, to disfigure, to misrepresent; see 

d6n6gation, s. f. denial; denegatio 
d^nieher, v. a. to take out of a nest, 

of a niche, to turn out, to find out; 

see nicher. * 
denier, s. m. denarius (a Roman coin), 

denier, money; denarius. 
denier, v. a. to deny; denegare. 

comp. nier. 
d^nigrer, v. a. to disparage, to vilify; 

denigrare, niger, black. 
d^nombrer, v. a. to number; denu- 

d^nommer, v. a. to denominate, to 

name; denominare. 
d^noneer, ▼. a. to denounce, to ac- 
cuse; dennntiare. 


— 50 — 

d^Qoter, T.a. to describe, to denote; 

deDOtare, nota, a signe. 
d^noner, t. a. to untie, to solve; see 
nouer and noeud. 
dtootbne&t, s. m. issue, denouement, 
denr^e, s. f. food; M.L. denariata, 
of the value of a denarius; see 
dense, a4i- dense; den bus. 
densiti, s. f. density; densitas. 
dent, 8. i. tooth; dens, gen. dentis 

dentelle, s. f. lace, lace-work, 
dentifrioe, adj. dentifirice; dentifri- 
cium, dens, fricare, to rub. 

d^nuder, vi a. to denudate, to de- 
nude; denudare, nudus naked. 

dinner, v. a. to deprive, to atrip (of 
necessaries); denudare. 
dtotxnent, s. m. destitution, depriva- 

d^arelller, v. a. to make incomplete, 
to spoil; see appareiller. 

d^partir, v. a. to dispense, to dis- 
tribute, se d., pr. V. to desist, to 
depart; O.F. despartire; dispar- 


depart, 8. m. departure, partinff* 

d^partement, s. m. distribution, depart- 
ment, province. 

d^passer, v. a. to pass, to go beyond, 
to exceed; see passer. 

d^payser, v. a. to put into another 
country, to send away from home; 
see pays. 

d^p6ser, cut up, to dismember; 
instead of depi^cer; see pi^ce. 

d^p^eher, v. a. to dispatch, se d. pr. 
V. to hasten, hurry; see emp§cher. 

d^pelndre, v. a. to depict, to des- 
cribe; depingere; comp.peindre. 

d^pendre, v. a. to unhang (see pen- 
dre,) v.n. to depend; dependere. 

d^pens, 8. m. expense, costs; O.F. 
despendre,de]^endre, to expend; 
dispendere, p. p. dispensus. 

d^pense, s. f. expenditure, outlay; 

see prec. 
d^penser, v. a. to expend, to spend, 

see d^pens. 
d^perdltion, s. f. deperdition, loss; 

d^p^rir, v. n. to perish, to decay; 

d^p^trer, v. a. to disentangle, to 

extricate; O.F. depestrer, cont 

of dep&turer; M.L. paMorium 

horse-lock; pasci to feed; corap. 

depenpler, v. a. to depc^ulate; see 

depiler, v. a. to depilate; depilare, 

pilus hair. 
depister, v. a. to track; see piste, 
d^pit, s.m. despite, spite; O.F. des- 

pit; despectns, despicere, to 

look down. 
d^plaeer, t. a. to displace, to mis- 
place; see placer. 
deplaire, y. n. to displease; see 

plaire. . . 

diplaisir, s.m. displeasure ; seeplaiBir. 

d^plier, v. a. to unfold; displicare; 

comp. plier. 
d^plorer, v.a. to deplore ; deplorare. 
d^ployer, ▼. a. to unfold, to unroll; 

d^plumer, v. a. to unplume, to pluck; 

depopulation, s.f. depopulation; de- 

deporter, v. a. to deport, to transport 

(a felon); deportare, to carry oflE. 
d^pwtation, B.f: deportation; depor- 


dAp<Hrt6niaat, s. m. misconduct. 
d^poser, v. a. to set down, to depose, 

to deposit; deponere, p.p. depo- 

situs. -. 

dipoiitaire, s. m. depositary, guardian. 

dipoiitioxi, 8. f. deposition, evidence. 

d^t, s. m. deposit, store-nouse. 
d^poss^der, v. a. to dispossess; see 

D osB^der 
d^pooiller. v. a. to unclothe, to strip, 
to despoil, to plunder ;despoliare. 

d^nille, s. f. spoil, remains, booty. 

diponiUement, s. m. spoliation, ascer- 
taining the result (of a ballot). 
d^poorvoir, v. a. to unprovide; see 

d&poiunni, e, adj. unprovided, devoid. 

depraver, v. a. to deprave; depra- 

vare. , . , 

deprecation, s. f. deprecaUon; de- 

precatio, precari to pray. 
depreeier, v.a. to depreciate, to un- 
derrate; depretiare, pretium, 

depredation, s. f. dei)redation, malver- 
sation; depredatio, depraedari; 
O.F. depreder, praeda, booty. 

depression, s.f. depression; depres- 
sio, deprimere, to preas down. 

diprimer, v. a. to depress; deprimere. 

— 51 — 

d^priser, v. a. to ondezralae, to 
underrate ; see p r i s e r. 

d^puis, prep. £rom, since; de-po8t 
comp. pais. 

d^piirer, y. a. to deporate; depu- 

d^puter, T. a. to depute; deputare, 
to allot 

diputatitii, s. f. deputation. 
diputA, 8.m. deputy, member of Par- 

d^radner, ▼. a. to uproot, to extir- 
pate, to eradicate; see racine. 

d^railler, v. n. to run off the rails; 
see rail. 

d^raison, s. f. unreason, irrationality, 
infatuation; see raise n. 

d^rangrer, v. a. to derange y»to. dis- 
turb; see arranger and ranger. 

derechef, adv. again, over again; see 

d6r6gleT, v. a. to disorder, to de- 
range; see r^gler. 

d^risiou, 8. f. derision; derisio, ri- 
de re, to laugh. 

d^river, v.n. to originate, to derive; 
derivare to draw off, rivus, a 

dernier, idre, adj. last, highest, mea- 
nest; cent of O.F. derrenier for 
derrainier; O.F. derrain last; 
de retro backwards; comp. der- 
riere (rear). 

d^rober, v. a. to steal, to rob, to 
deprive, to hide; O.F. rob er; M.L. 
raubare; see robe (to rob). 

d^rogrer, v. n. to derogate, to con- 
descend; derogare, to repeal a 
part of a law, rogare to propose 
a bill 
derogation, s. f. derogation. 

d^rouler, v. a. to unroll, to display; 
see rouler. 

d^route, s. f. rout; O.F. desroute; 
disrupta, disrumpere, to rout 
d&rottter, v. a. to put out of one's 
road, to perplex, to baffle; see route. 

derridre, prep, behind; de -retro 
(rear); comp. dernier and arri^re. 

des, art. pi. of the, of, some, cont of 
dels pi. of del; see du. 

d^s, pref. see; d^. 

d68, prep, from; de ex. 

d^saboser, v. a. to undeceive, to disa- 
buse; see abuser. 

d^saeeord, s. m. disagreement, di8« 
cord; see accord. 

d^sagrr^able, a^j. desagreeable, un- 
pleasant; see agr^able. 

dek^rr^ment, s. m. disagreeable cir- 
cumstance, unpleasantness; see agr^- 

d^salt^rer, v. a. to quench the thirst; 

see alterer. 
d^appointer, v. a. to disappoint; see 


d^sarrol, s. m. disarray; see arroi 
d68astre, s. m. disaster; see astre. 
deseendre, v. n. to descend, to go 
downstairs, to alight ; descender e. 
dMwente, s. £ descent 
deseriptloB, s. i description; descrip- 

desert, e, desert, unfrequented ; d e s e r- 
tus, deserere, to leave, to desert. 
dAitrt, 8. m. wilderness, desert; de- 

diterter, v. a. to desert, to leave, 
dterteur, s. m. deserter. 

d^sesp^rer, v. n. to despair; see es- 


d^Mipoir, 8. m. despair; see espoir. 
d^shabiller, V. a. to undress; see ha- 

d^sh^riter, v. a. to disinherit; see 


designer, v. a. to designate, to point 
out; designare, to mark out, sig- 
num, mark. 

desinence, s. f. desinence, ending; 
desinentia, desinere, to cease. 

d^sirer, v. a. to desire, to wish; de- 
desir, s. m. desire, wish. 

d^sister, (se) pr. v. to desist, to waive; 

dAsoenYre, e, a^j. unoccupied, unem- 
ployed ; O.F. e u V r ^ , occupied ; see 

d^Boler, V. a. to lay waste, to deso- 
late, to grieve; desolari, solus, 

d^sormais, adv. henceforth, hereafter; 
d^s-ore-mais; O.F. ore; bora, 
hour; mais(8ee this); mag is more; 
verb, from this hour more or for- 
wards; comp. dor^navant 

despote, s. m. despot; dsanoTrig^ a 

dess^eher, v. a. to dry, to dry up; 
de-sicare, siccus, dry; comp. sec 
and s^cher. 

desaein, s. m. drawing, design, inten- 
tion; same as des sin; see dessiner 


— 52 — 

dessert, s. m. dessert; d^s-sert; 

see next. 
desserrir, v. a. to remove from table, 

to clear away, to officiate in a 

church; see servir. 
dessieeation, s. £ dessication, drying; 

see dess^cher. 
dessiller, ▼. a. to open the eye-lids, 

to open; prop, deciller; see oil. 

dessiner, v. a. to draw, to design, to 

sketch; O.F. dessigner; desig- 

nare; comp. designer, 
desiin, s. m. drawing, pattern, 
dessinatenr, s. m. draughtsman. 
dessons, adv. under, underneath; de- 

subtus: comp. sous. 
dessus, adv. on, upon, above; de-su- 

sum instead of sur sum; comp. sus. 

destiner, v. a. to destine, to fate, to 
purpose; destinare, to fix, to de- 

dMtiii, s. m. destiny, fate; destina^ 
destination, s. f. destination. 

deitinte, s. f. destiny, &te. 

destitner, V. a. to dismiss, to remove; 
destituere, to set down; to aban- 
don; statu ere, to set up, to place. 
destitnA, e, adj. destitute, devoid. 

destruetear, s. m. destroyer; des- 

. tructor, destrnere to destroy; 
comp. d^truire. 

destruction, s. f. destruction; des- 
tructio, destruere. 

desuetude, s. f. disuse, desuetude; 
desuetude, desuescere, to di- 

detacher, v. a. to detach, to untie; 
see attacher. 

d^tailler^ v. a. to cut up, to detail, 
to retail; see tailler. 
detail, s. m. detail, retail. 

d^taler, v. a. to take in goods expo- 
sed for sale, to pack up: see Sta- 

d^teindre, v. a. to take out the co- 
lour; v. n. the colour to come off; 
see teindre. 

d^teler. v. a. to unharness, to un- 
yoke norses etc.; see atteler. 

diHendre, v. a. to unbend, to loosen, 
to uncock fire-arms, de-tendere 
to stretch. 

ditente, s. f trigger of fire-arms, de- 
tent of clocks. 

d^tenir, v. a. to detain, to keep; 
detinere, tenere to aold. 

detention, s. f. confinement, imprison- 
ment, detention; detentio. 

detenu, s. m. prisoner. 

d^terger, v. a. to cleanse, to deterge; 

d^t^riorer, v. a. to deteriorate; de- 

teriorare, deterior, worse. 
determiner, v. a. to determine, to 

settle, to persuade; determinare, 

to bound, to limit 
dittrmination, s.f. determination; de- 

d^terrer, v. a. to unearth, to dian- 

ter, to find out; see enterrer and 


d^tester, v. a. to detest, to abhor; 
dete|tari, to invoke a deitv in 
cursing, to detest, testari, to be a 

d^toner, v. n. to detonate ; d e to nar e. 

d^tonner, v. n. to sing out of tune; 
see ton. 

d6tordre,v.n. to untwist; seetordre. 

d^torquer, v. a. to distort; detor- 
quere, to turn off. 

d^tortiller, v. a. to untwist, to un- 
ravel; see tortiller. 

d^tourner, v. a. to turn off (the road) 
to divert, to turn away; to embezzle; 
O.F. destourner; see tourner. 

detour, s. ro. turning, turn, round about 

way, subterfuge. 
d^traeter, v. a. to detract, to slander; 

detractare, to draw back from, 

to depreciate, de-trahere to draw 

d^tvaqner, V. a. to derange, to disor- 
der; see trac and traquer. 
d^tremper, v. a. to dilute, to weaken, 

to soften steel; see tremper. 
d^tresse, s. f. distress, misery; OJ*. 

destrece; districtio, stringere, 

to draw tight 
detriment, s. m. detriment, prejudice; 

detrimentum, de, off, terere, to 


detroit, s. m. narrow, strait, sound; 
M.L. districtum; strictus, nar- 
row: stringere, comp. 6troit 

detruire, v. a. to destroy; de-stru- 
ere, struere to build; comp. con- 

dette, 8. f. debt; debitum, what is 
owing; debere to owe. 

denil, s. m. mourning, grief: O.F. du- 
el, dull, dol, from O.F. doloir; 
dolere, to pain. 

— 53 — 

deux, acy^two; O.F. dnez, dai, etc; 

dewd^iiM, a^. second. 
d^Taliser, v. a. to rob, to plunder, 

to rifle; see valise. 
deraneer, v. a. to precede, to dis- 
tance; see devant 
devanoier, s. m. predecessor, pi. an- 

deyant, prep, before; de-avant (see 

d^Taster, v. a. to devastate, to spoil; 
devastare, vastus, waste. 

d^velopper, v. a. to unwrap, to de- 
velop; It viluppo, bunnie; Et 
d. Richardson suggests de-vol- 
vere to roll; comp. envelopper* 

d^venlr, v. a. to become; de venire, 
to come to. 

d^yergrond^, e, adj. dissolute, shame- 
less; see vergogne. 

divers, prep, (antiquated) near; par 

devers before; de-vers (see this). 
devers, e, adj. inclining, not upright; 

d^Tider, v. a. to wind, to wind off 

into skeins; vider, to empty (see 

this), meaning, to empty the spindle 

as it were. 
d^vier, v. n. to deviate; deviare, 

via, way. 
devin, s. m. diviner, a foreteller; di- 

vinus, divinare, to divine, 
deviner, v. a. to divine, to guess; 

devineroMe, s. f. a female diviner. 

devis, s. m. estimate, specification; 
see deviser. 

d6vi8ager9V. a. to disfigure, to tear 
the face of; see visage. 

devise, s. f. device, motto; see devi- 

deviser, v. a. to talk, to chat; divi- 
dere, divisum, to divide, in the 
sense of detailing. 

d^voiement, s. m. relaxation; see de- 

d^Toiler, v. a. to unveil, to display, 

to disclose; see v oiler. 
devoir, v. a. to owe; debere (debt), 
devoir, s. m. duty, respects, task. 
devolo, adj. vested, devolved; devo- 

lutus, devolvere. 
d^vorer, v. a. to devour; devorare. 
d6vot,e, adj. devout, devotional; de- 

devotion, s. f. devotion; devotio. 

deyon^r, ▼. a. to devote^ to dedicate; 
devotare, freq. of devovere. 
d^von«mint,s.m. devotion, self-devotion . 

d^voyer, v. a. to mislesid; see voie. 

dexterity s. f. dexterity ; dexteritas, 
dexter, dexterous. 

diable, s. m. devil; diabolus, didpo- 
log, traducer, cfldumniator. 

diaboliqae. aclj. diabolical, devilish; 
diapoU%og. • 

diaere^ s. m. deacon ; diaconns, did- 
novog, a servant. 

diadi^me, s. m. diadem; diadema, 
diddriiuic a band. 

diagonal, e, adi. diagonal ; d iag o n a 1 i s, 
diayojnoff, which goes from one angle 
to another, dia, through, ymviu^ angle. 

dialeete, s. m. dialect; dialect us, 

dialogne, s. m. dialogue; dialogus, 

diamant, s. m. diamond; ad am as, 
adamantis; dddftag^ dddiutinog. 

diamdtre, s. m. diameter; didpLttgog. 

diametral, e, adH. diametrical. 

diantre. s. m. deuce ; euphemism for 

diapason, s.m. diapason, pitch, tuning- 
fork; dianaamv expressing the oc- 
tave of the Greeks, Sid, through n&g, 
all, the octave including all tones. 

diaphane, adj. diaphanous, transpa* 
rent; Siatpavijg, 

diaphragme, s. m. diaphragm, did- 

diaprer, v. a. to variegate, to diaper 
It. diaspro, jasper; Worcester 
thinks it „corrupted from d'Ypres 
in Flanders, being the original place 
of the manufacture of diaper. 

diarrh^e, s. f. diarrhoea; Std^foia, 
did through, (ion, to flow. 

diatribe, s. f. diatribe; diatQipif, a 
wearing away, a pastime, dtof, through, 
tQipm, to wear. 

dietatenr, s. m. dictator; dictator. 

dieter, V.' a. to dictate; diet are, frcq. 
of iicere, to say. 

dietion, s. f. diction ; di c ti o , di c e r e, 
to say. 

diotionnaire, s. m. dictionary; M.L. 

dicton, s. m. saying ; dictum, dicere. 

didactiqae, adj. didactical; Sidecnzindg. 

di^rdse, s. f. diaeresis; dia^eaig, a 

didse, s. m. diesis, sharp (in music); 
S^6^g, the name given to the smu- 

— 54 — 

lest interral need in the mnsic of 
the ancient Greeks. W. 

di^te, 8.f. diet; diaeta; S^ita^ way of 

di^te, 8. f. diet, assemhly; dies, day. 
In the middle ages dies meant the 
day fixed for an official meeting, 
and later the meeting itself. 

dien, s. ro. fspA, dei^; O.F. deu; 

diffamer, v. a. to defame, to slander; 
diifamare, faiba, reputation. 

diir^rer. v. a. to defer, to delay, ▼. n. 
to diner; d iff err e. 
difBhrenee, s. f. difference; differen- 
tia, differre. 
dittireDd, s. ro. difference, 
dlfll&rent, e, a^j. different. 

diffieile,adj. difficult, hard; difficilis. 
difflonlti, B. f. difficulty; difficnltas. 

difforme, adj. deformed; defer mis. 

.difVas, e, a^. diffuse; diffusus, dif- 

dig^rer^ v. a. to digest; digerere, 
to divide, to separate. 

dige8te9 8.m. digest; digesta, dige- 
rere, digestum. 
digestion, s. f. digestion; digestio. 

digitale, s. f. digitalis; foxgloYo; 
digitalis, digitus, finger. 

digue, a4j- worthy, dignified; dignus. 
dignitain, s. m. officer of state, dig- 
dignit^ 8. f. dignity; dignitas. 

digression, s. f digression; dig res- 
si o, digredi, to go apart. 

digne, s. f.'dam, dyke; D. dijke. £. 

dilae^rer, ▼. a. to dilacerate, to tear; 

dilapider, v. a. to waste; dilapidare, 
lapis, stone. 

dilater, ▼. a. to dilate, to expand; 
dilatare, freq. of differre-di- 

dilemme, s. m. dilemma; Silriftfut, dig, 
double, XapkiSdvm, to take. 

dilettante, s. m. dillettante; It from 
It. dilettare; dele ctare, to delight 

diligent, e, adj. expeditions, spe^y, 
diligent; diligens. 
diligwice, s. £ expedition, speed, di- 
ligence (stage coach); diligentia. 

diluTien, ne, adj. diluvial; diluvium, 

dimanehe, 8 m- Sunday^ O.F. die- 
menche;d^®s dominica. 

dime, 8. f. tithe; O.F. disme; M.L. 
decima, the tentii part. 

dimension, s. f. dimension ; dim en si o, 
dimetiri, to measure. 

diminuer, v. a. to diminish; dimi- 
nuere, minus, less. 

dimiutttioBfS. f diminution; di m i n a ti o. 

dinde, s. f. turkey; for d'Inde, a 
fowl from India. 

dindoa, s. m. dim. turkey, fowL 

diner, v. n. to dine; O.F. disner, 
disgner; decoenare, coena, 

dlB^, 8. f dinner, used in aprSs- 
din6e| afternoon; see apr^s. 
dlaer, s. m. dinner. 

dioedse, s. m. diocese; dioecesis, 
6iohifi6ig, dig, apart, oUim, to dwell. 

diphthongue, s. f. diphthong; 9i<p^' 
yog, diff, double, fp^iyyoyMi, to utter. 

dipldme, s. m. diploma; d^sXiofMr, any- 
thing folded double, dinXooq, double, 
diplomata, s. m. diplomatist 
diptomatie, s. f. diplomacy. 

dire, v.a. to say, to speak; O.F. dis- 
re; dicere. 

direet, e, a4j. direct; directus, di- 
rigere, to direct 
direotevr, s. m, director; director, 
direetriee, s. i directress, 
direction, s. f, direction; directio. 
direotoire, s. m. directory; directo- 

diriger, v. a. to direct, to manage; 
dirigere, regere, to guide, to con- 

dis, pref. the lat dis, expressing 
separation or opposition. 

diseerner, v. a. to discern; discer- 
discomement, s. m. disceruement. 

disciple, s. m. disciple, follower; dis- 

discipline, s. 1 discipline ; d i s c i p li n a. 

discord, adj. out of tune, discors- 
ordis, cor, heart, 
disoorde, s. f. discord; discordia. 

discourir, v. a. to expatiate, to dis- 
course; M.L. discursus. 
disooon, s. m. discourse, speach, con- 
versation; discursus. 

discret, e, a^. discreet; discretus, 
discernere, to discern, 
discretion, 8. f. discretion, prudence. 

disculper, v. a. to exculpate, to exo- 
nerate; M.L. disculpare, culpa, 
a fault 

discnterf v. a. to discuss; discut ere, 

— 65 — 

to strike asunder, to scatter; qna- 
tere, to strike, to shatter, 
dlsiciision, s. f. discassion ; discassio. 
disert, e, adj. fluent, copious; diser- 

disette, s. f. dearth, poverty; disecta^ 
cut off p.p., di-secare to cutoff 

diagrrace, s. f. disgrace, disfavour; 
see dis and grace, 
disgzaeitr, v. a. to disgrace, to put 
oat of favour. 

disloindre, v. a. todi^oin; see join- 

disloqaer, v. a. to dislocate; M.L. 
disiocare, locus place. 

dlsparaltre, v. n. to disappear; see 
disparitioii, s. f. disappearance. 

disparate, a^j. incongruous, unlike; 
disparatus, disparare to sepa- 

disparity, s. f. disparity, dis -par, 

dispendieux , se. a^j. ex^nsive, 
costly; dispenaiosus, dispen- 
dium, expense, dispendere. 

dispenser, v. a. to exempt; dis-and 
pensum, a task, a duty. 

disi^enser, v, a. to dispense, to dis- 
tribute; dispen«are, to deal out 

dispensaire,8.m. dispensatory, dispen- 

disperser, v. a. to disperse; disper- 
gere, dispersus. 

dispersioii, s. i. dispersion. 

disponihle, a^j- disposable, unenga- 
ged; disponere, to dispose. 

disposer, v. a. to dispose ; disponere. 

dii^oi,aaj. agile, nimble ; di sp o situs. 

dispotitioB, s. f. disposition; dispo- 

dlsputer, v. a. to discuss, to dispute; 

aisputare, to discuss. 
disque, s.m. disk; discus, dArxoff, a 

dissection, s. f. dissection; dissec- 

tio, dissecare. 
diss^miner, V. a. to disseminate; dis- 

seminare, semen, seed, 
dissension, s. f dissension; dissen- 

sio, dissentire. 
diss^quer, v. a. to dissect, dissecare. 

disserter, dissert; disertare. 
dissertation, s. f. dissertation ; di ss er- 

dissident, e, adj. dissenting; dissi- 

dens, who sits apart, sedere, to sit 

dlsalinvler, ▼. a. to dissemble, to con- 
ceal; dissimulare. 

dissiper, v. a. to scatter, to disperse, 
to dissipate; dissipare, dis-sn- 
pare to throw. 

dissola, e, a^j. dissolute, profligate; 
dissolutus, dissolvere. 
dissolntieii, s. f. dissolution. 

dissoner, v. n, to be dissonant, dis- 
cordant; dissonare. 
dlssonawee, s. f dissonance. 

dissoudre, v. a. to dissolve; dissol- 

dissovs, p. p. of dissoudre; dissol- 
ved; dissolutus p. p. of dissol- 

di88iiader,v. a. to dissuade; dissua- 

distant, e, a^j. distant, far; distans, 

distare, to stand apart 
distanoe, s. f. distance; distantia. 
lUstendre, to distend; distendere. 
distiller, v. a. to distil; distillare. 
distingrner, v. a. to distinguish; dis- 
diitinet, e, a^j. distinct 
distinetion, 8. f. distinction. 
disUqae, s. m. distich; dicti%ov^ dtg^ 

double (fr/xeg, row. 
distrae^on, s. f. inattention, absence 
of mind, recreation; distractio, 

distraire, v. a. to distract, to divert; 

distrait, e, a^j. inattentive, absent; 

distribuer, V. a. to disMbute; distri- 

distribution, s.f. distribution; distri- 

district, s. m. district; M.L. dist ric- 
tus, aistringere, to bind. 

dit,s.m. saying maxim; dictum, sup. 
of dicere; see dire. 

dithyrambe, s. m. dithyramb; dithy- 
rambus; didvQaf^Bos. 

diorne, adj. diumai; diurnus, dies, 

divagrner, v. n. to ramble, to stray; 

divan, s. m. divan, ottoman (couch); 
Pers. and Arab, diwan, the earliest 
acceptation, in wich it is found em- 
ployed, is that of a muster-roll, or 
military pay-book. 

diverger, v. n. to diverge ;divergere; 
comp. converger. 

— 66 — 

dlTers, e, a^j. diverse; diyersne, di- 

versus, divertere. 
diywiioiiy B. f. diversion; 
divexsiti, 8. f. diversity; diversitas. 
divertir, v. a. to divert to embessle, 

to entertain; divertere, to turn 

different ways. 

divertiMemfl&t, s. m. entertainment, 

divldende. s. f. dividend; dividenda 

(pars), toe part to be divided; divi- 

dere, to divide. 
divin, e, adj. divine, heavenly; divi- 


divinity, 8. f. divinity; divinitas. 
diviser, v. a. to divide, to separate, 

dividere, divisum. 
division, 8. f. division, partition; divi- 

divoree, s. m. divorce; M.L. divor- 

tium; divertere, to turn away. 
divalgrner, v. a. to divulge; d i vul- 
gar e, to spread among Uie people; 

vulgus, people. 
dix, adj. ten; O.F. dez, deix, dex; 


dixitoM, adj. tenth, 
dizaine, s. i. ten, half a score. 
docile, adj. docile, manageable; do- 

cilis, docere, to teach. 
dock, s. m. dock; E. dock, 
docte, a4j. learned; do ct us, p. p. of 

docere, to teach, 
doetenr, s. m. doctor; doctor, 
doctorat, s. m. doctorate, doctorship. 
doctrine, s. f. doctrine; doctrina. 
document, s.m. document, title-deed; 

documentum, docere. 
dodu, e, adj. plump: Et. d. 
doge, s. m. doge; It. doge; dux, duke. 
dogme, s. m. dogma; ddyita, that 

wich seems true, an opinion. 
dogne, s. m. house-dog; E. dog. 
doigrt, s. m. finger; O.F. deit, doit; 

doi£^, V. n. to finger. 
doit ^ 3^ person s|ng. Pros. Ind of A e- 

voir; see this. 
del, s. m. cozenage, covin; dolus, 

dol^ance, s. f complaint ; see next w. 
dolent, e. adj. doleiul, mournful ; d o- 

lens, do lore, to suffer; comp. in- 
doler, V. a. to chip with an axe; do- 


doloire, s. f. chip-axe. 
dollar, s. m. dollar; Ge. thaler, so 

called from the German, thai, a 
dale, a valley; because they were 
first coined at Joachimsthal (Ut 
valley of Joachim) in Bohemia. 

domaine, s. m. domain, demesne, large 
estate; O.F. demaine, demoine; 
dominium, property. 

dOme, s. m. dome; dcofta or dofiogf a 

domestique, adj. domestic, tame; do- 

domestique, m. and f. servant 
dmiMtieit^ 8.1 servants, tameness of 

domicile, s. m. residence, abode, do- 
micile; domicilinm, d om us, house. 

dominer, v. n. to rule, to sway, to do- 
mineer; dominari. 
dominant, e, dominant, ruling, predo- 
minant; dominans. 

dominical, e* dominical; M.L. domi- 
nicalis; aominicus; dominua, 
a lord. 

domino, s. m. domino; Sp. domino, 
the hood of a monk. 

dommage, s. m. damage; O.F. dama- 

ge; M.L. damagium; damnum, 

dompter, v. a. to subdue, to break 
or tame animals; O.F. donter; E. 
daunt; domitare. 

don, 8. m. gift, present, donation; 
donation, s. f. donatio, dona re. 

done, coDJ. then, therefore; tunc. 

donjon, 8. m. castle-tower, donjoti, 
dungeon ; O.F. d o n g e o n ; according 
toDiez Ir. duna fortified place. 
(A.S. dun a hill: W.). 

donner, v. a. to give; don are (donA- 
donn^, s. f notion, information, a fact. 

dont, pron. whose, of which; de unde. 

dor^navant, adv. henceforth; O.F. do- 
resenavant; de-ore-en avant 
O.F. ore hour; comp. d^sormaiS, 
lit. from this hour forward. 

dorer, v. a. to gild; de-aurare; 
comp. or. 

dormir, v. n. to sleep; dormir6, 

dortoir, s. m. dormitory; do r mi to- 
ri um. 

dorsal, e, adj. dorsal; dorsualis, 
dorsum, the back. 

dos, s.m. back: It dor so; dorsum, 
dossier, s. m. oack of seats, bundle 
of papers. 


— 57 — 

dose, 8. f. dose, portion; d6aig, a gi- 
ving d^miti, to give. 
dot, 8. f. dowry, dos-dotis. 

dotation, 8. f. endowment, dotation. 

doter, y. a. to endow. 

douaire, s. m. dower, marriage -settle- 
ment; M.L. dotarium, dos. 

douBiri^re, s. f. dowager. 
douane, s. f. custom-duty, custom- 
bouse; It dogana; Arab, divan, 
addiv4n, council, and pay-book; 
comp. divan. 

double, a4j. double ; d u p 1 u s ; dinlovg. 

doabler, v. a. to double, to line clo- 
tbing, to sheath ships. 

doublure, s. f. lining, substitute (theat). 

douce, adj. f. of don x (see this) sweet 

domtemaat, adr. sweetly, softly, gently ; 
see doux, douce. 

doaoerevz, se, a^j. insipidly sweet ; see ' 

dpueeur, s. £ sweetness, softness, dou- 
ceur, a present 

douebe, s. f. shower-bath, douche; It 
doccia, docciare, to flow, to pour 
out; ducere, to conduct 

douer, v. a. to endow, to gift, to fa- 
vour; same as doter; dotare; see 

douillet, te, acy. soft, downy, effemi- 
nate; O.F. douille, soft; ducti- 
lis, ductile, ducere. 

doulenr, s. f. pain, dolor; dolor, 
douloureaz, le, adj. painful. 

douter, v. a. to doubt, se d. to sur- 
mise, to presume, to suspect; du- 
donte, s. m. doubt 

doutenz, se, adj. doubtful, dubious, 
questionable. « 

douve, s. i stave of casks; M.L. do- 
va; doga, cask; 6e. daube. 

doux, ee, adj. sweet, soft, gentle, dul- 
cet; dulcis. 

dooze, acy. twelve; cont of d node- 

cim (dozen), 
doiuaine, s. f. a dozen. 

dousiime, adj. twelfth. 

doven, s. m. oldest member, dean; 
decanus; comp. noyer = ne- 

drachme, s. f. drachm, a Greek silver- 
coin, a weight'^ dgaxfiri. 

dragee, s. f. sugar plum, small shot; 
tgayrifM, sweet-meat, t gay to, tQtaym^ 
to gnaw, to nibble. 

dragon, s. m. dragon, dragoon; 'dra- 
co -on is „dragoon" from the Ro- 

man draconarii of Vegetins, 
whose military standard was a re- 
presentation of a dragon. 

dragonnade, 8. f. dragoonade. 

dragoniiA, s. f. dragon (fierce violent 
woman) sword-knot 

draguc, s. f. dredge, dredging machine; 

E. drag. 
drame, 8.m. drama; dff&iut, d^ao, to 
do, to act 

dramatique, adj. dramatic ; d^afuxrtxtfg. 

dramaturge, s. m. dramatist 

drap, s. m. cloth; M.L. drappus 

drapean, s. m. flag, standard, 
draper, v. a. to cover, to ornament 
with drapery. 

draperie, s.f. cloth-making, cloth-trade; 

drapier, s. m. cloth-merchant , wool- 
drasti^ae, adj. drastic; dgaexnw^, ef- 
ficacious, d^dfls, to act 
dr(^ehe, s.f. malt; O.F. drasche; E. 

dregs; M.L. drascus. 
dresser, v. a. to erect, to arrange, to 
make out, to dress; It drizzare; 
di rig ere, to direct, to put right or 
dressoir, s. m. side-board. 

drille, s. m. soldier, companion; 

O.H.6. drigil, boy, servant 
drille. s.f rag, drill; A.S. thirlian, 

or 0. North, dril, waste, 
drogman, 8. m. dragoman ; Arab, tar- 
gom&n interpreter, taraga, to 
be hidden, to be difficult 
drogue* s. f. drug, trash; E. drug; 
A.S. origan, drugan, to dry. 
droguer, v. a. to physic, to drug, 
drogverie, s. £ drugs, drug-trade, 
drogoiste, s. m. druggist 

droit, e, adj. straight, rig&t; direc- 
tus, dirigere. 

droit, s. m. right, law (directum 
jus), duty, due. 

droite, s. £ right hand side (main, 
""hand, understood). 

dzoitnre, s.f. rectitude, justice, upright- 
drMe, adj. droll, funny; E. droll. 

dr61erie, s. f. droll thing. 

dromadaire, s. m. dromedary; M.L. 

dromedarius; dromas; d^ofiag, 

dra, e, fledged, lively; thick-set; Gael. 

druth, petulant 

— 58 — 

do, art. m. of the, fVom the, some; 
cont. of de-le (see th.). 

M^ s. m. due, daty; for deat; M.L. 

debutus for debitus. 
cMment, adv. duly. 

duMtatif, Te, adj. expressive of doubt; 
dubitativus, dubitare. 

due, s. m. duke, horn-owl; It. duca; 
dux, a leader, ducere, to lead, 
dueat, 8.m. ducat; a coin first struck 
at Venice, with an inscription, en- 
ding with the word ducatus. • 
dueh^, 8. m. duchy, dukedom, 
dnchesae, s. f. duchess. 

duetile, adj. ductile; ductilis, du- 
cere, to lead. 

duel, 8. m. duel; duellum, old form 
of helium, war, duo, two. 

dnleifier, v. a. to dulofy; dnlcia, 
sweet, fa cere, to make. 

dune, 8. f down; O.H.G. dun; 6e. 
done; E. down. 

duo, s.'m. duo, duet; duo, two. 

dupe, 8. f. dupe'; Et d. 
duper, ▼. a. to dupe, to take in. 

dnplieata, s. m. duplicate; dupli cat a, 
duplicare, to aouble. 

dnplieit^, s. f. duplici^, deceit; du- 
plicitaSy duplex, aouble. 

dupliquer, ▼. a. to rebut, to surrejoin- 
der; duplicare. 

dur, e, am. hard, difficult, harsh; 
dnrus, (durable), 
duier, y. a. n. to harden, 
duer, y. n. to last; durare, darns. 
duOIon, 8. m. callosity, com. 

dnyet, s. m. down; Et. d. 

dynamique, s. f. dynamics; 9y9aiug, 

dynastie, s.f. dynasty; Svpaeteia^ po- 
wer, dvvditttig, a lord, dvpafuu, to 
be able. 

dyspepsie, dyspepsin; dvcjtsipia, bad 
digestion, wg, bad, nhnnv, to digest. 

dyssenterie, s. f. dyssentery; dvnvtd' 
Qia, htsQUf bowels. 


e, pref. from, out of; O.F. es; ex. 
eftn^ 8. f. water; O.F. aigue, aiwe, 

aive, ewe, eve, ieve, eaye, eaye, 
' eaue; aqua. 
^bahir, (s') pr. v. to be amazed, to 

wonder; ba, onom.; see beant. 

6baaeher, v. a. to draw an outline of; 

to sketch; to boast (sculpture); O.F. 

bauche, workshop; seed^bauche'r. 
Abaaehe, s. f. outline, rough draught. * 
^bdne, 8. f. ebony; ebenus, i§svog. 
Abeniste, s. m. cabinet-maker, 
^blooir, v. a.todazzle; O.H.G. plddi; 

Ge. bleed e, dim-sighted, shy. 
^bourilK, e, adj. disordered (of the 

hair); Et. d. 

^branler, y. a. to shake, to disturb; 

see branler. 
^bT^eher, y. a. to notch, to impair; 

8ee br^che. 
^brouer. y. a. to wash; Ge. brOhen, 

to scald. 

^bmiter, y. a. to make known, to 
noise abroad; see bruit. 

^bnlUtlon^ s. f. boiling, ebullition; 

ebullitio, bulla, a bubble. 
6eaill«, s. f. scale, shell, tortoise-shell; 

O.F. escaille; Ge. schale; E. 

shell, scale. 
Aea]0, 8. f. hull of almonds etc., shell 

pf beans etc. 

^earlate, s. f. scarlet; Ge. Schar- 

^earqniller, y. a. to open one's eyes 
or legs ; Et. d. 

^earteler, y. a. to quarter; see quart 

^carter, y. a. to divert, to turn aside, 
to remove, to discard; see carte, 
card , orig. to throw out a card, to 

6eart, side-leap, digression, aside, dis- 
6eart4, s. m. a game of cards. 

^cehymose, s. f. ecchymosis; h%vpM- 
aig, 4iixvmy to pour out. 

^eelesiastiqae, adj. ecclesiastical; in* 
xlrjaiaetLiidg^ ixxXi^tr/a, church. 

^eeryel6, e, adj. hare-brained, mad- 
headed; see cervelle. 

^ehafaud, s. m. scaffold, stage; Ge. 
schaffot; see catafalque, 
iehafkadage, 8. m. scaffolding, displig. 

^ehalas, s, m. prop, vine-prop; O.F. 
e 8 c aras ; s ca 1 a ; a ladder ; or accor- 
ding to Sch. M.L. carratium; x^' 
gai, a stake, a vine-prop. 

^chalier, s. m. fence maae of bran- 
ches of trees; O.F. eschallier, 
yar. of escalier; see this. 

^chalote, s. f. eschalot, Ascalonian 

garlick; allium ascalonicum. 
anerer, v. a. to hollow out, to in- 
dent; see chancre. 

— 59 — 

Mianemre, 8. f. hollowing, notch, in- 

6ehanger, ▼. a. to exchange; see 
Mumge, s.m. exchange. 

^ehanson, s m. cup-hearer; M.L. scan* 
cio; O.F.G. scenco; 6e. schenke, 
formerly cnp, now tavern, Schenk, 
cnp-hearer, schenke n, to ponr. 

^ehantillon, s. m. sample, pattern, 
specimen; O.F. cant, corner,, hit; 
see canton. 

^ehapper, ▼. n. to escape; accord, to 
Sch. Rom. cap pay mantle; cloak, (to 
slip out of the cloak as it were), 
^ehappement, s. m. scapement, esca- 

^enarpe, s. f. scarf; O.F. escharpe; 
Ge. sch&rpe; £. scarf 

€6hasse,8.f stilt; Dutch: schaats; E. 

^ehander, T. a. to scald; ex-caldare, 
(E. scald); see chaud. 

^chauffer, v. a. to warm, to heat; see 

tehanffement, s. m. over-excitement 
Muraibiirie, s. f affray. 

^ehauguette, s. f watch-tower; O.F. 
^chalguette, eschalgaite, etc.; 
M.L. scaragnayta, eschalgaita, 
etc.; OJi.G. scara; Ge. schaar, 
troop; M.L. gaita; see guet 

^eh^anee, s. f expiration of term, 
maturity of a hill; see ^ choir. 

^ehee, s. m. check, tehees s. m. pi. 
chess; It. scacco; M.L. scaccus; 
Ge. schach; Pers. schach, king. 

6ehelle, s. f ladder, scale; seal a. 
^ohellon, s. m. round of a ladder, 
tehelonner, v. a. to arrange, to range, 
place in echelons. 

6eIieTeaa, s.m. skein; scapellns, dim. 
ofscapus a^ weavers yambeam. 

^eheyel^, e, adj. disheveleo ; see che- 

^ehevin, s. m. justice, alderman, she- 
riff; M.L. scabinus, O.H.G. scef- 
feno; Ge.Schdffe; Ge.s chaff en, 
to shape, to regulate. 

^eldne, s. f chine, spine, echinus; 
O.H.G. 8 kin a, needle, spine; Ge. 
8 chine, shin. 

iehiner, V. a. to break the back, to 
wear ont 

^ehi^oier. s. m. chess-board, exche- 
quer: „nrom the checked cloth, re- 
Bembling a chess-board, which co- 

vered the table, and on which, when 

the king's accounts were made up, 

the sums were marked and scored 

with counters." Barrm. 
6eho. 8. m. echo; echo; i^xd. 
Mkoir. V. n. to fall to, to devolve, 

to all due; ex-cadere; comp. 

^choppe. 8. f. a small shop, a covered 

stall; £. shop. 
^ehoppe, 8. f a sort of etching-needle. 

6ehoaer, v. n. to strand, to foonder, 

to fail. Diez proposes L. cautes, 

a rock. 
6clahoasser, v. a. to splash; eclat 

de boue (see these), splash of mud, 

accord, to M 6 nape and others. 
Eclair, s. m. liffhtnmg, flash of light- 
ning; see 6cTairer. 
^elaircir, v. a. to clear up, to ex- 
plain, to throw a light upon; sde 

Mairer, v. a. to light, to light up; 

ex-clarare; comp. clair. 
Mairage, s. m. lighting. 
Mairenr, s. m. skirmisner. 
6elater, v. n. to shiver, to splinter, 

to chip, to burst, to shine brilliantly; 

O.F. esclier; A.S. slitan; O.H.G. 

slizan; E. slit; Ge. schleissen. 
6elat, 8. m. fragment, chip, clap of 

thunder, burst, brilliancy, eclat 
6eleetlqae, adj. eclectic; inXi%ti%6g, 

hXsya, to cnoose. 
iolipie, 8. f. eclipse; eclipsis, hXei- 

jffig, htle^nay to cease, to fail. 
iolip8er,v.a. to eclipse, to thraw into 

Pelisse, 8. f split- wood, splint ; O.H.G. 

kliozan, to split; Ge.klotz, block, 
^elore, y. n. to hatch, to open, to 

dawn, to be disclosed; ex-cludere 

(comp. ex dure), to shut out, to 

MoiioB, 8. f. hatching, opening of 

6eliu6, 8. f mill-dam, sluice; exclu- 

sus, p. p. of exclndere. 
^eole, 8. f. school; O.F. escole; 

schola, oxoXij, 
holier, 8. m. pupil, scholar; M.L. 

6eonome, adj. economical; ohovofutg, 

oUog, a house, v6(U)g, a rule. 
teoBomxe, 8. f. economy, 
ieonomiser, v. a. to economize, tq 

lay by. 

— 60 — 

40OBamifto» 8. m. economist, political 

^eope, 8. f. scoop ;'6e. schQppe. 

decree, s. f. bark, rind, crnst; cor- 
tex, (in excorticate etc.). 

ieorter, v. a. to bark, to strip off. 

iooreher, v. a. to excoriate, to akin, 
to hack a language, etc. 

Ileomer, v. a. to break the horn or 
the comerof, to cortail; see come. 

^eo88ais,e, adj. scotch; G. Schotte; 
E. scot 

ieoise, 8. f. Scotland. 

^cesser, v. a. to husk, to shell fruit 
etc.; see cosse. 

^eot, 8. m. quota, share, reckoning 
(account); O.F. escot; M.L. sco- 
tum, taxe, contribution; £. scot 
and shot; 6e. schoss. 

^eouler, (s') pr. v. to flow away, to 
slip away, to lapse (of time); see 
• couler. 

^nlement, s. m. a flowing, drainage, 

^eourter, v. a. to curtail, to shorten; 
see court 

Reenter, v. a. to listen, to hear; O.F. 
escouter; E. scout; auscultare. 

tottte, 8. f. a secret comer for liste- 

^eoatllle^s. f. hatch-wav; E. scuttle. 

^eonyillon, s. m. scovef, spunge, ram- 
rod; E. scoop; Ge. schttppe. 

^eran, s. m. screen, fire-screen; O.F. 
e8cran;E.screen; Ge.schirmen, 
to protect 

^eraser, v. a. to crush, to bruise; E. 
crush; North.cras8a;Dan.kryste. 

^ereyisse, s. f. crawfish, crab; O.H.G. 
krebizyGe. krebs; E.crab, csay, 

Verier, (s^) pr. t. to exclaim, to cry 
out; see crier. 

6erin, s. m. casket, jewel-box; Ge. 
schrein; E. shrine; M.L. 8cri- 

^erire, v. a. to write; scribere (in- 
scribe, scribble). 

^eritf 8. m. a written thing, agreement, 
work, pamphlet; scriptum. 

. ieritoire, s. m. inkstand, 
kriture, s. f. writing, hand-writing, 
scripture; scriptura. 
terlTain, s. m. writer, 
ierivassier, s. m. scribbler. 

^erouy 8. m. screw-nut, female screw; 
E. screw; Ge. Schraube. 

terouery v. a. to enter in Uie goal-book; 

£t d.; Sch. proposes scratarif to 

examine, to investigate. 
6croiiler, (s'), pr. t. to fall in, to 

break up, to fall down; see croule r. 
^em, e, adj. unbleached; .see cru; 

^cu, 8. m. shield, dollar, crown (coIq), 

money; O.F. escut; scutum, shield, 
^eneil) s. m. rock, danger; s copulas;' 

6caelle, 8.f. porringer; O.F. e scuelle; 

It* scodella; scutella dim. of 

scntra, a flat tray or dish. 
dealer, v. a. to tread down the heel. 

of boots or shoes; see cul. 
^enme, s. f. foam, scum ; It s c h i u m a, 

scum a; E. sc um ; O.H.G. sciim, Ge. 

Earner, v. n. to foam, to froth, t. a. 

to skim off, to scum. 
^enrer, v. a. to scour, to clean; £. 

scour; Ge. scheuern. 
^eareoil. s. m. squirrel; sciuruluSy 

dim. of^sciurus, e^iovgog. 
dearie, 8. f. stable; M.L. scuria; O. 

E.G. sc(lra; Ge. scheuer, bam. 
^ensson, s. m. escutcheon; scutum 

see ^cu. 
^enyer, s. m. squire, armour-bearer, 

riding-master; see ^cu; M.L. Scu- 
tari us, bearer of the scutum, 

^difler, y. a. to build an edifice, to 

erect, to edify; aedificare. 
Mifloe, 8. m. edifice, structure; ae- 

^dit, 8. UL edict, decree; edictum. 
^dlter, y. a. to edit, to publish; edi- 

tare, ftreq. of edere, editum. 

Miteiir,3. m. editor, publisher; editor. 
r.Mitioii, 8. f. edition; editio. 
^dredon, s. m. eider-down; Ge. ei- 

derdaun, ederdon; E. eider- 
Education, s. f. education; educatio, 

6daqaer,y.a. to rear, to bread; edu- 
6ffacer9 y, a. to efface, to obliterate; 

ex, out, facie 8, face. 
effarer, y. to scare; offer are, to 

make wild, ferus wild, 
effiuroueher, y. a. to soare, to startle, to 

frighten; see farouche. • 
effeetif, ye; adj. effective; effec- 

^ffectuer, y. a. to effect, to execute; 

effectuB, efficere; comp. effet 

— 61 — 

eflSfiminer, v. a. to effeminate, to sof- 
ten; effeminare, femina, woman. 

efferreseent, e, acy- effenrescent; ef- 
fervescens, effervescere, to boil 
.up, to rage. 

effet, 8. m. effect, pi. goods, funds; 
ef rectus; comp. effectuer. 

effeuiUer, y. a. to strip off the leaves; 
. see feuille. 

effioaee, a^j. efficient, efficacious; ef- 
ellleaeit^ s. £ efficacy, efficiency; ef- 

efficient, e, ad(j. efficient; efficiens. 
effigrie, s. f. effigy ; e f f i n g e r e, to form. 
elfiler, ▼. a. to ravel ; see fil. 
elflU, e, a^j. slender, slim. 
effleureTy v. a. to take off the surface, 
to graze; E. floor; 6e. flur; comp. 
effleurir, ▼. a. to effloresce; efflo- 

rescere, flos, floris, flower. 
effluenee, s. f. effluence; effluere, 

to flow out 
-sflliiaBt, e, a4j. effluent; effluere. 
elTonteer, ▼. a. to dig dip, to break 
in; see fond. 

elTorcer. (s*) pr. v. to make an effort, 
to endeavour; see forcer. 
eflbrt, s. m. effort, exertion. 

eflRraetion* s. f breaking in; effr ac- 
tio, frangere, to break. 

efflniTer, v. a. to frighten; frige re, 
to be cold; comp. fray ear. 

elhr^n6, e, adj. unbridled, wild; ef- 
frenatns, frenum, a bridle; comp. 

effiroi, s.m. fright, affiright; see effra- 
effiroyalile, adj. frightful. 

elbront^, e, ao^j. sluimeless, impudent ; 
frons, tis, forehead. 
sfflroBterie, s. f. effrontery, impudence. 

effusion, s. f. e£Eu8ion; effusio. 

^gal, e, a4j. equal, even; aeqaalis. 
igaler, v. a. to equal, 
egaliser, v. a. to equalize, to level. 
AgaUti, 8. f. equality. 
6gard, s. m. regard, respect; O.F. 
esgarder, to consider; see garde r. 
6garer, v. a to mislead, to mislay; 

see garer. 
6gayer, v. a to enliven, to cheer; 
see gai. 

^gide, s. m. shield; aegis, cciyig. 
6glantier, s. ra. brier, eglantine; O.F. 
aiglent; see aiguille. 

^glise. 8. f. church.; ixnXfiitia, an as- 

^glogue, s. f. eclogue; ixXoyi^, choice, 
igoisme, s. m. selfishness, egoism; 
ef o, I. 
^golste, a4j. selfish; ego. 
^gorger, v. a to cut the throat, to 

Slav, to kill; see gorge. 
6g08iller, (s') pr. v. to make oneself 
hoarse, to sing loud (of birds); see 
^goutter, V. n. to drip, to drain; see 

^nt, s. m. fall of water, sewer, sink. 
^gratigner, v. a. to scratch; ^ee grat- 

6grener, v. a to shell gjfun , to pick 
grapes from a bunch, to gin cotton; 
see grain. 
6grillard, e, adj. sprightly, lively ; Et d. 
^gruger, v. a to pound; see gruger. 
^gueoler, v. a. to break off the mouth 
of bottles, etc., pr. v. to hurt one's 
throat with crying; see gueule. 
^hont^, e, adj. shameless. 
ejaenlation, s. f. ejaculation; ejacu- 

latio, ejaculari. 
^laborer, v. a. to elaborate; elabo- 

^laguer, v. a. to prune, to curtail; 

Et d. 
^lan, s. m. start, outbreak, soaring; 

see ^lancer. 
6Ian,s.m.elk; O.H.6.Slaho; A.S.elcb. 
^laneer, v. a. to dart, pr. v. to bounce, 

to rush on; see lancer. 
^largir, v. a to widen, to enlarge; 

see large. 
^lastique, a^j- elastic; iXavvWy iXde^f 
to drive. 

ilaitieit^ s. f. elasticity. 
^leeteur, s. m. elector; elector, 
eligere, to choose, 
tieotriee, s. f. electoress. 
tiBetion, 8. f. electiou; e lectio. 
dlAotoral, e, a^j- electoral, 
tieetorat, s. m. electorate. 
61eetre9S. m. O.F. amber; electrum. 
tiMtrioiti^ s. f. electricity, 
tiaetrique, a^j. electric, 
dieotriser, v. a. to electrify. 
^l^gant, e, adj. elegant, fashionable ; 
elegans, choice, eligere, to 
Aegamment, adv. elegantly, 
ti^anoe, s. f. elegance; elegantia 
^l^gle, 8. f. elegy; elegia; llsya^ 
dlagiaqut, a^j* elegiao; ilaytltniog. 

-r 62 — 

^lteeBt,s.m. element; elementnm. 
4lMBaiteim»a4J- elementary; elemen- 

^16pluiBt, 8.m. elephant; iliipug, ili- 
fpeertog'^ elephas, elephantis. 

^leyer, v. a. to raise, to erect, to 
bring ap, to edncate, to elevate; 
elevare, levare, to raise. 
UknJdon^ s. £ elevation. 
4Uve, 8. m. papfl. 

ttevenr, s. m. breeder. 

Glider, r. a. to elide, to cut off; eli- 

^grible, adj. person qualified to be 
elected; eligibilis^ eligere. 

^liminer, ▼. a. to eliminate; elimi- 
aare, limen, a threshhold. 

^lire, ¥. a. TO elect, to choose; eli- 

.flisloii, 8. f. elision; elisio, elidere. 

^Ute, s. £ choice; electus, electa, 
p. part of eligere. 

^Ibdr, s. m. elixir; Arab. 

elle. pr. she; ilia. 

ell^bore, s. m. hellebore; he lie ho- 
rns, iiU§oifog, 

Ellipse, s. t ellipsis; lUei^tp. 

^loeatalon, s. £ elocution; elocutio, 
eloqui, to speak out. 

^l<»ge,s. m. praise, eulogy; eloginm. 

61olgner^ ▼. a. to remove, to estrange; 
see lom. 

Eloquence, s. £ eloauence ;eloquentia. 

iloquent, e, ad|j. eloquent ; eloquens. 

6IS9 8. m. person elect, elect; p. part 
of 61ire; see this. 

^hieider, ▼ elucidate; M.L. elu- 

/ilucubration, 8. £ lucubration; lucu- 

binder, v. a. to elude, to e?ade; elu- 
de re. , 

^lys^e, 8.m. Elysium; elysium, ^Iv- 

^maei6, e, adj. emaciated ;emaciatus. 
^mail, s. m. enamel; O.F. esmail; 

M.L. smaltum; O.U.G. smelzan; 

Ge. schmelzen, to melt; E. smelt, 

teuuUenr, s. m. enameller. 
^maneiper, v.a. to emancipate; eman- 

cipare, mancipium, a slave. 
taifliieip«tioB,8. £ emancipation ; e n^ a n- 

^maner, v. n. to emanate; em an are. 
4nia«f*iiwi^ g. f. emanation ; e m an a ti 0. 

^nuirger, v. a. to write in the mar- 
gine; see marge. 

emballer. v. a. to pack, to pack up; 
see balle. 
emballage, s. m. packing, charge of 

embarcaddre, s. m. wharf, railway- 
station; see embarquer. 

embargo, s. m. embargo; Sp. em- 
bargo, embargar, to sequester. 

embarquer, v. a. to embark, to ship; 
see barque. 

embarrasser, v. a. to obstruct, to 
encumber, to embarrass; seebarre. 
embarrai, s.m. obstruction, embarrass- 

embftter, v. a. to saddle, to encum- 
ber; see b&t 

embaneher, v. a. to hire, to entice 
away; O.F. bauche, shop; see d6- 

embanmer, v. a. to embalm ; see b amn e. 

embellir, v. a. to embellish, to beau- 
tify; see beau. 

eAib^ter, v; a. to stultify, to annoy; 
see b^te. 

embl^e, d% adv. at the first o^t8et, in 
a trice: O.F. em bier; Proy. em- 
blar; M.L. imbolare; invblare, 
to rush upon. 

embldme, s. m. Emblem ; e m b 1 em a ; 
flipijifia, that which is put in, or on, 
i(ipdXXwy to put in. 

emboiter, v. a. to fit in; see bolte. 

embonpoit, s. m. obesity, stoutness; 
state or condition. 

emboaeher, v. a. to put to one's 
mouth, pr. v. (of a river) to discharge, 
to empty oneself; see bouche. 
embouchure, s. £ mouth of a river, 

embranener, (s^) pr. v. to brandi off; 
see branche. 

embranehement, s. m. branching off, 

embraser, v. a. to set on fire, to in- 
flame; see braise. 

embrasure, s. £ embrasure, an ope- 
ning through which guns are fired. 

embrasser, v. a. to embrace, to kiss; 
see bras. 

embrocher, v a. to spit, to put on 
the spit; see broche. 

embroulller, v. a. to obscure, to em- 
broil, to confuse; see broniller. 

embmm^, e. adj. foggy, misty; see 

embryoBy s. m. embryo, germ; em- 
bryon; ififi^ov. 

^ 63 - 

embftehey s. f. ambush, snare; see 
b tic he; comp. next w. 

embusqner, v. a. to ambush; see ht' 
che and bois. 
embnsoade, s. f. ambuscade, 4imbu8h. 

^mender, v. a. to amend ; e m e n d a r e, 
the same as amender. 

^meraude^ s.f. emerald; It smer ai- 
de; a^ifaydog\ smaragdus; 6e. 

^merger, v. a. to emerge ; e m e r g e r e, 
mergere, to plunge. 

^meri, s. m. emery; so called from 
Cape Emeri in Uie island of Naxos, 
whence the best variety is obtained 
(Brande) ; according to others the sa- 
me woni as the Ge. schmergel, 
(s. m.) from anvQig, 

^merillon, s. m. stone-falcon, merlin ; 
It smeriglione; 6e. schmerl; 

^merite, a^j. emerited; emeritus. 

Emersion, s. f. emersion; emersio, 
emercere. * 

^meryeuler, v. a. to astonish, to 
strike with wonder; see merveille. 

^m^tiqaey a^j. emetic, vomitive; Ifis- 
tinog, ijiim, to vomit. 

^mettre, v. a. to issue, to emit, to 
utter; emittere. 

^meute, s. f. riot, disturbance; emo- 
ttts, em Ota, p. part, of e mo v ere, 
to move out. 

tinier, emietter, v. a. to crumble; 
see mie and miette. 

^migrer, v. n. to emigrate; emigrare. 
Amigrant, s. m. emigrant 
teugration, s. f. emigration. 

Eminent, e, a4j. high, elevated, emi- 
nent; eminens, eminere, to pro- 
ject out. 

imjnenee, s. £ eminence, elevation; 

^missaire, s. m. emissary; e mis sa- 
rins, emittere; see 6mettre. 

^missioD) s. f. emission, issue, utte- 
rance; emissio, emittere; see 

emmaillotter, v. a. to swaddle; see 

emmaneher v. a. to put a handle to, 
to begin; see man che. 

emmenager. v. n. to move (into a 
new house); see dem Onager. 

emmener, v. a. to take away, to con- 
vev; see mener. 

^moiyS.m. anxiety, flutter; O.F.esmai; 
It smago; Goth, magan, (may). 

Emollient, e, a^j. emollient; emol- 

liens, mollis, soft 
Emolument, s. m. emolument, fee; 

emolumentum, toll or profit ta- 
ken for grinding; mole re, to grind. 
^mender 9 v. a. to prune, to trim; 
' emunldare, munaus, clean, neat 
Amotion, s. f. emotio, emovere; 

see 6mouvoir. 
6moadre, v. a. to grind sharp instru> 

ments; see moudre. 
^monlenr, s. m. grinder. 
^moosser, v. a. to blunt, to deaden; 

see mousse. 
^moustiller, V. a. to exhilarate; £t d. 
^mouvoir, v. a. to move, to agitate, to 

affect; see mouvoir. 
empaUler, v. a. to pack in straw , to 

stuff animals; see paille. 
empaler, v. a. to empale ; see p al. 
empan, s. m. span; O.F. espan; 

M.L. spannus; O.H.G. spanna; 

Ge. spanne.' 
emparer, (s*) pr. v. to take possesion 

of, to seize ;see pare'r and rempart 
empftter, v. a. to make clammy, sticky, 

to fatten poultry; see p&te. 
empScher, v. a. to prevent, to hinder; 

impactare, freq. of impingere, 

to drive into, to dash against 
enipeigne) s. f. upper-leather, vamp; 

£it. d. 
empereor, s. m. emperor ;imperator. 
empeser, v. a. to starch; O.F. em- 

poisser; see poix. 
empester, v. a. to infect; see peste. 
empStrer, V. a. to entangle, to embar- 

ras; see depetrer. 
emphase, s. f. bombast; emphasis; 

^qpafftff, iiKpaAfto, to show, 
emphatique, adj. bombastic, pompous; 


empi^ter, v. a. to encroach; see pied; 
O.F. piet 

empire, s. m. empire, sway, control, 
command; impe'rium. 

empirer, v. a. to render, to make 
worse; see pire. 

empiriqae,adi. empiricj fin fLQi%6g, ex- 
perienced ; BPf in, nsiQaoa, to attempt 
empirisme, s. m. empiricism. 

emplacement, s. m. site, piece of 
ground; see place. 

emplfttre, s. m. salve, plaster; em- 
p la strum, ifinlaatQOv^ ifinldacmj 
to plaster up, evy upon, nXdaato^ to 

emplette, s. f. purchase; O.F. em- 

— M — 

ploite; impllcitn8,iiDpli<sita,p.. 

partof implicare; see employer. 

empUr, t. a. to fill;.implere (plenty 

replenish); comp. remplir. 
employer 9 v. a. to employ; impli- 
care, to infold, to embrace; comp. 

emploi, 8. m. employment, situation, 
employiy s. m. a clerk, 
empoeher, v. a. to pocket ; see p o ch e. 
empoii^ner, ▼. a. to grasp, to seize, 

to lay hold of; see poing. 
empoiS) s. m. starch; see empeser 

and poix. 
empoisonner) ▼. a. to poison; see 

emportery v. a. to carry away, to 
convey, to remove; see porter, 
empoxta-piftee, s. m. punch (instrament), 
cutting-out-machine ; see pi ^ c e.^ 
emport«mMit, s. m. transport, passion. 
empreindre, v. a. to jmprint, to im- 
press; imprimere. 
emprainta, s. f. impression, stamp (print). 
empresser, (s*) pr. ▼. to be ardent, 
to hasten ; see p r e s s e. 
empresiement, s.m. ardour, readiness. 
emprisonner, r. a. to imprison; see 

empriionnament, s. m. imprisonment. 

empronter, V. a. to borrow; M.L. im- 
promutuare (cont impromtuare, 
improntare); promutuum, paid 
before hand, advanced, 
empnint, s. m. loan. 
^mole, s. m. competitor, rival, emula- 
tor; aemulus. 
teuilatenr, s. m. emulator; aemula- 


Emulation, s.f. emulation; aemulatio. 
en, prep, in, like, as; pr. of him, of 

her, of it, of them; in, inde. 
encadrer, ▼. a. to frame; see cadre, 
eneaisse, s. f. cash in hand; en- 

caisse; s. th. 
encalsser, ▼. a. td incase, to pack, to 

collect; see caisse. 
enean, s. m. auction, sale ; in quan« 

tum, for how much? 
eneaquer, t. a. to pack in a keg, to 

pack up; see caque. 
encaustique, a4j. encaustic; iyxava- 

nicog, #yxa/o>, to bum in; comp. en- 

•neeindre, v. a. to surround, enclose; 

incingere; see ceindre. 
eneeinte, 8. f. drcuit, inclosure, plaeei 

enceinte; enceint, p. pari of en* 


eneeinte, acy. pregnant, with cluld. 
eneens, s. m. incense, fragrance; in- 

censi>s, incendere, to bum. 
enehalner, ▼. a. to enchain, to link, 

to bind; see chaine. 
enehanter, t. a. to enchant, to delight; 

incantare, to sing in. 
enehan t e m ent, s. m. enchantment, de- 


enehanteur, s. m. enchanter, bewitcher 
enehanteresie, s. f. enchantress, be- 
enehftsser, v. a. to set gems, to en- 
chase, to enshrine; see ch&sse. 
eneh^rlr, v. a. to bid, to outbid, to 

raise a price; see cher. 
enehire, s. f. bidding, auction. 
enchoTdtrer, v. a. to halter, to en- 
tangle; see chev^tre. 
enchjB^ener, t. a. to occasion an ob- 

straction of the nose; Et. d. 
enelaier, v. a. to enclose; M.L. in- 

clavare; clavis, key. 
enolaTe, s. f. piece of land enclosed 

within other lands, territory, limit 
enclin, e, acy. inclined; disposed; in- 

endore* v. a. to enclose; M.L. in* 

clauaere for includere. 
eneloi,s. m. close, enclosure; p. part 

enelouer, ▼. a. to spike; see clou, 
enelume, s. £ anvil; incus, incudis. 
eneoguure, s. f. comer, buffet for a 

comer; instead of encoignure; 

see coin. 
eneombre, s.m. impediment, obstacle; 

M.L. combrus; cumulus, a heap, 

Eile; comp. comble, and d6com- 
res (encumbrance), 
eneomhrement, s. m. obstraction. 
eneombrer, to obstruct, to encumber. 
eneontre, adv. counter, against; en- 
encore, adv. still, yet, again; It an- 
cora; (ad)hanc horam, at this hour. 
eneonrager, v. a. to encourage, to 

incite; see courage. 
eneourir, v. a. to incur; incurrere, 

to run against; see courir. 
encrasser, v. a to dirt, to grease; 

see crasse. 
enere,; encaustum; Kink; 
comp. encaustique. 
eaexUr, s. m. inkstand. 

— 65 — 

enejelique^ adj. encyclical; iyxvnXiog, 

circular, nvulog, circle. 
encjelop^die, s. f. encyclopaedia; iy- 

nvaXonaideioc, iv^ in, Hvalog^ a circle, 

Tcaidi^cc, instruction. 

end^miqae, adj. endemic, endemical; 
ivd7t(uog, «V, in, B^pkog, a district. 

endetter, t. a. to get into debt; sec 

end^yer, to be vexed, mad; O.F. 
desve, furious, mad; £t. d. Diez 
prop, dissipare, to destroy; others 
suggest the E. devil. 

endive, s. f. endive; cichorium en* 
divia; intubus, chicory. 

endommager, v. a. to damage, to in- 
jure; see dommage. 

endormir, v. a. to lull, to set to sleep, 
to benumb; see dormir. 

endosser, v. a. to buckle an armour, 

to put on one^s back, to endorse; 

see d s. 
endroit, s. m. place, right side ot 

cloths etc., formerly a prep, meaning 

in the direction of; in directum; 

comp. droit. 
enduire, v. a. to do over, to lay over, 

to coat; i n d u c e r e, to overlay ; comp. 

conduire and induire. 
endnit, s. m. coat, glaze. 

endureir, v. a. to harden, to steel, to 
indurate; see durcir and dur. 

endurer, v. a. to endure, to bear; 
indurare, to make hard; durus, 

^nergie, s. f. strength, energy; ivsg- 
ysiuy l^yov, work. 

^nerver, V. a. to enervate; enervare, 
nervus, a nerve. 

enfant, s. m. f. child, infant; infans 
infant is, in priv., fari, to speak, 
enfknee, s. f. childhood, infancy; in- 

enfanter, v. a. to give birth, to pro- 
enfantiUagd, s. m. child's play. 

enfer, s. m. hell;*infernum, (infer- 

f nal). 

enfermer, v. a. to shut up, to en- 
close, to include; see ferm-er. 

enferrer, v. a. to pierce; ferrum, a 
sword; comp. fer. 

enfiler, v. a. to thread, to lead, to 
enfilade, to rake; see filer, 
enfilade, s. f. suit of rooms, enfilade. . 

enfin, adv. in short, in fine, after 
all; en-fin (a. t). j 

t enflammer, ▼. a. to set on fire, to 
\ kindle, to inflame; inflammmare. 
enfler, v. a. to swell, to inflate; in- 
enflnre, s. f. swelling, inflation. 

enfoneer, v. a. to sink to the bottom, 
to break in, to outdo; see fond. 

enforcer, v. a. to strengthen; see 

enfouir, v. a. to bury, to hide in 
the ground; in-fodere, to dig. 

enfoureher, stride, to straddle; 
see fourche. 

enfreindre, v. a. to infringe; infrin- 
ge re. 

enfair, (s') pr. .v. to flee, to mn away, 
to fly; see fuir. 

engager, v. a. to pledge, to pawn, to 
engage, to invite; see gage. 

engeanee, s. f. breed, race; O.F. en- 
ger, to encumber, to burden; e-n e- 
care, to worry. 

engelure, s. f. chilblain; O.F. enger; 
see prec. 

engendrer, v. a. to beget, to engen- 
der; in-generare, genus, birth. 

engin, s. m. dexterity; skill, engine; 
ingenium, an invention. 

engloutir, v. a. to swallow down, to 
ingulf, to absorb; in-glutire. 

engorger, v. a. to obstruct, to choke; 

see gorge. 
engouer, v. a. to obstruct the throat, 

to infatuate; Pic. garoit, throat, 

gullet; cavea, cavity, 
engouement, s. m. obstruction, infatua- 
engourdir, v. a. to benumb, to weaken; 

see degourdir. 
engraisser, v. a. to fatten, to grease ; 

see graisse and gras. 
engrais, s. m. manure. 
engraver, v. a. to bed in the sand; 

see greve. 
engrener, v. a. to put corn into the 

mill-hopper; see grain. 

engrener, v. a. to throw into gear, 

(of toothed wheels) to work into 

each other; E. d. 
enhardlr, v. a. to embolden ; see h ar d i. 
enignie, s. f. enigma, riddle ; aCvLyfka, 

txCviaaofiuL, to hint at. . 
enivrer, v. a. to intoxicate, to ine- 
. briate, to elate; see ivre. 
^i^amber, v.. a. to bestride, to stride ; 

see jam be. 
eajouy 8> m. stake; en-jeu, s. t. 


— 66 — 

ei^oindre, t. a. to enjoin, to charge; . 

in-jungere; Bee joinare. 
enJOler, or negeftler, v. a. to inveigle ; 

see ge61e. 
ei^oliTer^ y. to adorn, to embellish; 

see jolr, O.F. jolif. 
enJou6, e, adj. playful, lively; see 

enlaeer, v. a. to lace, to twist, to ent- 
wine; see lacer. 
enlever^ v. a. to raise, to lift up, to 

remove, to kidnap; en -lever, s. t 
enlevement, s. m. removal, kidoapping, 

enlaminer, v. a. to colour engravings, 

to illuminate ; same as i 1 1 u m i n e r, s.t 
ennemi, s. m. enemy, foe; inimicus. 
ennui, s.m.tediousness, spleen, ennui, 

annoyance; Sp. enojo; (est mihi) 

in odio, odium, annoyance. 

ennuyer, v. a. to tire, to annoy, to 

^noncer, v. a. to state, to express, to 

enunciate; enunciare, nuncius, 

a messenger. 
^norme, a^j. enormous, huge; enor- 

mis; norma, a rule. 

enormit4&, s. f. enormousness, enormity. 
enqu^rir, (s') pr. v. to inquire, to 

enquMe, B. f. inquiry, inquest; inqui- 

situs p. part of inquirere; comp. 


enrager, v. n. to go mad, to be en- 
raged, to be mad; see rage. 

enrayer, v. a. to spoke wheels , . to 
put the drag on; see rayon. 

enrayer, v. n. to plough the first fur- 
row; see raie. 

enrhumer, v. a. to give a cold; see 

enrOler, v. a. to enrole, to enlist; 
see role. 

eDrouer, v. a. to render, to make 
hoarse; It. arrocare; raucus, 

ensaeher, v. a. to bag; see sac. 

ensauglanter, v. a. to stain with blood; 
see sang and sanglant. 

enseigne, s. f. sign, sign-board, en- 
sign (fla^);insigne, insignia, sig- 
num, sign, 
enieigne, s. m. ensign, midshipman. 

enseigner, v. a. to teach, to instruct, 
to inform ; in s ign a r e^ to mark out, 
Bignum, sign. 

enBemble, adv. t(>gether;. ia-simul. 

eniemUe, 8. m. whole, ensemble, uni- 
formity, harmony. 

ensem.eneer, v. a. to bow; see se- 

ensevelir, v. a. to bury, to inter, to 
absorb; in- sepelire. 

ensoreeler, V. a. to bewitch; see sor- 

ensnite, adv. after, afterwards, then; 
en-suite s. t. 

entaMer, (s') pr. v. to entable, see 
entablement, s. m. entablature. 

entailler, V. a. to cut away, to notch; 
see tailler. 
entaille, s. f. cut, notch, gash. 

entamer, v. a. to cut the first piece 
of, to begin, to enter upon, to attack, 
to injure; in-taminare. to touch, 
tarn en, nevertheless. 

entasser, v. a. to heap up , to pile, 
to accumulate; see tas. 

ente, s. f. graft, stock; see enter. 

entendre, v. a. to hear, to listen, to 
understand; intendere, to strain. 
<the mind), or stretch towards, 
entente, s. f. meaning, understanding, 

enter, v. a. to graft; O.F, emptor; 
M.L. impetus, graft; iit(pvtov, im- 
planted, Ifiqpvfi), to implant. 

enteilner, v. a. to ratify, to confirm 
judiciously^ ; O.F. enter in, right, per- 
fect; en tier; see this. 

enterrer, v. a. to bury, to inter; see 
enterrement, s. m. burying, interment, 

ent^ter, v. a. to affect the head, to 

make giddy; pr. v. to .get obstinate; 

see t§te. 

ent6ti, e, adj. obstinate, stubborn. 
enthousiasme, s. m. enthusiasm, rap- 
ture, extasy; ivd'oveiagiidgy tedg, god. 
enthongiaste, s. m. enthusiast. 
entieher, v. a. to spoil (fruit), to infect, 

to taint; O.F. ent^^echier; Ge. an- 

entier, dre,adj. whole, entire ; integer, 

untouched; tangere, to touch, 
entiireuent, adv. wholly, entirely, 
entity, 8. f. entity; M.L. entitas, ens, 

entis, pr. part, of esse, to be. 
entomologie, s. f. entomology; ivtoiutv^ 
insect; Xiyog^ discourse. 
entonner, v. a. to put into a cask, 

to tun; see tonne. 

entonnoir, s. m. funnel. 

— 67. — 

entonner, v. a. to intonate, to begin 

a tune; M.L. intonare; see ton. 
eutorse, s. f. sprain, strain ; intorsas 

for intortus, p. part, of inter- 

que re, to twist, to sprain, 
entoar, s. m. in the pi. surrounding 

places or persons, formerly a prep. 

and adv. ', see en -tour; comp. alen- 


entourer, v. a. to surround, 
entourage, s. m. railing, persons a- 


entrailles, s. f. pi. entrails, bowels; 
interanea; intra, on the inside, ly- 
re ^a. 

entratner, v. a. to carry away, to 
lead away, to involve; see trainer, 
entrain, s. m. high spirits, ardour. 

entrarer, v. a. to fetter, to hinder, 

to clog; trabs, trabis, a beam. 

entraves, s. f. pi. fetters, trammels. 

entre, prep, between, among; inter, 

entrechat, s. m. capriole, cut (dance) ; It. 
t;apriola intrecciata, entwined. 

entree, s. f. entrance, admission, en- 
try; see e|ntrer. 

entrefaites, s. f. pi. interval, mean- 
while; see entre-fait. 

eutrelacer, V. a. to entwine, to twine; 
see lacer. 

entremets, s. m. sidedish, entremets; 
see entre-mets. 

entremettre, (s') pr. v. to intervene, 
to intermeddle; see entre-mettre. 

entreposer, v. a. to bend, to ware- 
house; see poser. 
entrep6t, s. m. warehouse, entrepot. 

entreprendre , v. a. to undertake, to 

contract for ; see p r e n d r e, to take ; 

prendre entre (les mains), to 

take in hand, 
entrepreneur, 8. m. contractor, builder. 
entreprlBe, s. f. untertaking, enterprise, 

concern; pris, -ise, p. part, of 

prend re. 
entrer, v. a. to enter; intrare. 
eutre-sol, s. m. appartements between 

the ground-floor and the first story; 

see sol, lit. between the ground (and 

first floor, unterstood). 

entretenir, v.* a. to hold together, to 
sustain, to keep, to maintain, to en- 
tertain; see tenir, tenir entre 
ses mains, to hold in one's hand, 
entrelrien, s. m. keeping in repair, 
maintenance, conversation. 

entreToir, v. a. to see imperfectly, 
to have a glimpse of, to see through, 
to foresee, pr. v. to have an inter- 
view, to meet; see entre-voir. 
entrevue, s. f. interview, meeting, 
^num^rer, v. a. to enumerate, enu- 

merare, numerus, number. 
euvahir, v. a. to invade, to encroach; 
O.F. envair, invadere. 
envahissement, s. m invasion, en- 
envahisMur, s. m. invader. 

envelopper, v. a. to wrap up, to en- 
velop; see d^velopper. 
enveloppe, s. f. wraper, covering, en- 

envenimer, v. a. to envenom, to irri- 
tate; see venin; O.F. venim. 

envergaer, v. a. to bend a sail to the 
yard; see vergue. 
envergure, s. f. length of the yards, 
spread of the wings (of a bird) ex- 

envers, prep, towards; see en- vers. 

envers, s. m. wrong side of cloths etc., 
underside of leaves; inversus, in- 
verted, in vert ere. 

envie, s. f. envy, desire, longing, ag- 
nail; invidia, in, against, vide re, 
to see. 

enyi, adv. in emulation of^ (to vie), 
envier, v. a. to envy, to desire; in- 
environ, adv. about; en-viron, cir- 
. cle; Ree virer. 

environner, v. a. to surround, to en- 

environs, s. m. pi. environs, vicinity. 
envisager, v. a. to look at the face 
of, to regard, to consider; see vi- 

envoi, s. m. sending, thing sent; see 

envoler, (s') pr. v. to fly away, to be 

on the wing, to disappear; see voler. 
enyoyer, y. n. to send, to forward ; It. 

inviare; M.L. inviare; via, way. 
envoys, s. m. messenger, envoy. 
^olien, ne, adj. Eolian, Eolic; Alo- 

Imog relating to Aeolia, or the Greek 

dialect of Aeolia. 
^paete, s. f. epact; kna%t6g, added, 

hndym, to bnng to. 

^pagneul, 8.m. spaniel; O.F. Espag- 
n e u I, according to H y d e from H i s- 

Eaniola, now Haity, where the 
est breed of this dog was. 


~ .68 — 

6pais, se, adj. thiek, gross, dull; O.F. 
espais; spissus (inspissate), 
ipaistenr, s. f. thickness. 

^paneher, v. a. to pour out, to dis- 
close; expandere, to spread out; 
comp. p encher. 

6pandre, v. a. to spread; expan- 
dere, to spread. 

^panouir, t. a. to expand, to brighten ; 
O.F. espanir; expandere. 

^pargner, V. a. to spare, to save; 
O.F. espargner; A.S. sparian; 
6e. sparen; £. spare, 
ipargne, 8. f. economjr, saying. 
^ ^parpiller, v. a. to disperse, to scat- 
ter; It. parpaglione; papilio, a 

6pars, e. adj. dispersed, scattered, 
untied (hair); sparsus p. part, of 
spargere, to scatter (dispersed). 

^paryin, s. m. spavin; O.F. e spar- 
vain; £. spavin; Et d. Skinner 
thinks it from thcroot of spasm. 

^pater, v. a. to break off the foot of 
glasses, to flatten; patte, or ac- 
cording to Scheie r; pslt s. t. 

^paule, s. f. shoulder, epaule; O.F. 

espalde; spathula, dim. of spa- 

tha, a broaa blade; and^ri (spade). 

Epaulette, s. f. shoulder-piece, epaulet. 

^paye. adj. stray; expavidus, very 

mucn afraid. 
^peautre, s. m. spelt; O.F. espaute; 

O.H.G. spelza, 6e. spelz; E. spelt. 
^p^e, s. f. sword; O.F. espee; It. 

spa da; spatha, awd&rj, any broad 

blade, (spade); comp. epaule. 
^peler, v. a. to spell; O.F. espeler; 

£. spell; Goth spellon; O.H.G. 

spellon, to narrate. 
^perda, 69 adj. distracted, despe- 
rate; see per d re. 
^perlan, s. m. smelt ; O.F. esperlan; 

£. sparling. 
^peron, s. m. spur; O.F. esperon; 

A.S.spura; O.H.G.sporo;E.spur; 

Ge. sporn. 
^peryler, s. m. sparrow-hawk; O.F. 

espervier; O.H.G. sparwiri;A.S. 

spaer-hafoc; G. sperber; £. 

^peryin, s. m. see 6parvin. 
' ^ph^mdre, adj. ephemeral; i(^rifisQog 
- lasting but a day, in^ for '^fUQu a 

^pl, 8. m. ear of com, spike; O.F. 
espi spica^ £.. spike 

^piee, s. f. spice; O.F. esp'ece, es- 

pice; species, spices of the same 

sort; £. spice. 

^eerie, s. f. grocery. 

Spieler, s. m. grocer. 
6pid6mie, s. f. epidemy; Bitidrifiia. 
^piderme, s. m. epidermis, cuticle; 

hmdsQfi^g, ini upon, diq\tu^ skin. 
^pier, V. a. to ear corn; see epi. 
^pier, v. a. to spy, to watch; OJF. 6 pie, 

espie; E.spy; O.H.G. spehon, Ge. 

spaehen to spy; comp. espi on.' 
6piea, 8. m. boar-spear ; O.F. e s p i e i I ; 

spiculum,a little sharp point, ("pit). 
6pigramme, s.f epigram; intyQa^ifia^ 

an inscription, iniygdqxo^ to inscribe. 
^pilepsie, s. f. epilepsy; inClri'^ig^ im- 

Xafi§(iv(o, to seize upon, 
ipileptique, adj. epileptic; iniXrjntLnog, 

^piler, y. a. to depilate; depilare, 

pilus, hair; comp. poiL 
^pilogae, s. m. epilogue; miloyog, 

hniXsyoa, to conclude. 

6pinard, s. m. spinage; see 6 pine. 
^pine, s.f. thorn, spine, prickle; O.F. 
e 8 pine; spina, (spine). 

^pinette, s.f. spinet; It. spine tt a; Ge. 

spinett; spina thorn, because its 

quills resemble thorns. 
^pingle, 8. f. pin; O.F. esp ingle; 

spinula dim. of spina, thorn. 
^pinidre, adj. spinal; see epine. 
^piqae, adj. epic ; inmog, ^nog, a word^ 

a tale. 
^piscepal, e, adj. episcopal is, inig- 

Konog, a bishop. 

^piscopat, s. m. episcopate, bishopric; 

episcopatus; intanoTtogj a bishop. 
Episode, s. m. episode; snEiaodog, 
^pistolalre, adj. epistolary; episto- 

laris, epistola, a letter; comp. 

^pitaphe, s. f epitaph; ^mxdquov^ 

hnC, upon, tdtpog, a tomb. 

^pithalame^ s. m. epithalamium, nup- 
tial song; 6nL&aXdfiiov,in^, upon, 9'd- 
Xafiogj a bride-chamber. 

^pithdte, 8. f. epithet; in ^stov^ some- 
thing added, inC, upon, t^^rjiu^ to place. 

^pitre, s. f. epistle, missive; O.F. epis- 

tre; epistola, imaroXi^, a message, 

C9c^, to, otsXXo), to send. 
^pizootie, 8. f. epizooty; ^n^, upon, 

imov, an animal. 
^plor^^ e, adj. in tears, weeping; plo- 

rare, to veep aloud. 

— 69 — 

^plaeher, v. a. to pick, to sift; It pi- 

luccare; pilare; comp. epiler. 
Sponge, s. f. sponge;. O.F. esponge; 
. spongia, anoyyia. 
6pop^e9 B. f. epopee; inonota, inog, 

a tale, noiiat, to make. 
^poque, 8. f. epoch, period; inoxij, 

inixaoj to stop. 
Spenser, v. a. to marry, to espouse; 

see epoux. 
^pousseter, v. a. to dust; see pous- 


^poavanter, v. a. to frighten, to ter- 
rify; O.F. espaventer; expavens 
pr. part, ofexpavere, to be afraid. 
ipouTantable, adj- frightful, terrible, 
ipoavante, s. f. fright, terror. 
^poux, s. m. husband, spouse; OF. 
espous; sponsus p. p. of spon- 
dere, to promise solemnly, 
^pousailles, s. f. pi. spousal, espousals. 
Spouse, 8. f. wife, spouse. 
^preindre, v. a. to express, to squeeze 
out; exprimere; comp. emprein- 

^prendre, (s') pr. v. to become ena- 
moured; see prendre, 
^pris, e, p.p. of ep rend re, enamou- 
red, smitten. 

^preuye, s. f. trial, test, proof; see 

^prouyer, v. a. to try, to put to the 
proof, to experience; ex-probare; 
comp. prouver. 

^puiser, v. a. to exhauste; see pulse r. 

sparer, v. a. to purify, to refine; see 

^qaarrir, v. a. to square, (cut at right 

angles); see equerre. 
^uarrissage, skinning and cutting 

up hordes, (to quarter). 
6quatenr, s. m. equator; aequator, 

aequare, to make equal, so called 

because it divides the earth into two 
. equal parts. 

Equation, s. f. equation; aequatio. 
Equerre, s. f. square (instrument); 

O.F. esquerre; E. square; It. 

quadratus, p.p. of quadrare,to 

make square; quatuor four; comp. 


6questre, adj. equestrian ; equestris, 
equus, horse. 

equi- in comp. equal; aequus. 

equilibre, s. m. equilibrium, balance; 
aequilibrium, aequus, equal, li- 
bra, a balance. 

6qiilD0xe, s. m. equinox; aequinoc- 

tium; aequus, eaual, nox, night 
^qiiiper, v. a. to nt out, to equip; 

O.F. es^quiper; see esquif. 
Equipage, "^ s. m. equipage y carriage, 

equipment, crew, 
^qaitable, adj. equitable, fair, just; 

see equite. 
6quitatioii^ 8. f. horsemanship, riding; 

equitatio, equitare, to ride^ 

equus, h^rse. 

^quit^, s. f. equity, justice, fair play; 

aequitas, 'aequus. equal. 
^quiyalent, adj. equivalent; see next w. 
equiyaloiry v. n. to be equivalent; 

^quiyo^ue, adj. equivocal, ambiguous; 

aequivocns, aequus, equal, vox, 

vocis, a word. 
Arable, s. m. maple, maple-tree; acer 

^rafler, v. a. to scratch, to graze; see 

^railler 9 v. a. to fray, to fret ; see r ai 1 1 e r. 

(bre^ 8. f. erst epoch; aera. 
Erection, s. f. erection, raising; erec- 

tio, erigere, to erect^ 
^reinter, v. a. to .break tne back of, 

to tire out, to knock up; O.F. erei- 

ner; see rein. 
^r^sipMe, a. m. erysipelas; igva^ns- 

Xcrg, iffvd'Qog, red, niXog^ skin, 
ergot, 8. m. spur of certain birds, 

ergot; Et d. 
ergoter, v. a. to cavil, to quibble; 

ergo, therefore. 

^riger, v. a. to erect, to raise; eri- 
gere, regere, to stretch. 

ermite, s. m. hermit; eremita; i^- 
ermitage, s. m. hermitage. 

^rotique, adj. erotic; iganixog, ^gog, 

errata, s. m. pi. errata, erratum; er- 
rata pi. of erpatum, an error. 

erre, s. f. course, way; O.F. errer, to 
travel, to proceed ;iterare,iter, way. 
errant, e, adj. wandering, rambling, 

errer, v. a. to wander, to ramble, to 
err, to blunder; errare, to wander, 
to err. 
erreor, s. f. error, mistake; error. 

erroni, e, adj. erroneous, wrong, un- 
sound; erroneus. 

6radit, e, adj. learned, erudite ; e ru- 
ditus, erudire, (lit to bring out 

— 70 — 

of the natural or rough state) to 

polish, to educate, to instruct; ru- 

dis. rough. 
6raption, s. f. eruption, breaking out-, 

eruptio,erumpere, to burst forth, 
es, cont. of en-les (see th.) in, oi 
escabeaU) s. m. escabelle, s. f. stool, 

crock; scabellum, dim.'of scam- 

num, a bench, a stool. 
eseadre. s. f. squadrqp fleet; It. 

squadra; quadratus, square; see 


escalade, s. f. scaling a wall, escalade; 
It. scalata; scala, a ladder, 
esealader, v. a. to scale, to climb over, 
to escalade. 
esealier, 8. m. staircase; M.L. scala- 

rium, scala, a ladder. 
eseamoter. ?. a. to juggle, to do one 
out of. Et d. 
eseamotenr, s. m. juggler, conjurer. 

escamper, t. n. to scamper off, to 
take to one's heels; It. scam pare; 
excampare, to run from the field 
(of battle); campus, field, (scamp); 
comp. decamp er. 
eseampette^. f. scampering. 

escapade, 8. f. prank, rrolic, escapade; 
It. scappata. It scappare; F. 
^chapper (s. t.). 

esearbot, s. m. stag, horn-beetle; It. 
scarab one, andgapog, rnxgapog'^ 
scarabaeus: comp. scarab^e. 

escarboade. s. f. carbuncle; carbun- 
tulufi, a little coal. 

esearcelle, s. f. purse; O.F. escars, 
eschars; It. scarso, stingy; E. 
eseargot, s. m. snail; Et. d. 
esearmoucbe, s.f. skirmish; It. sca- 
ramuccia;6e. scharmtttzel, from 
It. schermire; O.H.G. skerman, to 
fight; O.H.G. skerm, buckle; Ge. 
schirm. < 
escarpe, 8. f. scarp, escarp; It. scar- 
pa; O.H.G. scarf; Ge. scharf; E. 

•scarps, e, adj. steep. 
•8oarp«r, v. a. to cut steep, to escarp. 
Mearpin, 8. m. pump (shoe), 
•searpolette^ s. f. swing; dim. of es- 

esclent, s. m. knowledge; O.F. sclent; 

sciens, scientis pr. p. of scire, 

to know. 
esclandre, 8. m. scandal ; scandalum, 

endvdaXov, offence. 

esclaye, s. m. f. slave; Ge. sklave, 
from the Slaves or Sclavonians, 
which were reduced to servitude by 
their conquerors the -Germans. 

etolavage, s. m. slavery, bondage. 

escobard, s. m. shuffler, equivocator; 
name of a celebrated Spanish Jesuit 
escobarder, v. a. to shuffle. 

escogriffe, s. m. sharper, shark ; Et d. 

escompte, s. m. discount; It sconto; 
see compter. 

escorte, s.f. escort, convoy; Itscor- 
ta, scortare, scorgere, to per- 
ceive, to accompany; ex-corrigere, 
to set right 

escoaade, squad; Sp. escuadra; It. 
squadra; see escadre. • 

escoiirg^e, s. f. scourge, whip; It. 
corregia,scorregia; corrigia a 
shoe-tie; comp. courroie. 

escrimcr, v. a. to fence; pr. v. to 
endeavour, to try; O.H.G. skerman 
to fight; comp. escarmouche. 
escrime, s. f. fencing. 

escroc, s. m. swindler, cheat; It. 

scrocco; Ge. schurke, (shark). 
eseroquer, v. a. to swindle, to shark, 
escroquerie, s. £ swindling, cheating. 

esculeiit, e, adj. esculent, eatable; 

espace, s. m. space; spatium. 

espadon, s. m. espadon, sword-fish; 
It spadone, spada sword; see 
6 p e e. 

Espagne, s. f. Spain; Hispania. 
espagnol, e, adj. Spanish, 
espagnolette, s. f. baize, espagnolette. 

espalier, s. m. espalier, fruit-wall; 
Itspallieraj spalla; spathula; 
comp. epaule. 

esp^^ee, s. f. species, kind; pi. hard 
cash; species. 

esp^rer, v. a. to hope; s per a re. 
esp^ranee, s. f. hope, expectation, 
espoir, s. m. hope; O.F. espeir. 

espi^gle, adj. frolicsome, waggish; Ge. 
Eulenspiegel(Eule = owl, Spie- 
gel, mirror; speculum, the, name 
of the hero of a very popular old 
German cycle of stories, translated 
into French as Ulespi^gle, later 
contracted into espi^gle. 

espion, s. m. spy; O.F. espie; see 
espionnage, s. m. espionage. 

esplanade, s. f. esplanade; It spia- 
nata; planus, a plaine. 

espoir, s. m. hope; see esp^rer. 

— 71 — 

esponton, s. m. spontoon; It. spun- 

esprit, 8. m. spirit, mind, wit; spi- 

esqnif^ s. m. skifif.; Goth, skip; 6e. 
schiff; E. skiff an4 ship; 0x^917; 
Goth, skipan, to shape. 

esqninaneie, s. f. quinsy; M.L. cy- 
nanche; xvyoy^^, a dog-throtth'ng, 
a sore throat; %viov, dog, icyzfo, to 

esqulne, s. f. loins; yar. of 6 chine 
(8. t). 

esquisse, s. f. sketch; It schizzo 
Ge. skizze; £. sketch; schedinm 
exidiog, near. 

esquiyer, y. a. to eyade, to ayoid ; O.F. 
eschiyer; Ge. scheuen, to ayoid; 
M.H.G.schiech;Ge. scheu;E. shy. 

essai, s. m, trial, essay; It. saggio; 
exag'ium; B^ayiov^ weight. 

essaim, s. m. swarm; ex am en, cont. 
of exagmen, a swarm. 

essarter, y. a. to gruh, to assart; ex- 
saritum, ex-sarire, to weed. 

essayer, y. a. to try, to essay, to at- 
tempt; see essai. 

essay enr, s. m. assayer; see essai. 

esse, s. f. linch-pin; so called from 
its form heing like the letter s. 

essence, s. f. essence, substance; es- 
sentia, esse, to be. 
eisentiel, le, adj: essential, material. 

essieu, s. m. axle-tree, spindle; O.F. 
aissieu; It. assiculo; axiculus, 
dim. of axis. 

essor, s. m. flight, soar; O.F. es so- 
rer; ex-aurare, aura, air. 

essoriller, y. a. to cut the ears of 
animals, to crup; O.F. essoreiller; 
ex-auriculare; see oreille. 

essouffler, y. a. to put out of breath, 
to wind horses; see souffle. 

essuyer, t. a. to wipe, to dry; ex- 
sugare, to suck out (humidity). 
esBui, s. m. drying place, drying room, 
essnie-main, s. m. towel. 

essayer, y. a. to sustain, to endure, 
to experience; Scheler thinks this 
distinct from the preceding, and gives 
as root; exequere for exequi, 
exsequijin the signification of: to 

est, s. m. east; O.H.G. 6stan; E. 
east; Ge. ost. 

estaeade, s. f. stockade, boom, barri- 
cade; It. stacca; Ge. stock; E. 
stake, stick, etc. 

estafette, s. f. express, estafette; It 
staffetta, staffa, stirrup, O.H.G. 
stephan, Ge. stapfen; E. step. 

.estafllade, s. f. cut, gash; staffilata, 
a cut with the stirrup leather; staf- 
fa stirrup; see prec. 

estaminet, s.m. smoking-room, beer- 
house; Duteh, Et. d. 

estamper, y. a. to stamp; It. stam- 
fen; E. stamp. 

estampe, s. f. print, engraving, stamp, 
estampille, s. f. stamp, mark. 

esth^tique, adj. aesthetic; aesthetical ; 
aia9iitL%6g, perceptible, aHa&riai ? , per- 
ception by the senses. 

estimer, y.a. to estimate, to value, to 

esteem; aestimare. 
eitimfttion, s. f. estimating, estimate, 
estimfi, s. f. esteem, estimation. 

estiyal, e, adj. estival, summer; aes- 
tivalis for aestivus; comp. ^t^. 

estoe, s. m. tuck (sword), trunk of 
trees, stock; Ge.stock, stick, trunk, 
estooade, s. f. stoccado, unexpected 

estomae, s.m. stomach; stomachus, 
az6(Mt%ogy arofuc, a mouth. 

estompe, s. f. stump; Ge. stump f 

blunt; E. stump. 
estrade, s. f. platform, estrade; stra- 
tum, a pillow, pavement; sternere, 

to spread out 
estragon, s.m. tarragon, wild dragon 

(plant); artemisia dracunculus, 

draco, dragon. 
estrama(;on, s. m. two edged-sword; 

It stramazzone. 
estrapade, s. f. strappado, estrapade; 

Itstrappata, strappare, to pull. 
estropier, v. a. to cripple, to maim, 

to mutilate; It stroppiare, stor- 

pi are; tor pi du 8, benumbed, torpid. 
esturgeon, s. m. sturgeon; M.L. stu- 

rio, sturgio; O.H.G. sturio; Ge. 

et, conj. and; et 
stable, s. f. stable; O.E. est able; 

stabulum, stare, to stand. 

6tablir, v. a. to establish, to place, 
to settle; stabilire, stabilis, 
stable, stare, to stand, 
^tablissement, s. m. establishment. 
6tage, s. m. stoir oi a house, floor; 
O.P. estage; M.L. stagium, sta- 
re, to stand (stage), 
itagire, s. f. a what-not. 

— 72 ^ 

4 tai, 8. m. €tale , s. f. stay , prop^ 
O.F. estai; E. stay, D. staede; 
E. steady, stay. 

^tain. 8.m. tin.;8tannuin; stagnain, 
a piece of standing water, stare, to 

6tal, s. m. butchers stall, stall, shop; 
O.F. estal-, E. stall; O.H.G. stal; 
Ge. stall, stable; comp. stalle. 
^talAge, s. m. exposure for sale, shop- 
window, stall, display. 
Staler, v. a. to expose for sale, to dis- 

^talon, s. m. stallion ; It. s t al 1 a, stable ; 
comp. etal. 

^talon, 8. m. standard of weight and 

measure; O.H.G. stal; comp. etal. 
dtalonner, y. a. to gauge. 
^tamer, y. a. to tin, to plate glass; 

see ^tain. 
^tamage, s. m. tinning, quicksilvering. 
^tamine, s. f. stamm; stamineus, 

consisting of threads; stamen, 

^tancber, y. a. to stop, to stanch 

blood etc., to quench thirst; O.F. 

estancher; E. stanch; stagnate, 

to make. stagnant 

^tan^on, s. m. stanchion, prop; O.F. 

estance; stans, stantis, pr.p. of 

stare to stand. 
^tangyS.m.pond, pool; O.F. estang; 

^tanlL pr.p. of dtre (see this) being; 

O.F. estant; stans pr.p. of stare, 

to stand. 
^tape9 s. f. halting place for troops, 

rations, forage; OF. estape, es- 

taple; E. staple; M.L. stapula, 

Ge. 8 tap el, a pile, a staple or mart. 

^tat* s.m. state, condition, inventory; 
O.F. estat; status, stare, to stand. 
4tat-sugor, s. m. staff; see major. 

^tao^ p.m. vice (machine); Scheler 
thmks the Ge. stock, stick, block, 
to be the root, because in the Lor- 
raine dialect it is eitauque. 

stayer 9 v. a. to stay, to prop; see 

^t^^s.m. snmmer; O.F. est^; aestas. 

^t^9 p. p, of ^tre; been; status, 
stare; see &tre and etant. 

^telndre, y. a« to extinguish; O.F. es- 
teindre; extinguere. 
^tdgaoir, s. f. extinguisher. 
^tendard. s. m. standard, colours, 
flag; O.F, eftendard,£. standard; 

Ge.BtaBdarte; M.L.standardum; 

ex tender e, to extend. 
^tendrCy y. a. to extend; O.F. esten- 

dre; extendere. 
^ternel, le, adj. eternal; aeternalis, 

itemiti, s. f 'eternity; aeternitas. 
itemiser, y. a. to eternize. 
^ternuer, y. n. to sneeze; st emu- 

itennunent, 8. m. sneezing, sternuta- 
^teule, esteable, s. f. stubble; O.H.G. 

stuphila; E. stubble; Ge. stop- 
pel; (stipula). 
^tner, s. m. ether; aether; a^^if?, aC- 

d'co, to shine. 
^thique, adj. ethic, ethical; i^&ntog^ 

ri&ogj custom, manners. 
^thnologie, s. f. ethnology; ^d'vog, a 

nation, Xoyog, a discourse. 
^tineelle, s. f. spark; O.F. estin- 

celle, for escintele; scintilla, 
itinoeler, y. a. to sparkle, to glitter. 
dtioler^ y.a. to etiolate, to emaciate; 

W. gives a^ro, to shine. 
6tiqae. adj. consumptive, hectic; hti- 

nog habitual, or consumptive; i^ig, 

habit of body. 
etiquette, s. f label, etiquette, ticket; 

O.H.G. steccha, Ge. stecken; E. 

^tiqueter, y. a. to label, to ticket. 
6tisie, s. f. consumption; subst. from 

etiqne s. t. 
6toffe, s. f. stuff, materials; O.F. es- 

toffe; Ge. stoff; E. stuff. 
^toile, s. f. star; O.F. estoile, es- 

teile; Stella, (constellation). 
6toil6,e, adj. starry, stellar; stellatus. 
^tole, 8. f. stole; O.F. e stole; stola 

otoXtj^ a garment, atilloo, to array. 
^tonner, y. a. to astonish, to astound ; 

O.F. estonner; ex-tonnare for 

attonnare, to thunder at, to stun, 
^tonnant, e, adj. astonishing, marvellous, 
^tozmement, s. m. astonisnment. 
6toiiffer, y. a. to suffocate, to choke; 

to smother; O.F. estouffer; O.F. 

touffe, It. tufo, tuffo; Tvq>og, 

^toape, s. f. tow, oakum; O.F. es- 

toupe; It. stoppa; M.L. stuppa; 

Ge. stopfen; E. stopper, 
itouper, y. a. to stop with tow, or 

^tonpilloii, s. m. toppin. 
^tourdir, y. a. to stun, to render gid- 

— 73 — 

dy; O.F. estourdir, It. stordire, 
Sp. aturdir, the root of which ac- 
cording to Covarruvias, is the Sp. 
tordo; turdus, thrash, because the 
thrush suddenly gets giddy from the 
heat of the sun and falls down, 
^tonrderie, s. f. thougthlessness, giddi- 

6tourneaa, s. m. starling ; s t u r n e 1 1 u s, 
dim. of stum us. 

strange, adj. strange, odd; O.F. es- 
trange; E. strange; extraneus. 
Stranger, s. m. ire, s. f. stranger, for- 
eigner, foreign country. 

^trangler, v. a. to strangle; O.F. es- 
trangler; strangulare, azgayya- 
li^mf erQctyyctXTj^ a halter. 

^traper, v. a. to cut with a sickle; 
O.F. estraper, estreper; It 
strappare; comp. estrapade. 
^trape, s. f. sickle for cutting, stubble. 
Stre, V. n. to be; O.F. estre; M.L. 
essere for esse. 
Atre, s.' m. being. 

6tr^cir, V. a. to narrow, to straiten; 
O.F. estrecir; see ctroit and r6- 
^trioijiMment, 8. m. narrowing, shrink- 
^treindre, v. a. to bind up tight, to 
clasp, to hug; O.F. estreinare; 
stringere, (stringent), 
itreinte, s. f clasping, twining, hug. 

£tr^nne9S. f. handsel, new year's gift; 
• O.F. estrenne; strenae. Noni- 

. us Marcellus refers the origin 
of New Years gifts among the Ro- 
mans to Titus Tatius, king of the 
Sabines, who, having considered as 
a good omen a present of some 
branches, cut in a wood, consecrat- 
ed to Strenia the goddess of 
strength, which he received on the 
first day of the new year, author- 
ized the custom afterwards, and gave 
these gifts the name of Strenae, 
747 b. c 

6trenner, v. a. to handsel, to give a 
new years gift. 

^trier, s. m. stirrup; OF. estrier, 
for estrivier; O.F. estref; M.L. 
Btrepa; Ge. strippe; £. strap. 

^trille, 8. i curry-comb; O.F. es- 
trille; Ge. striegel; strigilis, 
stringer e, to draw tight, to pull off. 

^triqvef^T.a. to narrow, to straiten; 

Et d. Ge. Btrick, rope, string, 
s tree ken, to stretch, 
^triqni, e, adj. scanty, poor. 
^trividre, s. f. stirrup-leather; see 

6troit, e, adj. narrow, strait; st ric- 
tus, stringere, to strain. 

6tron, s. m. dirt, filth; O.F. estront; 
M.L. strontus; O.H.G. strunten, 
to cut, (offal). 

^tude, s.f. study; O.F. estude; stu- 


itndiant, s. m. student, 
itudier, v. a. to study. 
6tai. s. m. case, box O.F. estui; It. 

astuccio; Port, estojo; Et. d. 

Langensiepen proposes stu- 

dium; see prec. 
^tave, s.f. sweating- house, room, stove, 

drying -room; O.F. estuve; E. 

stove; O.ll.G. stupa; Ge. stube, 

etymologic, s. f. etymology; IrvftoAo- 

y/a, itvy,ov, true original, root, 16- 

yoQj a word. 
eu, p. part, of a v oi r, s. t, for 6-u; O.F. 

evud, eviit, evut, 6ut; habitum. 

eacharistie, s. i. eucharist; svxagia- 

ti*a, giving of thanks. 
eunaque, s. m. eunuch; svvovxog, 

svvrj^ a bed, ^x^j to take charge of. 

euph^misme, s. m. euphemism; £i)- 

(priiiia^ogj £v, well, <fripbl, to speak. 
euphonic, s.f. euphony; svtpavia, av, 

well, qpajvij, sound, 
euphonique, adj. euphonic. 
eux, pi. of lui, 8. t.; O.F. els, pi. of el, 

il, s. t. 
6vacuer, v. a. to evacuate, to clear; 

evacuare, vacuus, empty. 

Evader, (s^) pr. to escape; evadere, 
to go forth, V ad ere, to go (evade). 

^Tagation, s.f. evagation; evagatio, 
evagari, to roam about. 

^valuer, v. a. to value, to estimate, 
to assess; see valeur. 
^valaation, s. f. valuation, estimate. 

^vangile, s. m. gospel ; svayyiXiov, the 
glad tidings, sv, well, dyyilla, to bring 
ivan^elique, adj. evangelic; fvayye- 

^yanouir, (s^) pr. v. to faint, to va- 
nish; evanescere, vanus, empty, 
^vanooissement, s. m. fainting, swoon. 

^vaporer, v. a. to evaporate, to vent; 

— 74 — 

evaporare, vapor, vapor; comp. 


ivaporatloB, 8. f. evaporation. 
Uvaser, v. a. to widen, to extend; see 

^vasif, vCy adj. evasive; evasam, 

sup. of evadere; see evader. 
Evasion, 8. f. escape, breaking out of 

prison; evasum; see prec. 
^v6eh6, 8. m. bishopric, episcopate, 

bishop's palace; see ^v^que. 

^veiller, v. a. to awake, to rouse; 

e vigil are, to awake (vigilant). 
4v6il, s. m. hiut, warning, alert 

^v^nement, s. m. event, emergency; 
It evenimento;evenire,tocome. 

^ventail, s. m. fan ; see next w. 

^venter, v. a. to fan, to air, to divul- 
ge; see vent, (ventilate). 

^ventrer, v. a. to embowel, to even- 
terate, to rip up; see ventre. 

^ventuel^le, adj. eventual, uncertain; 
eventus, p.p. of e venire, to come; 
comp. ^v^nement 
iventaalit^, s. f. uncertainty, contin- 

^v^que, 8. m. bishop; O.F. eves que. 
It vescovo; episcopus, iniano- 
nog, an overseeer; ixi^ over, enonm, 
to look. 

Aversion, s. f. eversion, subversion, 
overthrow; eversio, evertere, to 

^vertner, (s^) pr. v. to exert one*s 
self, to strive; see vertu. 

Eviction, 8. f. ejection, ouster; evic- 
tio, evincere, to overcome com- 

Evidence, s. f. obviousness, evidence, 
evidentia, videre, to see. 

Evident, e, adj. evident, obvious; 

evidens-tis, videre, to see. 
^videment, adv. evidently, obviously. 

^vider, v. a. to hollow, to scoop out; 
see vider. 

^vier, 8. m. sink, sink-stone; O.F. 6ve, 
water; comp. eau. 

^vineer, v. a. to evict, to oust; evin- 

6viter, V. a. to avoid; e vita re. 

^vitable, adj. avoidable. 
Evolution, 8. f. evolution; evolutio, 

evolvere, to evolve. 
^Toquer, v. a. to evoke, to call up; 

ivoeation, b. f. evocation, raising of 


^Tiil8lon,B.£ evnlsion; evulsio, evel- 

lore, to pull out 
ex, pref. out; ex; comp. e. 
exaet, e, adj.* exact, correct, precise; 

exactus, exigere, to exact 
exaotitade, 8. £ exactness, correctness, 


exactenr, s. m. exactor; exactor; 

exigere, to exact 
exaetion, s. f. exaction, extortion; 

exactio, exigere, to exact 

exag^rer, v. a. to exaggerate; exag- 
gerare, agger, a heap, 
ezag^tion, s. f. exaggeration. 
exalter, v. a. to exalt, to elate, to 

glorify; exaltare, altus, high, 
exaltation, s. f. exaltation, raising, 

examen, s. m. examination; ex am en, 
cont from exagmen, a swarm of 
bees* a weighing, examination; exi- 
gere, to exact 

ezaminaer, v. a. to examine, to con- 
sider; examinare. 

examinatenr, s. m. examiner. 

exasp^rer, v. a. to incense, to exas- 
perate; exasperare,a8per, rough, 
exasp^ation, s. f. exasperation. 

exaueer, v. a. to hear, to grant; O.F. 
eshalcer; var. of exhausser, 8.t. 

excaver, v. a. to excavate, to hollow; 

excavare, cavus, hollow, 
excavation, s. f. excavation. 
exc^der, v. a. to exceed; excedere, 

cedere, to go. • 

exceller..v. a. to excel, to surpass; 

excellence, s. f. excellence, excellen- 
cy; excellentia. 
excdlent, e, adj. excellent; excellens, 
excentrique. adj. eccentric; ex- cen- 
tre, out 01 the centre; see centre, 
excentriciti, s. f. eccentricity. 

exceptor, v. a. to except; exceptare, 
freq. of excipere to take out, to 
except; cap ere, to take, 
exception, s. f. exception; exceptio. 
exceptionnel, le, adj. exceptional, 
exc^s. 8. m. excess; excessus, ex- 
cedere; see ekceder. 
excessif, ve, adj. excessive; see prec. 

exciter, v. a. to excite, to rouse; ex- 
citare, exciere, to move, 
excitability, s. f. excitability, 
excitant, s. m. excitant, stimulant 

— 75 — 

exclamer, y. a. to exclaim; excla- 
mare, clamare, to cry out 
ezolamation, 8. i. exclamation. 
exelure, v. a. to exclude, to shut out*, 
excludere, claudere, to shut, 
ezelusif, ve, adj. exclusive; exclu- 
sum, sup. of excludere. 
ezdnsion, s. f. exclusion; exclusio^. 

exeonlmaniery v. a. to excommunicate ! 

excommuuicare (communis), to 

exclude 'from the community of the 


excommunication, s. f. excommunication. 
exeorier, v. a. to excoriate; exco- 

riare, corium, skin, 
excoriatilon, s. f. excoriation. 
exer^ment, s. m. excrement; excre- 

mentum, axe erne re, to separate. 
exeroissanee, s. f. excrescence; ex- 

crescere; see croitre. 
excursion 9 s. f. excnrsion; excur- 

sio, excurrere, to run forth. 

excuser, v. a. to excuse, to apologize; 
excusare, causari, to hlame. 
excusable, adj. excusable; 
excuse, s. f. excuse, apology. 
ex^erer, V. a. to execrate; execrari, 
sacer, sacred, 
execrable, adj. execrable, 
execration, s. f. execration. 
exeeuter, v. a. to execute, to achieve; 
executus, p.p. of exequi, to car- 
ry out. 

ex^utif, ve, adj. executive, 
ex^ution, s. f. execution, performan- 
ce; executio. 

exemple, s. m. example, instance; 

exemplaire, adj. exemplary; exempla- 
.exemplaire, s. m. model, copy (of books, 

medals etc.); exemplar. 
exempt, c^ adj. exempt, free ; -e x e m p- 
tus, eximere, to take out. 
exempter, vr a. to exempt, to dispense, 
exemption, s. f. exemption, dispensa- 
tion; exeraptio. 
exereer, v. a. to practice ; e x e r c e r e, 
to exercise. 
exereice, s. m. exercise, practice; 

exergue, s. m. exergue ; l'£, out, ^'gyov^ 
exfolier, (s') pr. v. to exfoliate; ex- 
foliare, folium, leaf. 

exhaler, v. a. to exhale, to emit; ex- 
. Italare, to breathe out. 

ezhalalflon, 8.1 exhalation, effluvium; 

exhausser, v. a. to raise up; exal- 
tare; see haut and hausser. 

exh^r^der, v. a. to exheredate, to dis- 
inherit; exheredare^heres, a hair. 

cxhiber, v. a. to exhibit, to produce; 
exhibere, habere, to have, 
exhibition, s. f. exhibition, produ- 
cing; exhibitio. 

exhorter, v. a. to exhort; exhortaxi; 

exhumer, V. a. to exhume, to dig up. 

ex, out, humus, ground, 
exhumation, 8. f. exhiunation, disinter- 

exiger, ▼. a. to exact, to require; exi- 
gere; agere, to drive, 
exigeuit, e, adj. exigent, unreaso- 
nable, particular. 

exigence, s. f. exigence, requirement, 
exigible, adj. demandable, exigible, 
exigu, e, adj. scanty, slender, small; 

exiguity, s. f. scantiness, slenderness. 
exil,8.m. exile, banishment; exilium. 
exiler, v. a. to exile, to banish. 

exister, v. a. to exist; exi store, 
si store, to place, 
existence, s. f. existence. 

exode, s. m. exodus; i^odog, a going 

exon^rer, v. a. to exonerate, to dis- 
charge; exonerare; onus, a load. 

exorbitant, e, adj. exorbitant, exces- 
sive; ex, out, or bit a, an orbit. 

exoreiser, V. a. to exorcise; c£o^x^<», 

oQTiogy an oath, 
exorcisme, s. m. exorcism; i^ogitiaitdg, 

a swearing. 
exorde, s. m. exordium; exordium, 

exordiri, to begin. 
exotique, adj. exotic ; ex o ti c u s ; i£<»- 

Ttxos, f|(», without. 
expansible, adj. expansible; expan- 

s u m, sup. of e X p a n d e r e, to expand, 
expansif, re, adj. expansive; expan- 

sum; see prec. 

expansion, s. f. expansion ; e x p a n s i o, 
expandere; see prec. 

expatrier, v. a. to expatriate; M.L. 
expatriare; patria, native coun- 

expectant, e, adj. expectant; expec- 
tans-tis, expectare. 

expectatif, ve, adj. expectant; see 

expectorer^ v. a. to expectorate ; ex- 

— 76 — 

Eectorare, pectus, •oris, the 
expectoration, s. f. expectoration. 
exp^dier, y. a. to despatch, to expe- 
dite, to send; expedire, pes, pe- 
dis, foot. 

erp6diexLt, s. m. expedient, 
exp^diteur, s. m. sender, shipper, 
exp^tion, s. f. expedition, despatch, 
experience 9 s. f. experience, expe- 
riment; experientia, experiri, 
to try. 
experimenter 9 v. a. to experience, 
to experiment, to try ; e xp crime n- 
tum, experiri, to try. 
expert, e, adj. expert; expertus, 

experiri, to try. 
expier, ▼. a. to atone for, to expiate ; 
expiare, pius, pious, 
expiation, s. f. atonement, expiation, 
expiatoire, adj. expiatory. 
expirer, v. n. to expire; expirare, 

spirare, to hreathe. 
expiration, s. f. expiration, expiry. 
expietif, ve, adj. emphatic, exple- 
tive; expletivus, explore, to fill. 
expliquer, y. a. to explain, to illus- 
trate; explicare, to unfold, 
explication, s. f. explanation, explica- 

explicite, adj. explicit; explicitus. 
exploit, s. m. exploit, deed, feat, 
writ; explicit um, finished, expli- 
care, to unfold, 
exploitation, s. f. working, 
exploiter, v. a. to work, to make the 
most of, to impose upon. 
explorer, v. a. to explore; explora- 

re, plorare, to cry out. 
explosion, s. f. explosion; explosio, 
exploder e, to drive out by clap- 
ping; plaudere, to clap. 
explosif, ve, adj. explosive. 
exporter, v. a. to export; exportare, 
portare, to carry, 
exportateur, y. a. exporter, 
exportation, s. f. exportation. 
exposer, y. a. to expose, to exhibit, 
to propound; exponere, exposi- 
tum, ponere, to place. 
expoB^, s. m. statement, 
exposition, s. f. exhibition, exposure. 
exprds, esse, adj. express; expres- 
sus p. p. of exprimere, to press 
exprimer, y. a. to express, to press 
out; exprimere. . 

exproprier, v. a. to dispossess ; M.L. e x- 
propriare, proprius, one's own. 
expropriation, s. f. dispossession. 

expalser, y. a. to expel, to eject; 
expulsare freq. of expellere. 
expulsion, s. f. expulsion, expulsio, 
expulsum, sup. of expellere. 

^xpnrgrer, y. a. to expurgate; expur- 
gare, purgare, to cleanse.* 

exquis, e, adj. exquisite ; exquisitus, 
p. p. of exquirere, to search out. 

extase, s. f. transe, extasy; iHaraoig, 
displacement, in, out, iffTi^fti, to place. 

extensible, adj. extensible ; extensus 
p. p. of extendere. 

exstensif, re, adj. of extension, ex- 
tending; see prec. 

extension, s. f. exstension; extensio, 

ext6nuer, y. a. to enfeeble, to weaken, 

to extenuate; extenuare, tenuis, 


extenuation, s. f. extenuation. 
exterienr, e, adj. exterior, external, 

foreign; exterior comp. of exter, 

exterus, external. 

exterminer, v. a. to exterminate, to 
destroy; exterminare, terminus, 
extermination, s. f. extermination. 

externe, adj. external, s. m. day-pu- 
pil; externus, exter, external. 

extinction, s.f. extinction; ex tine tio, 
extinguere, to extinguish. 

extirper, v. a. to extirpate, to root 
out; exstirpare, stirps, root. 

• extirpation, s. f. extirpation, destruc- 

extorquer, v. a. to extort; extor- 
quere, torquere, to twist, 
extoreion, s. f. extorsion, extorsio. 

extra, s. m. extra; extra, beyond. 

extraction, s. f. extraction; extrac- 
tio, extrahere, to extract, tra- 
here, to draw. 

extradition, s.f. extradition; ex from, 
traditio, a giving up. 

extraire, v. a. to extract; extrahe- 
re, trahere, to draw, 
extrait, s. m extract; extractus. 

extraordinaire, adj. extraordinary, 
unusual; extra-ordinarius, extra, 
beyond, ordinarius, ordinary. 

extravagner, y. n. to rave, to talk 
extravagantly; extra, beyond, ya- 
gari, to wander, 
extravagance, s. f . extravagance, folly. 

-T- 77 — 

exaberant, e, adj. exuberant; exa- 
be ran 8, exuberare, to come forth 
in abundance, 
exnberanee, s. f. exuberance. 
exulc^rer, to exulcerate; exu Ice ra- 
re, ulcus, ulcer, 
exeolc^ration, s. f. cxulceration. 
ex-TOto, 8. m. votive offering; ex 
voto, votum, a vow. 

fa« 8. m. f in music. 

fable, s. f. fable, story; fab u la. 
fabliau, s. m. fabliau, metrical tale 
by poets of the North of France 
in the 12^ and iS^h cenruries. 

fabrique, s.f. manufacture, fabrication, 
mill, factory, vestry-board ; f a b r i c a, 
a workshop, faber, a workman, 
fabricant, s. m. manufacturer, mill- 
ftkbrication, s. f. manufacture, fabrica- 
tion, make, 
fabriqner, v. a. to manufacture, to 
make, to forge; comp. forge. 
fabuleux, se, adj. fabulous; see 

fabuliste, s. m. fabulist; see fable. 

face, s.f. face, front, aspect; facie s, 
facere, to make. 
fa9ade, s. f. front, face , frontage , fa- 

faoette, s. f. facet, face. 
fac^tie, s. f. facetiousness, joke; fa- 
cetiae, witticisms, 
fao^tieux, ie, adj. facetious, jocular. 

ffteher, v. a. to offend, to make angry, 
to vex; O.F. fascher, Prov. fasti- 
car; fastidium, dislike, fastidi- 

fachenz, se, adj. grievous, sad, vexa- 
facile, adj. easy, facile; facilis, fa- 
cere, to make. 

feuuliti, s. f. facility, readiness; faci- 

faoiliter, v. a. to facilitate; facili- 

faQon, s.f. shape, fashion, workman- 
ship; £. fashion; factio, a making 
or doing, facere, to make. 

fa^onner, v. a. to make, to work up, 
to shape. 

fafonnier, iere, adj. ceremonious, for- 

fae-simile, s. m. facsimile; abbr. of 

factum, made, simile, alike. 
facteur, s. m. msdcer, manufacturer, 
postman, factor ; factor, maker, fa- 
cere, to> make, 
faotage, s. m. porterage, 
faotorerie or faotorie, 8. f. factory, 
factice, adj. factitious, artificial, imi- 
tation; factitius, facere, to make, 
factieux, ease, acy. factious; fac- 

tiosus, facere, to make. - 
faction, s. f. faction, sentry, factio, 
facere, to do. 

faotionnaire, s. m. sentinel, sentry. 
factotum, s. m. factotum; fac (fa- 
cere), do, totum, all 
f^cture, invoice, composition (of music, 
verse etc.); factura, facere, to 
faculty*, s. f. faculty, power, virtue; 
facultas, facul, facilis, easy, 
focoltatii; Y6, adij. optional. 
fade, adj. insipid, dull; fatuus, foo- 
lish, silly, 
fadaiie, s. f. trifle, silly trifle, 
fadeor, s. f. insipid thing, insipid com- 
fagot, s. m. fagot, bundle; fax, fac is, 

fagoter, v. a. to make fagots, to dress 
fagotin, s. m. small fagot, monkey 

dressed up, fool. 
faible, adj. weak, feeble ; O.F. foible, 
floible; It. fievole; flebilis, la- 

faiblesse, s! f. weakness, feebleness, 
faiblir, v. a. to become, to get weak, 
to slakcn. 
faYance, s. f. faience, crockery-ware; 
from Faenza, a town in Italy, 
falencerie, s. f. crockery-ware,, crocke- 
ry-ware factory, 
faienoier, s. m. crockery-ware man, 

— 78 — 

Mlliry v. n. to err, to fail, to be 
near; fallere, to deceive, otpdXXo' 
flat; coxnp. falloir, faute. 

&ille, 8. f. fault. 

fkillif 8. m. bankrupt. 

faiUiUti, s. f fallibility 

fiuUiUe, adj. fallible. 

fiullite, 8. f. failure, bankruptcy. 
faim^ 8.f. hunger; fames; comp. fa- 

faine, 8. f beech-nut; O.F. faKne; fa- 
gin us, of beech; fag us, beech. 
faineant, e. adj. idle, lazy; fait, see 
faire^ neaht, s. t 
foinianter, y. a. to idle, to laze. 
fainiantlMe, 8. f. idleness, laziness. 
foire, V. a. to make, to do, to accus- 
tom, to cause; O.F. fere; facere. 
faisable, adj. practicable, feasible. 
fBiama, s. m. maker, monger, doer, 
fait, s. m. fact, deed; factum. 

faisan, s.m. pheasant; O.F. faisant, 
£. pheasant; phasianus, (paaia- 
v6g^ the Phasian (bird), <^aaig, a ri- 
ver in Colchis, 
fftisander, v. a. to give a flavour of 

faisanderie, s. f. pheasantry. 
faisceau, 8. m. bundle, fasciculus, 

file of arms; O.F. faiscel; fascel- 
us, for fasciculus dim. of fas- 
cis bundle. 

faiseur,. s. m. maker, monger, doer; 

see faire. 
fait, 8. m. £Bict, deed; see faire. 
fatte, 8. f. stop, summit; O.F. faiste; 

faitiire, s. f hip, ridge-tile. 
faix, 8. m. burden, weight; fas c is, 

falaise, s. f. cliff; O.F. fa Use; M.L. 

falesia; O.H.G. felis; 6e. fels. 
falbala, s. m. furbelow; the same in 

Sp. Port.; 6e. falbel, Et. d. Some 

propose E. furbelow. 

fallaeieux, se, adj. fallacious; O.F. 
fallace, fallacy; fall acia,fallere, 
to deceive. . 

falloir, V. n. must, to be necessary, 
to be obliged; O.F. faldre; f al- 
io re; see faillir. 

falot, 8. m. a large lantern, tallow 
lamp; (pavog^ a lantern. 

Dalot, 6, adj. droll , comical fellow ; Et. d. 

falonrde, s. f. bundle of firewood; 
according to Nicot:faixlourd s.t. 

falsifler, T.a. to falsify, to adulterate; 

falsifi care, falsus, false, facere, 
to make, 
fiftlaifieatenr, s. m. falsifier, adulterator. 
fUtiiieation, s. f. falsification, adulte- 
fam^, e, adj. famed, of repute; O.F. 
fame, fame; f am at us, fama, g^iifii}, 
q)riii^, to say. 

faiii6ux,86, adj. famous, renowned, 
famosus, fama; see prec. 
famille, s. f. family, tribe; f am ilia, 
the whole of the slaves in a house- 
hold; famulus, a slave. • 
familiarJBer, v. a. to familiarize, to 
familiarity, s. m. familiarity; fami- 

fRmilier, ire, adj. familiar, free; fa- 
famine, s. f. famine; see faim. 
fanal, s. m. ship's lantern, beacon; 

ipavog, a lantern; comp. falot 
fanatique, adj. fanatic, bigoted; fana- 
tic us, inspired by a divinity, fa- 
num, a temple. 
faner, v. a. to turn grass, to tarnish, 
to fade; foenum^ hay; comp. foin. 
fanage, s. m. turning of grass , price 

of turning grass. 
fanaiion; see fen ai son. 
fane, s. f. fallen leaves , dead leaves. 
fanfan, s. m. darling, duck; cent, of 
. enfant, s. t. 

fanfare, s. f. flourish of trumpets ; sup- 
posed to be an onomatopoeia, 
fanfaron, s. m. blusterer, fanfaron, 

boaster, braggart, 
fanfiuronnade, s.f. blustering, boasting, 

fanfrelacne, s. f. bauble, gewgaw; 
O.F. fanfelue, It. fanialuca, a 
flake, supposed to be a corruption 
of noiiq>6Xv^, a bubble. 
fange, s. f. mud, dirt; O.F. fane; 
Goth, fani; E. fen. 
fangeuz, 86, adj. muddy, dirty, 
fanoii, s. m. fetlock, fin, fanon, fannel; 
O.H.G. van o; 6e. f ah ne, flag; p an- 
nus, cloth. 
fantaisie, s. f. imagination, fancy; 
phantasia; tpavtaaia^ tpavrain, 
to cause to appear, (fantastic). 
fantasmagorie, s. f. phantasmagoria, 
dissolving view; tpavtaafia a phan- 
tasm, ayoQccofuiiy to assemble. 
fantasqae, adj. fantastic, fanciful; cent 
of f^ntastique, tpavtaati%6g] see 

— 79 — 

fantassin, s. m. foot-soldier; It. ian- 
taccino, fante, (infant); see in- 
fante rie. 

fantdme, s. m. phantom, shadow; 
qxivxaanci, (pavtatto^ to make visible. 

faon, s. m. doe, fawn; O.F. feon; 
f e t u 8 (Scheler), i n f an s, child (Che v.). 
faoxiner, y. a. to fawn. 

faquiu, s. m. mean rascal, puppy; 
Dutch: van t- kin, yentje ayoung- 
ster, or Arab.: faqir, poor, mise- 

farce, s. f. farce, drollery, practical 
joke; see farcir. 
farceur, s. m. a comic, droll person. 

farein, s. m. farcy; fare im en, far- 
cire; see next w. 

fareir, v. a. to stuflF, to cram; fa re ire. 

fard, s. m. paint, rouge; O.H.G. ge- 
farwit, ge-farit p. p. of farw- 
jan; Ge. faerben, to colour, 
farder, v. a. to paint. 

fardeau, s. m. burden, load; Arab: 
fard, notch, things, etc. 

farfadet, s. m. farfadet, frivolous per- 
son; It. farf a tola; It. farfalla, but- 
terfly, light; pa pill 0. 

farfouiller, v. a. to rummage; Et d. 
fouiller? s. t 

faribole, s. f. idle stoi-y, trifle; E. d. 

farine, s.f. flour; farina, (farinaceous), 
farinenz, se, adj. mealy, farinaceous. 

tarouehe, adj. wild, fierce, shy ; ferox; 
comp. feroce. 

fascine, s. f. bush, fagot, fascine; 
fascina, fascis, bundle. 

fasciner, v. a. to fascinate; fas c in are, 

fas6ole, s. f. phasel; p has el us; qpa- 

faste, s. m. pomp, pageantry, display ; 

fastus, pride, 
fastuenx, se, adj. pompous, osten- 
tatious, magnificent 
fastes, 8.m. pi. records, annals; fasti, 

fastidieiix. se, adj. wearisome, tire- 
some; fastidiosus, fastidium, 
dislike, (fastidious). 
fat,'adj foppish; fatuus. 
fatuity, s. £ seliconceit. 
fatal, e, acy. fatal; fatalis, fatum, 

fatalismei 8. m. fatalism, 
fatality, s. f. fatality. 
fatigraer, v. a. to fatigue, to tire; 
fa tig are, fatim, sufdcienuy, age re, 
to dnve. 

ftttigne, s. f. fatigue, weariness. 
faubourg, s. m. suburb; faux = 
bourg (see these); others derive the 
O.F. forsbourg, from fors (see 
hors), butDiez thinks forsbourg 
of more recent formation than fau- 
faueher, v. a. to mow, to reap; see 

fauohage, s. m. mowing. 

faueheor, s. m. mower, hay-maker. 

faueille. s. f. sickle; falciila, for 
falcula, dim. of falx, sickle. 

faucon, s. m. falcon, hawk; O.F. fal- 
con; falco-onis, so called from 
its hooked talon andbeaJk; falx, a 
lauoonneriet s. f. falconry, hawking, 
faneoimier, s. m. falconer. 

faultier, v. a. to tack, to baste; pr. v. 
to intrude; see faux-fil. 

faune, faun; faunus. 

faussaire, s. m. forger; see faux. 

fanssement, adv. falsely; see faux. 

fausser, v. a. to falsify, to pervert; 
see faux. 

fausset, s. m. spigot, falsetto, (faucet) ; 
see faux. 

faute, 8. f. fault, error, default; fal- 
lere; see faillir and falloir. 
lautif, ve, adj. faulty. 

fauteuil, s. m. armchair, chair; O.F. 
faudesteuil, faldestoel; M.L. 
faldestolium; O.H.G. valtstuol, 
O.H.G. valtan; Ge. fal ten, to fold; 
O.H.G. stuol; Ge. stuhl; E. stool, 
a folding chair. 

fauteur, s. m. abettor; fomentor; fau- 
tor, a favourer, favere, to favour, 

fauve, adj. fawn-coloured, tawny, fal- 
low; Ge. falbe; flavus. 
fauvette, s. f. fauvet, warbler. 

faux, s. f. scythe, falx; falx. 

faux, sse, adj. false, artificial, coun- 
terfeit; O.F. fals; falsus. 
foux-fayant, s. m. subterfuge, shift; 
see fuir. 

fay^ur, s. f favour; favor, favere^ 
to favour. 

favorable, adj. favourable, advantage- 
favori, te, adj. favourite. 
faVori, 8. m. whisker, 
fiiveriser, v. a. to favour. 
fayence, s. f. see faience, 
febrifuge, adj. febrifuge; febrifugus; 
febris, fever, fugere, to drive away« 

— 80 — 

f^eale, adj. fecal; faecalis; faeces, 

I^eond, e, adj. fruitful, prolific, fertile ; 

f^eule, B. f. fecnla; faecula, lees of 

t€d€ra\^e^ adj. federal; foedus-eris, 

a compact; comp. confederer. 

f^e, 8. f. fairy, elf, fay; M.L. fata, 

fatare, to enchant; fat urn, fate. 

tterie, s. f encbantement, faixy-scene. 

feindre, v. a. to feign, to pretend; 
Matt, 8. f. feint, pretence. 

mer, V. a. to crack; O.F. fesler; 
fissnlare; fissum, cloven, fin- 
der e, to cleave, (fissure). 

t€lieM€j 8. f bliss, bappiness, felicity, 
felicita8,felix, bappy. 
JttUeitation, s. f congratulation^ felici- 

ttlieiter, v. a. to congratulate, to fe- 
licitate; felicitare. 

felin, e, adj. feline; felinus, felis, 
a cat 

f^loii^ 8. m, traitor; M.L. felo; O.F. 
fel, scoundrel, ace. to Diez from 
O.H.G. fillo, executioner; O.H.G. 
fillan to whip, to flog, (felon). 
fUmile, 8. f. treason. 

feilielle, s.f. female; feme 11 a, a girl 
dim. of femina, a female. 

femlnln^ e^ adj. feminine, female; 
femininus; femina. 

femiiie^ s.f. woman, female, wife; fe- 
mina, a female. 

timuTj 8. m. femur, thigh-bone; fe- 

jtenaison, s. f hay-making, bay-harvest; 
see faner. 

feiidre, v. a. to split, to cleave; fin- 

UnUf 8. f. split, clefl; see fend re. 

fenl^tre, 8. f. window; O.F. fenestre; 

fenil, 8. m. hay-loft; fenile, foenum, 
hay; comp. faner. 

fenouil, 8. f. fennel; foeniculum. 

fonte, 8. f. split, cleft;; see fend re. 

f^odal, e, adj. feudal; M.L. feud urn; 

Goth, faihu. O.H.G. fehu, vibu; 

A.S. feoh; Ge. vieb, cattle; comp. 

fer^ 8. m. iron; ferrum,(ferrugineous). 
fer-blane, s, m. tin; see fer-blanc. 
iirblaatM^, 8. f. tin-wares. 

ferUantier, s. m. tinman. 
fMe, s. f. feriae, holiday; feriae. 

f(6ri^, 6, adj. of holidays. 
f^rir, V. a. to strike; fori re. 

f crier, v. a. to furl; for fardel er, 

farael; see fardeau. 
ferine, adj. firm; firm us. 
fermeti, s. £ finnuess. 
ferme, s. f. farm; O.F. former, to 
promise, to conclude; firm are, to 
fermage, s. m. rent of a fatm , rent, 
fermier, s. m. farmer. 

ferment 9 s. m. leaven, yeast; fer- 
mcntum, for fervimentum, fer- 
vere, to ferment, 
fermentation, s. f fermentation, 
fermenter, v. a. to ferment. 

fermer, v. a. to shut, to close; fir- 
mare, to secure, firm us, firm, 
fermeture, s. f shutting, closing, fast- 
fermoir, s. m. clasp. 
f^roce, adj. ferocious, fierce; ferox- 

ocis; comp. farouche, 
firociti, s. £ ferocity, fierceness ; f e rp- 

ferraille, s. f. old iron, scarp-iron; see 

f e r. 
ferraiUer, v. n. to fence, to fight, to 

ferraillenr, s. m. dealer in old iron, 
fighter, disputer. 
ferrer, v. a. to bind with iron, to 
shoe animals; see fer. 

ferrugineux, se, adj. ferrugineous ; 
ferrugineuB, ferrugo, iron-rust. 

fertile, adj. fertile, fruitful; fer til is, 

ferre to bear, 
fertiliser, v. a. to fertilize, to fructify, 
to manure. ' 

fertility, s. f. fertility. 

fer ale, s.f. ferule; ferula, the giant 
fennel, a rod, fori re, to strike. 

fervent, e, adj. fervent; fervens, 
fervere, to boil, 
fervour, s. f. fervour; fervor. 

fesse, s. f. buttock; fissa p. p. of 

find ere to cleave; to split; comp. 

fendre, fissure, 
fesse-cahier, s. m. quill-driver; see 

c abler, 
fesse-mathiea, s. m. skin-flint, usurer. 

Matthew is supposed to have been . 

a banker, 
fesser, v. a. to whip, to flog. 

— -81 — 

festin, 8. m. feast, banquet; festum; 

comp. f6te. 
festiyal, s. m. festival; festivus, 

festum, a least. 
feston, 8. m. festoon; It. f est one; 
festum, a feast. 
festonner, v. a. to festoon. 
f^te, s. f. festival, feast, holy day; O.F. 
feste; festum, a feast, 
fdte-dieu, s. f. Corpus Christi-day; 
for f^te-de-Dieu (see th.). 
ftter, V. a. to celebrate, to feast, to 

fetiche, 8. m. Fetich; Fort feitigo,. 

sorcery, witchcraft, probably from f a- 

8 c i n u m, enchantment. (G.F. Marsh.) 
f^tide, adj. fdlide, offensive; foeti- 

du8, foetere, to have abad smell. 
fStoyer, v. a. to entertain, to feast; 

see f^te. 
f^tu, 8. m. straw, bit of straw; O.F. 

festuc, festu; M.L.-festucus for 

festuca, a stalk, a blade. 

feu, 8. m. fire; It. fuoco; focus, 

feu, e, ac^. late, defunct; fuit, [has 

been, esse, to be. 
feoille, 8. t. leaf, sheet, newspaper; 

fenillage, s. m. foliage, leaves. 

feuillet, 8. m. leaf (two pages of a 
book), thin plate. 

feuiUeter, v. a. to turn over the lea- 
ves of a book, to look over. 

feuilleton, s. m. fly-sheet, „feuilleton,^* 
the bottom part of a French news- 
paper, generally devoted to light li- 
terature or criticisms. 

feniUetoniBte, s.m. writer of feuilletous. 

feuillette, s. f feuillette of wine (30, 
8 gallons) Sch. supposes it to be a 
dim. of fouaillefor futaille, s. t. 

fenrre, s. m . straw ; O.F. f o r r e, f u e r- 
re, foarre; M.L.fodrum;Qe. fut- 
ter (E. food). 

feutre, s. m. -felt; O.F. feltre; M.L. 
filtrum; E. felt; 6e. filz; comp. 
feutrer, y. a. to felt. 

f^Te. 8. f. broad bean; fab a. 

f ^Trier, s. m. February ; februarius; 
februum, originally, in the Sabine 
language, a purgative ; hence, f e b r u a, 
the Roman festival of purification 
and expiation, celebrated on the Ib^^ 
of the month. W. 

fi, interj. fie; ace. to Scheler onomato- 

poeia, W. (after Tooke) gives the A. 
S. fian, to hate. 

fiaere, s.m. hackney-coach, the first 
hackney-coach in Paris was estab- 
lished at a house, which had as sign- 
board a picture of St. Fiacre, hencer 
the name. 

fiancer, v. a. to affiance, to betroth; 

O.F. fiance (in confiance, s. t.); 

fidentia, confidence, fidere, to 


flan9aill6s,s.f pi. affiancing, betrothing, 
flanc^, s.m. 6, s.f a person affianced, 


fiasco, s. m. failure; It. derived from 
the old Venitian Glas blowers,, who, 
when a fiow presented itself while 
they were blowing some elegantly 
shaped vessel, stopped short and 
made a „fia§co*' or fiask of it 

fibre, 3. f. fibre; fibra. 

flbreux, se, adj. fibrous. 
fleelle, s.f string, twine; for file ell e; 
fil lie ell a, dim. pi. of filum, thread. 

floeler, v. a. to tie with string. 

ficher, V. a. to drive in, to fix ; pr. v. 
to laugh at, to deride; £t d. 
flehe, 8. £. pin, fish or counter (in 

fiehtre, interj. the deuce, 
fieho, e, adj. deuced, 
fiohn, s. m. neck-handkerchief for 
fictif, ye, adj. fictitious, imaginary; fic- 
titius, fictus, p. p. of fingere, to 
form, to feign; comp. feindre. 
fletion, 8. faction; fictio, fingere; 
see prec. 

fld6icommis, s. m. trust, fideicommis- 
sum; fideicommissum, testamen- 
tary disposition, by which a person 
who gives something to another, im- 
poses upon him the obligation of 
transferring it to a third person; 
f i d e s, trust, faith, c o m ny 1 1 e r e, to 
make over. 

fiddle, adj. faithful, true; fi delis, 
fides, faith. 

fideUt^, s. f fidelity, faithfulness; 
flef, 8. m. fee, fief; O.F. fieu, feu; 
O.H.G. fehu; A.S. feoh; E. fee; 
see feodal. 
flfiflbr, y. a. to enfeoff. 

fiel, 8. m. g£jl, bile , spleen , malice ; 
fel, gall, bile. 


— 82 

ilente, s. f. dung; fimetnm dung- 
pit, fimus, dung. 
fier, V. a. to trust; fidere, (confide). 
fler, fere, adj. proud, haughty, fierce; 

ferus, wild. 
» flerti, s. f. pride, haughtiness. 
flfevre, s. f. fever; febris. 

fl^vreux, 86, adj. producing fever, fe- 
flger, v. a. to congeal, to coagulate; 

figere, to fix. 
flgrue, 8. f. fig; ficus. 

flguier, s. m. fig-tree. 
figure, 8. f. figure, form, face, coun- 
tenance; figura, fingere, to form. 

figurant, s m. e, s. f. figurant, super- 
numerary (theat.). 

figuratif, V6, acfj. figurative. 

flguror, V. a. to figure, to form, to 
fll, 8. m. thread, yam, wire; filum. 

filament, s. m. filament. 

filandres, s. f. pi. air-threads. 

filasse, s. f. harl, hast; filacea. 

filature, s. f. spinning, mill. 

file, 8. f. file, row. 

filer, V. a. to spin, to slip. 

fileur, s. m. fileuse, s. f. spinner. 

filet, s. m. thread, string, net, t:llet. 

filiire, s. f. draw-plate. 

filon, 8. m. vein (mining). 

filure, 8. f. spurning (quality of a thing 
filagramme, s. m. filigrane , filigree 
work; see filigrane. 

filial, e, a^. filial; filialis, filius, 
a son. 

filiation, s. f. filiation. • 

filigrane, s. m. filigrane, filigree-work; 
filum, thread, granum, grain. 

fille, 8. f. daughter, girl, maid, spin- 
ster; fill a. 

fillette, s. f. young girl, lass. 

flUeuI, s.m. e, s. f. god-son, god-daugh- 
ter; filiolus dim. of filius, a son. 

filoohe, s. f. net-work; see fil. 

filon, s. m.'vein (metallic, fossile) ; see 

filoselle, s.f. fioss-silk; flos, fiower. 

filou, s. m. pick-pocket, swindler, 
rogue; Et. d. Diez proposes O.H.G. 
filon, Ge. feilen, to file. 

filouter, V. a. to cheat, to swindle. 

fils, 8. m. son; filius. 

flltre, 8. m. filter, philter; M.L. fel- 
trum; E. felt; (philter is the Or. 
q>iltQOV^ tptlBUi to love). 

flltrer, v. a. to filter, to strain. 

fin, s.f. end, purpose; finis, (finish) 

final, e, adj. final, last. 

finir, V. a. to end, to finish. 
fin, e, adj. fine, sharp; finitus, fini- 
re, to finish. 

finaud, e, adj. artful, cunning. 

finesse, s. f. fineness, ingenuity, sharp- 

finette, s. f. thin stufif, tissue. 

finance, s. f. cash, pi. finances; O.F. 

finer, to terminate, to pay; see fin. 
finanoier, s. m. financier.^ 
flole, s. f. phial; phiala; tpCalri^ a 

fiat cup. 
fioritures, s. f. pi. ornaments (in mu- 
sic): It. fioriturst; florere, to 

bloom, to flower. 
firmament, s. m. firmament; firma- 

mentum, firmare, to fix. 
firman, s. m. firman (edict of an 

Eastern sovereign); Pers. ferman. 
fisc, 8. m. treasury, fisc; fiscus, a 

basket of wickerwork, a money-bas- 
ket, state-treasury, 
fiscal, e, adj. fiscal. 
fissure, s. f. fissure, crack; fissura, 

find ere, to cleave. 
fistule, 8. f. fistula; fistula, a pipe, 
fixe, adj. fixed, firm; fixus, figere, 

to fix. 
fixer, V. a. to fix, to establish, to 

flacon, s. m. bottle, smelling-bottle; 

O.F. flascon; O.H.G. flasca; M.L. 
. flasca; E. flask; Ge. flasche; 

comp. flasque. 
flageller, v. a. to flagellate, to lish; 

flagellare, to whip, 
flagellation, s. f. flagellation. 
flageolet, s. m. flageolet, young ha- 
ricot bean ; ace. to Sch. dim. of O.F. 

flageol; from a supposed Latin 

flautiolu8,from flat us, a blowing; 

comp. fltite. 
flagorner, v. to sycophant, to wheedle; 

Et. d. 
flagrant, e, adj. flagrant; flagrans, 

-antis, flagrarc, to burn. 
flairer, v. a. to scent, to smell; fra- 

flair, 8. m. scent. 
flamand, e, adj. flemish; O.F. fla- 

meng; Dtch. vlaming. 
fiambe, s. f. iris (plant); flam ma, 

flambeau, 9. m. flambeau, torch, for 


83 — 

fiamber ,y. n. to flame, to blaze, 
flambi p. p. ruined lost, 
flamboyer, v. a. to flame, to blaze. 

flamberge, s. f. sword; Et. d. 
flamme, s. f. flamme, blaze; flam- 

flamm^.he, s. f. flake of combustible 

flan, s. m. custard, flawn; O.F. ^laou; 

E. flawn. 
flane, s.m. flank, side, entrails; flac- 

cus, flabby. 

flandrin, s. m. lanky fellow; £t. d. 

flanelle, s. f. flannel; O.F. flaine, a 
counterpane of wool ; D i e z suggests: 
yelamen, a cover. 

flaner, y.n. to stroll, to lounge; Et. d. 
flaneur, s. m. stroller, lounger. 

flanquer, t. a. to flank, ^to throw; 
see flanc. 

flaque, s. f. puddle, splash; O.F. flac; 

Ge. flach; E. fiat. 
flasque, adj. lank, lax, soft, flaccid; 

flaxidus for flaccidus. 

flatter, v. a. to flatter, to caress ; O.F. 
flat, a stroke; Ge. flattern; E. 

flatterie, s. f. flattery, caress, 
flatteur, 8. m. le, s. f. flatterer. 
flatueux, se, adj. causing flatulency, 
windy; flatus, a blowing. . 
flatulence, s. f. flatulency. 

fl^au, s.m. flail, scourge, plague; O.F. 

flaial, flael; E. flail; Ge.flegel; 

fldche, 8. f. arrow, spire: O.H.G. 

flitch; D. flits; (fletcher). 

fldehe, s. f. flitch; O.F. flique; A.S. 
flicce; E. flitch. 

fl^chir, V. n. to bend, to bow, to 
waver; flectere. 
iUchisBement, s. m. bending, giving way. 

flegme, s. m. phlegm; phlegm a; 

qpZcyfitt, (pXiyoi, to burn, 
flegmatique ,^ adj. phlegmatic, cold; 

fl^trir, V. a. to cause to fade, to wi- 
ther; O.F. flaistrir, O.F. flaistre, 
flestre, faded; flaccescere, 
flac cus, flabby, 
flitrigsnre, s. f. fading, blight, spot. 

fl^trir, V. a. to brand, to stigmatize; 
O.F. flastrir, flestrir; O.F.flat, 
a stroke; comp. flatter. 
fl^triMure, s. f. brand, atigma. 

fleiir,B.f. bloom, blossom, flower; O.F. 
flor, flour; flos, floris. 
fleuraison, 8.£ efflorescence, florescence, 
fleardeliier, y. a. to brand with a flo- 
wer de luce; fleur, de, lis (seet). 
fleuret, s. m. silk- ferret, fencing-foil, 
fleurette, s. f little flower, gallant 

fleurir, v. a. to bloom, to flower, to 
blossom, to thrive; flor ere. 
fleuriite, s. m. f. florist 
fleuron, s. m. ornament, gem. 
fleur, s. f. flowers (med.) ; for flueur; 

flu or, a flowing. 
fleurer, v. a. to smell (exhale an odour); 

O.F. flairer; s.' t. 
fleuTe, s.m. river, stream ; O.F. fluie; 
fluvius. (flow) 

flexible, adj. flexible, supple, pliant ; 
flexibilis, flectere, to bend, 
flexibility, s. f. flexibility. 

flexion, s.i. flexion, bending; flexio, 
-onis, flectere, to bend. 

flibot, s. m. fly-boat; E. fly- boat. 

flibnstier, s.m. buccanier, free-booter; 
Et. d. some propose G. frei-b en- 
ter, E. free-booter, ohters fli- 
bot 8. t. 

flint-glas, s. m. flint-glass; E. flint- 

floeon, s. m. flake, flock; floccns. 
floraison, s. f. see fleuraison. 
floral, e, adj. floral; fl oralis, flos, 
floris, flower. 

flpre, s.f. flora; Flora the goddess 

of flowers. 
Flor^al, 8. m. the eighth month of 
the Calender of the first French 

florin, 8. m. florin; fleur-de-lis, a 
coin with a flower-de-luce, first ma- 
de at Florence. 

floriste, s.m. florist; see fleuriste. 

florissant, e, adj. flourishing, bloom- 
ing; florir O.F. of fleurir, s. t. 

flot, s.m. wave, rising tide, flood, crowd ; 

fluctus, flu ere, to flow. 
flotter, v. a. to float, to- waft; see flot. 
flottage, 8. m. rafting, 
flottaison, s. f. load, waterline. 
fiotte, s. f. fleet; 0. North, floti; A.S. 
flou, adj. light and soft (paint) ; flui- 

dus (fluent). 
floner, vl a. to cheat, to gull; Et. d. 
Scheler proposes filouer; see 


— 84 — 

flaetiatloB, 8.f. flactaatiom; flactaa- 

• tio, -onis, fiactnare, to undu- 
late; fluctus, a flowing. 

finer, v. to flow, to run, flu ere, to 

finet, te, a4i. ; thin, meagre ; see fl o u. 

flnewrs, s. f. pL whites; flu ere, to 

flnlde, adj. fluid; flnidns, flnere, 
to flow. 

flftte, 8. f. flute, French roll; O.F. 
flalitc,flahnte;M.L.fianta; fla- 
tus, a blowing, flare, to blow, 
flater, T. a. to play the flute, to drink 
flatiste, 8. m. flutist. 

fluTtal^e^adij. fluvial; flu via lis, flu- 
vius, river. 

flux, s.m. flow, flux, flood, tide; flu- 
xns, flu ere, to flow. 

fluxion^ 8. f. fluxions (Math.); inflam- 
mation; fluxio, -onis, a flowing, 
flu ere, to flow. 

fol, s. f. faith, trust; O.F. feid, fei; 

fole, s. m. liver; It. f6gato; fica- 

t urn (j 6 cur), lit a liver produced by 

figs*); fie us a fig, the same in N. 

G. tf*xort liver from ovuoitov ri^aQ, 

avxov, a fip; comp. also reverb^re, 

sole, truie. 
foin,s. m. hay; foenum;comp. faner. 
folre, s. t. fair (market); feriae, a 

festival; comp. 6e. messe, mass 

and fair. 
foire, s. f laxness, looseness of the 

bowels; foria. 

folB, 8. f. time (with regard to repeti- 
tion or quantity); vicis, change, vi- 
foison, 8. f. plenty, abundance ; fusio, 

effusion; fund ere, to pour out. 
fol, le, adj. mad, foolish; M.L. fol- 
lus; follere, to move about; fol- 
lis, bellows; comp. follet. 
folitre, a^j. wanton, frolicsome, 
folie, s. f. madness , folly, 
follet, 8. m. goblin, will o' the wisp. 

follieulaire, s. m. pmphleteer; fol- 
li cuius, a small bag, a ball to 
play with, dim. of follis, bellows. 

fomenter, v. a. to foment; f omen- 
tare; fomentum for fovimen- 
tum, a warm lotion, fomentation; 
fovere, to warm. 

fomwitatiiwi, s. £ fomentation, 
foneer. v. a. to put a bottom, to dar- 
ken (colour); V. n. to advance funds; 
see fond. 

fonoi, e, adj. dark deep colour. 

foneier, ite, adj. landed, on land; see 

foneitoment, adv. thoroughly. 

fonetton, s. f. function, duty, office; 
functio, -onis, fungi, to perform. 
foactJOTinaire^ s. m. functionary, officer, 
fonetiomier, v. n. to work, to operate. 
fond, 8. m. bottom, foundation, back- 
ground; fundus. 
foBdamendal , e, a^j* fundamental; 
fun dam en turn, foundation. 

fonder, v. a. to found, to establish; 

funaare, fundus, oottom. 
foniUiteiir, s. m. -triee, s. f founder; 

fundator, fundare. 
fondation, s. f. foundation; f un d a ti o, 

-onis, fundare. 
fondement, s. m. foundation; funda- 

fondre, v. a. to melt, to cast, to blend; 

fund ere, to pour out (founding) 
fonderie, 8. f. fonndry, melting house, 

fondenr, s. m. founder, melter, smel- 
fondridre, s. f. slough; OF, f ondrer, 

to Bink; see fond. 
fonds, 8. m. ground, soil, pi. funds, 

capital; see fond. 
fongns, s.m. fungus; fungus, 'mush- 

fongaeuz, se, adj. fangous. 
font, 8. f. source, fountain; fons, fon- 

tis, used only in fonts baptis- 

maux, font; see baptiser. 

fontaine, s. f. fountain, spring: fon- 

tana, fons. 
fonte, s. f. melting by heat, casting, 

cast iron, fount; see f on are. 
for, prefix; see fors. 
forage, s. m. boring, drilling; forare, 

foratum, to bore. 

forain, e, adj. foreign; It foraneo; 

M.L. foraneus, from L. foras, out 

of doors, abroad; comp. fors and 

forban, s. m. pirate; for-ban; see 

for, ban and bandit 
forQat, 8. m. a (criminal) convict; see 


*) Pingolbtti «t flolt pastum Jeour anserls Rlbi. Horace. 

— 85 ^ 

foree, s. f. strength, force, power; It. 
forza; MX. forcia f. fortia; L. 
fortis, strong. 
foreen^, e, a^j. furious, mad; inst. of 
forsen^, for (see hors) O.F. sene 
sensible; comp. G. sinn; F. sens. 
forceps, s. m. forceps; forceps, a 

pair of tongs. 
foreer, v. a. to force; see force. 
forces, s. f pi. shears; It forbici; 

forpices pi. of forpex. 
forer, v. a. to perforate, to bore ; fo- 

forestier, Sre, a^j. forest, of forests; 

see for^t. 
for^t, s. f. forest; O.F. forest; It. 
foresta; M.L. forestis, foresta, 
forestum; M.L. forasticus, ex- 
teriour; for as, outside, meaning the 
open wood in opposition to par- 
ous, the enclosed wood, (park). 
forfaire, v. a. to forfeit; M.L. foris- 

facere; see for, faire. 
forfait, s. m. heinous crime. 
f orf ait, s. m. contract, job ; ^ - f o r - f a i t, 
for being according to Sch. the L. 
forum, which meant in M.L. the 
price of vendibles, k- fort- fait mea- 
ning at a fixed price; comp. fur. 
forfanterie, s.f boasting bragging ;Et.d. 
forge, 8. f forge, smithery, ironworks; 
fabrica (fabr'ca, faurca). 
forger, v. a. to forge, to fabricate, 
forgeron, s. m. smith, blacksmith. 
forme, s. f. form, shape; forma, 
formaliser, (le,) pr. v. to take offence; 
formal is. 
formality, s. f. formality, form; see 

form el. 
format, s.m. size of book; form atum. 
formation, s- f. formation; form at io. 
fonoel, le, adj. formal; form alls, 
former, v. a. to form, to make, to 

formidable, adj. formidable, tremen- 
dous; formidabilis, formidare, 
to dread. 
formule, s. f. formula, prescription; 
fermulaire, s. m. formulary, 
formuler, v. a. to draw up a formula, 
to state (express). 
fors, prep, save, except, but; for as 

fort, e, adj. strong, vigorous, stout, 
skilled; fortis, comp. force, 
fort, s. m. strong, stronghold, fort, 
forteresse, s. f. fortress. 

fortifler, v. a. to strengthen, to for- 
tify; fortificare, fortis, strong, 
facere to make. 
fortiflealioB, s. f fortification. 

fortait, e, adj. fortuitous, casual ; f or- 
tuitus, fors -lis, chance, fero, to 

• bear. 

fortune, s. f fortune, chance, luck; 
fortune e, adj. happy, fortunate, 
fosse, s, f. pit, hole, grave; fossa, 
foaere, to dig. (fosse, fossil) 
foss^, 8. m. ditch, 
fossette, 8. f dimple, 
fossoyer, v. a. to ditch, to dig. 
fossile, a^. fossil; fossilis, todere, 

fossum, to dig. 
fou, fol, folle, adj. mad, wild, fool- 
ish; see fol. 
fou, s. m. bishop in chess; ace. to 
Sch. from the Pers. fil, elephant. 

foudre, s. f. thunder-bolt, lightning; 

foudroyer, v. a. to stricke with thun- 
der, to thunder-strike, to crush. 

foadre, s. m. tun (of liquids) ; Ge. fu- 
der. (fother) 

fouet, s. m. whip; ace. to Sch. dim. 
of fou, fan» fagus, a beech-tree, 
fonetter, v. a. to whip. 

fougdre, 8. f. fern; O.F. feugere, 
feuchi^re; filicaria; filix. 

fouge. s. f. fury, passion, impetuosity; 

It. toga; fuga, flight, 
fongueuz, le, adj. furious, impetuous, 

fouiller, v. a. to dig up, to rummage, 

to search (a place); fodiculare, 

f ode re, to dig. 
fouine, s.f marten; O.F. fayne; M. 

L. fag in a. 
fouir, V. a. to dig; fodere. 
foulard, s.m. silk- handkerchief Et. d. 
foule, 8. f crowd, great number; O.F. 

folle, see fouler, according to 

others the same as Ge. volk, people; 
. E. folk. 

fouler, V. a. to press, to tread; It. 
follare; fullo, a fuller, 
fonlerie, s. f fullery. 
fovleir, s. m. beater, rammer, 
fonlon, s. m. fuller, 
foidnre, s. f sprain, fulling. 
four, 8. m. oven, bake-house, furnace ; 

fourbe, a^. cheating, knavish; see 

— 86 — 

fourberle, s. f. cheat, knavish trick. 
fourbir, v. a. to faroish, to rnb up; 

O.H.G. Turban; E. furbish, 
fourbisseiir, s.m. furbisher, sword-cutt- 


fourbn, e, a4j. (veter.) foundered, dis- 
eased in the feet. p. part, of O.F. 
verb for-bo ire (see these), to drink 

fourehe, s. f. fork; furca; E. fork, 
fonrcher, v. n. to fork, to branch off. 
fourchette, s f. fork, 
fourchoiit 8. m. prong, 
fourohu, e, adj. forked. 

fouri^on, 8. m. van, military waggon, 

poker; furca; comp. prec. 
fourgonner, v. a. to poke the fire, to 

fourmi, s. f. ant; formica, 
fonrmiller, y. a. to swarm, to tingle. 
fonrnaise, s. f. furnace; fornax, 

fourneau, s. m: stove; see four. 
fourn^e, s. f. batch, baking; see four. 

fournil, s. m. bake-house; see four. 

fournir, v. a. to furnish, to supply; 
It. f ornire; Sp. Port. Prov. fornir; 
O.HG. frumjan. 
fpumissement, s. m. share of capital, 

foumisseiir, s. jna. contractor, trades- 
man, purveyor. 

fournitnre, s. f furnishing, supplying, 

fourragre, s. m. forage, fodder; see 

fonrrager, v. n. to forage, to pilfer. 
fourreaa, s. m. sheath ; O.F. f u e r r e ; 

feurre (see th.). 
fourrer, v. a. to thrust, to stuff, to 
fur; see prec. 
foormre, s. f. fur; fell. 

fourrier, s. m. harbinger, quarter- 
master; see feurre. 
fourvoyer, v. a. to mislead, pr. v. 

to go astray; O.F. forvoyer; see 

fouteau, s. m. beech-tree; O.F. fou; 

fontelaie, s. f. plantation of beech. 
foyer, s. m. fire-grate, hearth, home, 

focus, lobby of a theater ; f o c a r i u s, 

fraeasser, v. a. to shatter, to break 

to pieces; It. fracassare. 
fracas, s. m. crash, tumult, noise. 

ft*actiOB^ 8. f. breaking, part, fraction ; 

fractio, frangere, to break. 
fracture, 8. f. rupture, fracture; 

fractnra, frangere. 
firaotnrer, y. a. to fracture; to break. 

fragile, adj. fragile, brittle ; frag ills, 
fragiHti, s. f. fragility. 

fragrment, s. m. fragment; fragmen- 
tum, frangere. 

frai, 8. m. spawn, roe, fry; see fra- 

ft*a!ehe, see frais. 

frateheur, s. f. freshness; see frais. 

frafchir, y. n. to freshen; sec frais. 

frairie, s. f. entertainment, merry- 
making; see fr^re. 

frais, fraiehe, adj. fresh, recent; O.F. 

frisque, frique, friche; It. Sp. 

fresco; O.H.G. frisc; Ge. frisch. 
frais, 8. m. pi. expense, expenses, 

charges; M.Li, fredum, the fine 

paid for breaking the peace ; O.H.G. 

vridu, fridu; Ge. friede, peace; 

comp. payer. 
f raise, 8. f. strawberry; fragea, fra- 

f raise, 8. f. tuS. fraise; see friser. 
framboise, s. f. raspberry; Dutch: 

brambezie; Ge. brombeere; E. 

franc, che, adj. free, frank, sincere; 

Francus, a Frank, comp. next; 

Goth, freis; Ge. frei; E. free. 

Franc, s. m. Franque, s. f. Frank, an- 
cient German people, European in 
the Levant, 
franc, s. m. franc , French coin ; see 

fi:an9ai8, adj. French. 
fran9ai8, s. m. e, s. f. Frenchman, 
franchement, adv. frankly, sincerely, 

candidly; Bee franc. 
francliir, v. a. to leap over, to clear, 
to cross; see franc. 

franchise, s. f franchise, exemption, 

sincerity; see franc. 
franciser, v. a. to gallicize, to fren- 

chify; see fran^ais. 
frauc-ma^on, s. m. free-mason; see 

frange, s. f fringe, valance; E. frin- 

.ge; Ge. franse; fimbria. 
frangipane, s. f. frangipane; It. fran- 

gipana; Et. d. 
f rapper, v. a. to strike, to hit, to 

— 87 — 

stamp coins etc.*, D. flap pen, E. 

fraternel, le, a<y. brotherly, frater- 
nal; fraternalis, fraternus, fra- 
ter, brother. 

ft*aterniser, v. a. to fraternize; f ra- 
ter nitas, brotherhood; see prec 

fraternity, s. f. brotherhood, frater- 
nity; see prec. 

fratricide, s. m. fratricide ;fratricida, 
frater, brother, caedere, to kill. 

fraude, s. m. fraud ; f r a a s , f r a n d i s. 
fraudulenx, se, adj. fraudulent 

frayer, v. a. to trace out, to open (a 
way), to milt (of fishes); fricare, 
torttb;comp. ployer, plicare, etc. 

frayeur. s. f. fright, terror; frigere, 
to chill; comp. effrayer. 

fredaine, s. f frolic, prank; Et. d. 

fredonner, v. a. to hum ; f r i t i n n 1 r e. 

fr^grate, s. f . frigate, frigate-bird ; D i e z 
thinks it may be a contraction of 
L. fabric a ta, constructed. 

frein, s. m. bit of a bridle, bridle, 
rein, check; f re num. 

frelater, v. a. to sophisticate, to adul- 
terate; D. verlaten, to transfuse. 

frdle, adj. frail; O.F. frail; fragilis, 
comp. fragile. 

frelon. s.m. knee-holly, hornet, drone; 
Et a., perhaps fr^le; see th. 

freluqaet, s. m. coxcomb, puppy; fan- 
frel uche; see this. 

fr^mir, v. n. to shudder, to rustle; 
f rem ere, to .murmur, to howl, 
fr^mifliement, s. m. shudder, trembling, 
rustling (of leaves). 

fr^ne, s. m. ash-tree; O.F. [fraine; 
It frassino; fraxinus. 

fr^n^sie, s. f. frenzy; phrenesis, 

(pQfvttig, (pQTJv^ the mind, 
fr^^tiqne, adj. frantic; fpQSvrinHdg, . 

frequent, e, adj. frequent ;frequens, 

fr^emment, adv. frequently, often, 
ftreqnenter, v. a. to frequent; fre- 

friire, s. m. brother, friar; O.F. frair; 
frater, fratris. (fraternal) 

fresque, s.f fresco; It fresco, fresh. 
Painting upon a freshly laid stucco 
ground of lime or gypsum. 

fressure, s. f pluck (of pigs and other 
animals); O.F. fresangue, frai- 
sangue, grice; O.H.G. friscing; 
6e. frischling; Ge. frisch, fresh, 
ace. to Chevallet and others. 
Scheler proposes O.F. frese now 

f r a i s e, ruff, see th. ; f r ai 8 e meaning 
also frill or ruilQe of animals. 

fret, 8. m. freight, cargo; O.H.G. 
vraht; Ge. fracht; E. freight 
iMtor, V. a. to charter, to freight 

fr6tiller, v. a. to frisk, to wriggle; 
fricticulare, frictare, fricare, 
to rub; Scheler suggests, that the 
root fret may be instead of flet in 
E. flit, flutter, Ge. flattern. 
ftretxllement, s. m. frisking, wriggling. 

fretin, s.m. fry (small fish), rubbish; 

fricare, to rub; comp. frai. 
frette, s.f. hoop; for f6rette; seefer. 
fretter, v. a. to hoop. 
freux, s. m. rook; A.S. hroc; E. 

rook; Ge. rack. 
friable, adj. friable; friabilis, fria- 
re, to break, to crumble, 
friability, s. f. friability. 
friand, e, adi. dainty; Goth, friks 
O.H.G. vren, eager, mreedy; Ge. 
frech, in the sense of spirited, 
friandise, s. f daintiness, dainty, 

frieandeaa, s. m. fricandeau; Goth, 
friks; see Friand. 

fricasser, v. a. to fricassee, to squan- 
der; see prec. 

friche, s. f waste (uncultivated ground) ; 
fracticium, frangcre, to break. 

frieot, s. m. ragout, stew; Goth, friks ; 
see friand. 

friction, s. f friction, rubbing; fric- 
tio, -onis, fricare, to rub. 
triotionner, v. a. to rub. 

frigidity, s. f. frigidity; frigiditas, 
frigidus, cold. 

frileux, se, adj. chilly (sensible of 
cold); O.F. frill eux; frigidulus, 
frigidus, cold, frigere, to be 
stiff with cold. 

frimas, s. m. hoare, white frost; A.S. 
brim; E. rime; Ge. reif. 
Frimaire, s. m. third month of the ca- 
lender of the first French republic. 

fringrant, e, adj. brisk, nimble, frisky ; 

O.F. fringuer, to frisk; ace. to 

Roquefort O.L. fringutire; 

Chev allot gives the Celtic frin- 

ga, to frisk; Sc. ving; Ir. vincim, 

to danse. 
friper, v. a. to rumple, to wear out, 

to eat greedily; N. hripa. 
fripe, s. f. rag, scrap, 
friperie, s. f. frippery, old clothes and 

old furniture-shop, 
fripier, s. m. old clothes-man. 

— 88 — 

fripoii|S.m. knave, rogue, 
friponnerie , s. f. knavery, roguery, 

frire, v. a. to fry; frige re, (fqvyco. 
frise, s. f. frieze; O.F. frese, same as 

fraise; s. t. 
friter, v. a. to curl, to frizzle, 
frisure, s. f. curling , dressing of the 

frisson, s.m. shivering, shudder; A.S. 
f'rysan; E. freeze, Schelergives 
frissonner, v. n. to shiver, to shudder. 
frit, p. part. X)f frire; see th. 
firlture, s. f. frying, thing fried, fried 
frivole, adj. frivolous, trifling; fri- 

frivolity, s. f. frivolity, trifling. 
froe, frock, coat; M.L. frocus; 

floccus, a flock of virool. 
froid^e, adj. cold, frigid; O.F. freid; 
frigidus; comp. doigt. 
froidenr, s. f. coldness, frigidity. 

froisser, V. a. to bruise, to nimple, 
to wound, to gall; f re sum, fres- 
sum, sup. of frendere, to bruise. 

frdler, v. a. to graze; for fro tier, 
dim. of frotter, s. th. (or frictu- 
lare, fricare?) 
fr61ement, s. m. grazing, rustling. 

fromage, s. m. cheese ; O.F. f o rm age; 
It'formaggio; M.L. formaticum, 
i. e. made in a form. 

froment, s. m. wheat; frumentum. 
froneer, v. a. to wrinkle, to contract 

(the brow); see front. 
fronde, s. f sling, frond, Fronde (hist) ; 
O.F. fnnde, fonde; funda. 
fronder,v.a. to sling, to hurl, to find 

frondeur, s. m. slinger, fault-finder. 

front, s. m. forehead, brow, front, 
bolaness; frons, frontis. 

frontal, e, adj. 'frontal. 

frontiere, s. t. frontier, border. 

frontispice, s. m. frontispiece; fron- 
tispicum, frons, frontis, fore- 
head, specere, to view. 

fronton, s. m. frontal, breast-work, 
frotter, v. a. to rub; frictare, freq. 
of fricare, to rub. 

frottement, s. m. rubbing, friction. 

frotteur, 3. m. dry- rubber, rubber. 
Fruetidor, s. m. the J 2th month of the 
calender of the first French republic 
fructus, -fruit,' drngioi, to give. 

fructlileatton, s.f. fractificalion; fruc- 
tificatio, -onis, fructus, fruit. 

fruetifler, ▼. n. to bear fruit, to fruc- 
tify; fructificare, fructus, fruit. 

fructaeux, se, adj. fruitful, fertile; 
fructuosus, fructus, fruit. 

frugal, e, a^j. frugal ; f r u g a 1 i s, f r u x , 
frugis, fruit, 
frugality s. f. frugality. 
fruit, 8. m. fruit, produce; fructus, 
fruit; comp. ami, lit etc. 
fruitier, ihn, adj. fruit-bearing, 
fruitier, s. m. fruiterer, green-grocer. 

fruste, adj. defaced, corroded; It. 
frusto; frustum, a piece, (put to 

frastrer, v. a, to defraud, to frustra- 
te; frustrari, to deceive. 

fagitif, re, a^j. fugitive , runaway, 
transitory; fngitivus, fugere, to 

fugue, s. f. fugue (Mus.); It. fuga; 
fug a, flight. 

fuir, V. n. to flee, to fly; fugere. 

fuite, 8. f. flight; fugitum, sup. of 
fugere, to fly. 

fulguration, s.f. fulgnration; lighten- 
ing; fulguratio, -onis, fulgur, 

fulminer, v. a. to thunder, to ful- 
minate; fulminare, fulmen, a 
fulminant, e, adj. fulminant, thundering. 
fnmer, v. n. to smoke, to fume; fu- 
mare, fumus, smoke, 
fomie, s. f. smoke, fume. 
funiier, s. m. muck, dung; O.F. fe- 

mier; fimarium, fimus, dung. 
Auner, v. a. to dung, to muck. 
fumeur, s. m. smoker; see fumer. 

fttinigation, s. f. smoking, fumigation ; 
fumigare, to smoke, fumus, 

fumiste, s. m. brick-layer for fire- 
places; see fumer. 

famiTore, a^. smoke -consuming; fu- 
m6e (s. th.); vorare, to devour. 

funambule, s. m. funambulist, rope- 
dancer ;funambulus, funis, a rope, 
ambulare to walk. 

fundbre, adj. funeral, mournful; fu- 
nebris, fun us, a funeral 

fun^railles, s. f. pi. funeral; fun us, 

fun oris, a funeral. 
f nn^raire, adj. funeral ; f u n e r ar i u s, 

funus, funeral. 

— 89 — 

funeste, adj. fatal; funestus, fanas, 

fdr, 8. m. price, value (in „au fur 
et ^mesure*^ in proportion); O.F. 
fuer, feur; M.L. forum, price, 
value; forum, market-place, ban- 
king business. 

fnret, s. m. ferret; It. furetto; E. 
ferret; M.L. furo; fur, thief, 
fbretor, v. n. to ferret, to rummage. 

fureur, s. f. fury, rage; furor. 

fiuibond, e. adj. raging, mad, furious ; 
furibunaus, furere, to rage. 

furie, s. f. fury, rage; furia. 

farieux, se, furious, raving ; f u r i o s u s, 
furere, to rage. 

foronele, s.m. furuncle, boil; f urun- 
calus, apetty thief, a boil,; fur thief 
„because it creeps to a head" Wor. 

furtlf, ve, stealthy, furtive, hidden; 

furtivus, stolen, furtum; theft. 
fusain, s. m. spindle-tree, a sort of 

chalk; fusus, a spindle. 
faseau, s. m. spindle; O.F. fusel; 

fuse 11 us, dim. of fusus, a spindle. 
fas^e, 8. f. spindle full, fusee, rocket; 

fusus, a spindle. 
fuser, V. n. to expand, to liquefy, to 

melt; fuso freq. of fundere, sup. 

fusum, to pour, to melt. 

fusible, ac^. fusible; see prec. 
foiibiUt^ s. f. fusibility: 
fasil, 6. m. steel (to strike a flint), gun, 
musket; It fncile, M.L. fugillas; 
foculus, dim. a hearth, of focus, 
fofilier, s. m. fusileer. 
fofillade, s f. firing, discharge of 
ftuiller, V. a. to shoot. 

fusion, s. f. fusion, melting, blending; 

fusio, -onis, fundere, to melt 
fustiger, V. a. to whip, to flog; fusti- 

gare, fustis, a club, 
fiistigation, s. f. instigation, whipping. 
fiit, s. m. cask, barrel, shaft; O.I^. 
fust, club, piece of wood; It fusto ; 
fustis, a staff, a club, 
ftitaie, s. f. forest, wood of old trees, 
ftitaille, 8. f. small cask. 

fntaine, s. f. fustian; O.F. fu stain e; 
It fustagno, Fustat, a city in 
Egypt, wherefrom it was brought 
first to Europe. 

fat^, e, adj. crafty, cunning. 

futile, adj. futile, trifling; futilis, 

fundere, to pour, 
fatiliti, 8. f. futility; futilitas. 

fatur, e, adj. future, intended; fu tu- 

fayard, s. m. fugitive; see fuir. 


gabare, s. f. lighter, store-ship; It 

gabelle, s. f. gabel (a tax upon salt), 
salt-store of the excise; A.^. gafol, 
gifan, to give; Ge. geben, to give. 

gabion, s. m. gabion; It gab hi one, 

gabbia, cage. 
^ftehe, staple (of locks); Et. d. 
gfteher, v. a. to temper (mortar or 
plaster), to bungle; O.F. gascher, 
waschier; O.H.G. waskan; Ge. 
waschen; E. wash, 
g&eheur, s. m. man that tempers mor- 
tar, plaster, bungler, 
g&ohenx, se, adj. splashy, sloppy, 
giohjs, s. V. slop, mess. 

gage, 9. m. pledge, security, (pi.) wa- 
ges; M.L. vadium, wadium; vas, 
vadis, one who gives security for 
another; Goth, vadi (gavadjan); A. 

. S. V e d d, pledge, amount, (v e d d j a n, 
to make an agreement) ; O.H.G. w e 1 1 i ; 
Ge. wet ten, to bet, (wager, wages). 
gager, v. a. to wager, to hire. 

gageur, s. f.' wager. 

gagifte, s. m. person hired, pledgee. 

gagner, v. a. to earn, to gain, to win, 
to reach; O.F. gaaigner, gaigner, 
to till, to plough, to cultivate, later: 
to reap profit, to gain; O.H.G. wei- 
danon, weidan; Ge. weiden, to 

gai, e. adj. gay, lively, merry; It ga- 
jo, O.H.G. gllhi;Ge. gaehe, jaene, 
hasty (connected with go), 
gaiti, s. f. gaiety, liveliness. 

gaillard, e, adj. sprightly, lively, jol- 
ly; see gala. 

gain, s.m. gain, profit; O.F. gaaing; 
see gagner. 

gaine, s.f. sheath, scabbard; vagina 
(comp. war «= guerre, etc.). 
gainier, s.m. sheath-^cabbard-maker. 

gala, s. m. gala; It Sp. Port, gala; 
O.F. galer, to rejoice, to resale 
o's self, to spend; O.F. gale, joy; 
O.H.G. >geil, luxuriant, fat; A.S. 
g&l; Ge. geil; comp. gaillard. 


grftlamnent, adv. gallantly;' see ga- 

g'alanty e, adj. worthy, gallant; see 

iralaiitorie, s. f. politeness, gallantry. 

gralantine, s. f. galantine (a dish); 
S c h e 1 e r says it is probably an alte- 
ration of gelatine, s. t 

gralbe, s. m. (arch.) entasis, graceful 
contour; O.F. garbe; It. garbo, 
graceinl; O.H.G. garawi, garwi. 

grale, s. f. scurf, itch; call urn, cal- 
lus, hardened skin, or ace. to D i e z 
6e. galle, stain; £. gall, to gall. 

graldre. s. f. galley; It. galea, gale- 
ra; M.L. ealea; E. galley; gau- 
lus, a bucket ;yavAo(, around built 
merchant vessel, galley, 
galerien, s. m, galley-slave, 
galorie, s. f. gallery; It. galleria; 
Sp. galeria; O.F. galerie, feast; 
O.F. galer; see gala. 
gralet, s. m. a flat pebble; dim. of 
O.F. gal, stone; £t. d. 
galette, s. f. „galette'^ (cake). 
gVLleux^ 869 adj. scurfy, itchy; see 

matlas. s. m. nonsense. Et. d. 
{"aliote, 8.t. galiot; It. galeotta, ga- 
lea; see galore. 

gralle, s. f. oak-apple, gall; galla. 
galliean, e, adj. Gallican ; G a 1 1 i c u s. 

Gall us, a Gaul. 
gallieisme, s. m. gallicism ; see prec. 
grallinac^, e, adj. gallinaceous; gal- 

linaceus, gallina, a hen, gal- 

lus, a cock. 
;allois9e, adj. Welsh; G alius; O.H. 

G. walah; Ge.wael8ch;E. Wales. 
gallon, s. m. gallon; O.F. jalon, ga- 

lon; M.L. galo; Sc. sgal, bucket; 

Ir. sgal a, basin. 
galoehe, s. f galoche; gal lie a, a 

Gallic shoe. Sc h el er proposes M.L, 

calopedia, naXonddiov, xaloTrovg, 

a wooden shoe, kScXov^ wood. 

galon, s. m. lace of gold, silver etc* 
galloon; see gala. 

galonner, v. a. to lace with gold etc. 
galoper, v. n. to gallop, to canter; 
Goth, hldupan, ga-hlaupan; Ge. 
laufen; E. l^eap. 
galop, s. m. gallop, canter, 
galppade, s. f. gallopping. 
galopin, s. m. errand-boy, scamp. 
galvanique, a^. galvanic. 
galvaniser, v. a. to galvanize. 

galvanisme, s. m. galvanism; so na- 
med from the discoverer. Gal van!, 
an Italien Chemist. 

gambade, s. f. gambol : M.L. gam b a ; 
O.F. gambe; F. jam be, s. t. 

gambiller, v. n. to kick about; see 

gamelleyS.!. platter, bowl; Sp. Port, 
gamella; camella, a kind of 
drinking vessel. 

gamin, s. m. urchin; Et. d. 

gamme, s. f. gamut, scale ; ydfuta the 
third letter of the Greek alphabet 
Guido d'Arezzo, the inventor of 
the gamut, added g to the other let- 
ters chosen tor the scale. 

ganache, s. f. lower jaw of a horse, 
blockhead, dunce; It ganascia; 
gen a, a cheek. 

ganglion, s. m^ ganglion; yayyliov, 

gangri^ne, s. f. gangrene; gangrae- 
na, yayyqaiva. 

gangue, s. f. gangue (min.) ; Ge. gang, 

. a vein, eallery. 

ganse, s. T. bobbin; Et d. 

gant, s. m. glove, gauntlet; M.L. gan- 

tus, wantus; JJan. and Sw. vante; 

D. want; .comp. garant 
gantelet, s. m. gauntlet, 
ganter, v. a. to fit with gloves. 
garance. s. f. madder; M.L. varan- 

tia; Et d. 

garant, s. ro. guarantee, voucher, war- 
ranter; O.F. guarir, garir; Goth, 
varjan; A.S. varj an; E. warrant; 
Ge.wehren, to protect;comp. gu^- 
re and guerir. 

garantie, s. f. guaranty, security, 
garaatir, v. a. to warrant, to vouch for. 

gar<;on, s. m. boy, lad, bachelor, wai- 
ter; O.F. gars; M.L. garcio. Diez 
thinks it the same as the It garzo 
dim. garzuolo, core, fromcardu- 
us, the thistle. In Milan garzon 
means boy and a sort of thistle. 

garder, v. a. to guard, to keep; It 
guard are; O.H.G. wart^n; A.S. 
wardon; Ge. warten. 

garde, s. f. guard, heed, vard. 

garde, s. ro. guard, guardian, warder. 

gardien, s. m. keeper, guardian, trus- 
garer, v. a. to shun, to beware of; 
O.H.G. war on; Ge. wahren; E. 

gare, inteij. look out, beware of. 

gare, s. f. basin, terminus of a railway. 

— 91 — 

gurgrariser, ▼• a. to gargle; yctqyctqi- 

tfo, gargarizare. 
gargarisme, s. m. gargle ; yagyaQLaiiogy 

g'argote, 8. f. cook-shop; Pic. gargo- 
ter, to boil very much, which seems 
to be an onomatopoeia. (Diez.) 
gargotier, s. m. keeper of a cook-shop, 
bad cook. 

g'argouille, s. f. water-shoot, gargoyle ; 
gurges, gulf. 

gargouiUement, s. m. rattling of wa- 
ter in the stomach or throat, gar- 

gargeusse, s. f. cartridge ; Et. d. 

garnemeiit, s. m. scape -grace, bad 
fellow; O.E. garnement; E. gar- 
ment-, see garnir. 

garnir, v. a. to furnish, to provide, 
to garnish; O.H.6. warndn, to take 
care; A.S. varnian; E. warn; Ge. 
warnen, formerly to take care, to 
protect, to defend, now to warn. 

garni, e, p. part, furnished. 

gamison, s. f. garrison. 

garniture, s. f ornament, set of orna- 
ments, jewels etc., garnish. 

garoiu in loup-garou/ s. m. were- 
wolf, man«wolf; O.F. garulf, ge- 
rulf, gerulf; M.L. gerulphus; 
A.S. vereviflf; E. werewolf; Ge. 
waehrwolf; Goth, vair; A.S. ver; 
L. vir,man; Goth, vulfs; A.S. vulf; 
E. Ge. wolf. 

garret, s. m. withers, stick; Celt, 
gar; W. gdr; Ir. cara, leg; comp. 
j arret, (garter) 

garrotte, s. f. garote, a Spanish instru- 
ment for capital punishment. 
garrotter, v. a. to tie down, to garrote. 

gascon, s. m. gascon, (a native of 
Gascony), boaster, braggard ; V a s c o, 
Vasponia, Gascony. 
gasconnade, s. f gasconade, boast. 

gaspiller, v. a. to throw into disor- 
der, to squander; Goth, gaspildan, 
fispildan, to squander; A.S. spil- 
an; E. spill, spoil. 
gaspiUage, s. m. disorder, squande- 
ring, waste. 
gaster, s. m. belly, stomach; yccatrJQ, 

gastrique, adj. gastric, 
gastronomie, s. f. gastronomy. 
gftteau, 8. m. cake; O.F. gas t el; M. 

L. gastellum, O.H.G. wastel. 
gftter, V. a. to spoil; O.F. guastes, 

It. guastare; M.L. vast are; 0. 
H.G. wastan; A.S. westan; E. 

gauche, adj. lefl, left-handed; O.F. 
gale, wale; Ge. welk, faded. 

ganeherie, s. f. awkwardness, clum- 

gauchir, ▼. n. to turn aside (in order 
to avvid a blow), to prevaricate, to 
gaudriole, s. f. broad jest, joke ; g au- 
di olum, dim. of gaudium, joy. 
ganfre, s. f. honey-comb, waffle (cake) ; 
M.L. gafrnm; D. waefel; E. waf- 
fle, wafer; Ge. waffel;Ge. wabe, 
cake of wax, web en, to weave; 
comp. gar ant etc. 

ganfrer, v. a. to mould. 

ganfrier, s. m. waffie-iron. 

gaule, 8. f long pole, switch; Goth. 

valus, the E. goal. 
Gaule, 8. f. Gaul; Gallia, 
gaulois, e, adj. Gallic , of old French. 
gausser, .(se), pr. v. to mock at, to 
banter; Et. d. Diez gives the Sp. 
gozarse, to enjoy oneself, from 
gaudium, joy, or gustus, taste, 
gansserie, s. f. mockery. 

gaz, 8. m. gas; this word was made 
by the inventor of gas, van Helmont, 
a Dutchman, and is said to be the 

D. geest, Ge. geist, spirit, 
gazeux, 86, adj. gaseous. 

<gaze, s. f. gauze; said to have been 
first made at Gaza in Palestine, 
whence the name. 

gazelle, s. f gazelle, algazel; Arab, 

gazette, s. f. gazette; It. gazetta, 
orig. a Venetian coin, which was 
the price, that was paid for a fly- 
ing sheet of intelligence, later: 
gazetier, s. m. gazeteer. 

gazon, s. m. turf, grass-plot, gazon, 
O.H.G. waso; G. wasen; E. ooze. 

gazouiller. v. n. to twitter, to warble 
(of birds), to murmur (of waters), 
garrire to chatter; comp. jaser. 
gazouillement, s. m. twitter, warbling, 
murmur of waters. 

geai, s. m. jay; O.F. gai; Sp. gayo; 

E. gay; same as F. gai, see this. 
g^ant, s. m. giant; O.F. gaiant; E. 

giant; y^yag, ytyavtog. 
geindre, v. n. to moan; old form of 
g^mir, 8. t. 

— 92 

gr^Iattne, s. f. gelatin; gelare, to 

greler, to v. n. to freeze; gelare. 
gBUe, 8. f. frost, jelly. 

g^meaa,*) s. m. gemini, the twins 
(Ast.); gemellus, diro.of geminns, 
twin; comp. jumeau. 

g^mir, v. n. to groan, to moan; ge- 
g^missement, s. m. groan, moan. 

gemme, s. f. gem; It. L. gemma. 

genoire, s. f. gum, the fleshy covering 
of the jaws; It. Fort. Prov. gengiva; 

gendarme, s. m. gendarme, country- 
police; cont. of gensd'armes; see 
gens, arme. 

gendannerie, s. f. gendarmery, armed 
police - force. 

gendre, s. m. son in law; gener. 

g^ne, s. f uneasiness, inconvenience, 
trouble; O.F. gehenne, g6eunej 
g^ne, torture; gehenna, yiswa 
hell, Heb. gehenna, the vaiey of 
Hinnom, „where certain idolatrous 
Jews had sacrificed their children 
to Moloch; thence afterwards held 
in abomination.'' 

g6ner, v. a. to inconvenience, to im- 
pede, to embarrass, to annoy. 

g^n^alogie, s. f. genealogy; ysvsaXo- 
yCa^ ysved descent, Xoyog, a discourse. 

g^n^ral, e, adj. general; generalis, 
genus, a kind, 
gto^ral, s. m. general, 
gin^rale, s. f. nre-drum, general, 
gto^raliser, v. a. to generalize, 
g^niralit^, s. f. generality. 
g^n^rateur, trice, adj. generative; 
generator, generare, genus, 
g^n^ration, s. f . generation ; genera- 

tio, -onis; see prec. 
g^n^reux, se, adj. generous; gene- 
rosus, of good or noble birth, 
generous; genus, birth, 
gin^rositi, s. f. generosity, liberality. 

g^n^rlqae, adj. generic; genus, ge- 
neris, a kind. 

geni^se, s. f. Genesis; yivsaig, an ori- 
gin, ysvdat, to beget. 

genSt, s. m. broom (shrub); OF. ge- 
nest; Sp. ginesta; genista. 

gen^rrier, s. m. juniper, juniper-tree ; 
see geni^vre. 

g^Ble, s. m. genius, spirit, engineer- 
ing; genius. 

genK^vre, s.m. juniper, gin; also ge- 
ne vre; juniperus. (juniper, |in) 

gcnisse, s. f. a yonng cow, heuer; 
O.F. genice; junix, junicis. 

genital, e, adj. genital; genitalis, 
genere or gignere, to beget 

genoa, s. m. knee, lap; O.F. ge- 
nouil; genuculum for genicu- 
lum dim. of ^enu, the knee. 

genre, s. m. kind, species, gender, 
„genre** painting; It. genere; ge- 
nus, generis, species." 

gens, s. m. f. pi. people; see gent 

gent, s. f race, tribe, people; gens, 

gentiane, s. f. gentian; gentiana, 
from the lUyrian king Gentius, 
who discovered it 

gentil, le, adj. gentile, pretty, nice; 
gen tills, belonging to the same 
clan or race; gens, a race. 

■ gentHhomme, s. m. nobleman, gentle- 
man; see homme. 
gentilletse, s. f. prettiness, charm. 

genuflexion, s. f. genuflection ; genu, 
knee, flectere, to bend. 

g^od^sie, s. f. geodesy ; y^, earth, da£(o, 
to divide. 

g^ographie, s. f. geography; ysmyqa- 

<pia, yfj earth, yQcctpm, to write. 
ge61e,s.f. gaol, jail; O.F. gaol; M.L. 
gabiola; caveola, dim. ofcavca, 
a cavity, 
gedlier, s. m. jailer, gaol-keeper. 

g^ologie, s.f geology; yij, earth, 16- 

yog, a discourse. 
g^ometrie, s. f. geometry; yetotistQ^, 

land measuring, yfj, earth, fut^op, 

g^rant, s. m. manager; see g^rer. 
gerbe, s.f sheaf, gerb; O.F. garbe; 

M.L. garb a; O.H.G. garba; E. 

garb ; Ge. garbe. 

gereer, v. a. to chap, to crack: car- 

pere, to pick. 
ger9nrc, s. f. chap, crack. 
g(irer, V. a. to administer, to manage; 

gerfant, s. m. gerfalcon; M.L. giro- 

falco; Ge. gerfalke, gierfalke, 

Ge. geier, a vulture, falke, a hawk, 
germain, e, adj. german ; g e r m an u 8. 
Germain, s.m. German; uermaaas. 

*) ated in the plnral only, gemeanx. 

— 93 — 

g^imaaiqae, adj. germanic. 
grmaniitme, s. m. germanism. 

germe, s. m. germ; germen. 

gunner, t. n. to shoot, to bud. 

GemiiiLal, s. m. the seventh month of 
the calender of the first French re- 

g^rondif, s. m . gerund ; gerundivus, 

g^sier, 8. m. gizzard; gigeria. 

g^sir, V. n. to lie; O.F. gisir; j ace- 
re, (comp. plaisir etc.). 

geste, 8. m. gesture, movement; ge- 
8tu8, gerere, to bear. 

gestieuler, v. n. to gesticulate; ge- 
sticulari, gestus, bearing. 

gesticiilateiir, s. m. -trioe, s. f. gesti- 

geitienlation, 8. f. gesticulation; ge- 
sticulatio, -onis. 

gestion, s. f. administration, manage- 
ment; gestio, gerere, to manage. 

gibecidre, s. f. game-pouch; see gi- 

gibelotte, s.f. rabbit-stew; see gibi er. 

giberne, s. f. cartridge box; see gi- 
bi er. 

gibetyS. m. gibbet, gallows; Jt. giub- 
betto dim. of giubba, jacket 

gibier, s. m. game; O.F. gibbier, 

gibelet; Et. d.; comp. E. giblets. 

giboyer, v. n. to hunt, to go hunting. 

gibool^e, s. f. shower, hail-shower;. 
Et. d. 

glfle, s. f. slap in the face, box on 
the ear; Et. d. 

gigantesque, adj. gigantic; It. gi- 
gantesco, gigante; see geant. 

gigot, 8. m. leg of mutton, leg; see 
gigotter, V. a. to kick about. 

gigHe, 8. f. leg, gig (dance, tune); 0. 
H.G. gige, Ge. geige, violin; E. 

gig? jig- 
gilet, 8. m. waistcoat, vest; see gille. 

grille, 8. m. clown; O.S. wiglian; E. 
guile, wile. 

gingembre, s. m. ginger; Svyytfisgig^ 
zingiber; according to Pott the 
Sanscrit grin gave r a, antler-shaped. 

gingaet, te, ady. short, weak; Et d. 
ginguet, s. m. weak wine. 

girafe, s.f. giraffe; Arab, xariffa or 

giraade, s. f. girande, Qeta of water, 

fireworks) 0J>\ girer (comp. vi- 

rer); gyrare, to turn, gyrus,* 

yvQog, circle. 

girandole, s. f. ffirandole (candle-stick]. 
girofle, s. m. clove ; HaQv6q>vXloy, xo- 

Qvov, nut, qpwUov, leaf; car yophy 1- 

lum. (gillitiower) 
giroflier, s. m. clove-tree. 
giron, 8. m. lap, pane, gyron; O.H.G. 

ge re, pane, from ger, the triangular 

point of a lance. 

girouette, s. f. vane, weather-cock; 
O.F. girer, to turn; see girande. 
gisant, e, adj. lying; pr. part ofO.F. 
gisir; see gesir. 
git, in ci-glt, here lies. 
glto, 8. m. night-quarters, lodging. 
givre, 8. m. rime, hoar-frost, s. f. ser- 
pent (in heraldry); O.H.G. wipera; 
vipera, viper. 

glace, 8. f. ice, mirror, looking-glass; 
M.L. glacia; glacies. 

glacer, v. a. to freeze, to glaze. 

glaei^ e, adj. icy, frigid. 

glacier, 8. m. glacier (mass of ice). 

glaeiire, s. f. ice-pit 

glaoifl, 8. m. glacis, slope. 

gla^on, 8. m. piece of ice, icicle. 
glaOiatear, s. m. gladiator; gladi a- 
tor; gladius, a sword. 

glair e, s. f. glair; A.S. glaere, amber. 
glaise, s.f. loam, clay; M.L. glitea; 
M.L. glis, glitis, clay; E. clay, 
glaiaer, v. a. to loam. 
giaive, s.f. sword; Prov. glavi; gla- 
gland, 8. m. acorn, tassel, gland; 
glans, glandis, an acorn, 
glande, s. f. gland. 

gianer, V. a. to glean; M.L. glen are; 
Et. d. 

glane, s. f. handful of corn gleaned, 
gleanings. ^ 
glaneur, s. m. gleaner. 

glapir, T. n. to yelp, to scream; OH. 
G. klaffdn; M.H.G. klaffen; Ge. 
klaffen, klappen; E. clap, 
glapiflsement, s. m. yelping. 
gias, 8.m. knell; classicum, a sig- 
nal of battle giveu by the trumpet 
gli^be, s. f. glebe, soil, clod; gleba. 
glisser, v.n. to slip, to slide, to glide; 
Ge. g lit schen;E. glide; Ge. glei- 

glissade, s. f. slide, glissade, 
glissoire, s. f. slide (path on the ice). 
globe, 8. m. globe; glob as. 
globule, 8. f. globule; globula. 

— 94 - 

Srloire, s. f. glory; gloria, 
glorienz, se, adj. glorious ; g 1 o r i o s u s. 

glorifier, y. a. to glorify ^glorificarey 
gloria, glory. 

gloriileatioxi, s. f. glorification; glo- 
rificatio, -onis, glorificare, 
gloria, glory. 

gloriole, s. f. vainglory; gloriola, 
dim. of gloria, glory. 

glose, 8. f. glo88 ; yXmcccL, the tongue, 
gloser, y. a. to glose, to gloss, to cri- 

glossaire, s. m. glossary; glos sa- 
ri urn, yXfoaaa^ the tongue, 
gloisateur, s. m. glossologist. 

glotte, s. f. glottis; yilott/ff, yl6xxa 
Att of yl&oaa, the tongue. 

glonglon, 8. m. gurgling; see next w. 
glousser, y. n. (of hens) to cluck; 

Onomatopoeia; glocire; xa;i^^a^o>; 

A.S. cloccau; Ge. glucksen; etc. 
glouseiiient, s. m. clucking. 

• _ 

glouteron, s. m. burdock; O.F. gle- 
teron, gleton; Ge. klette. 

glouton, s. m. glutton; gluto, glutto, 
-onis; glntire, to swallow; comp. 

glu, s. f. bird-lime, glue; glus or 
gluten; yXoCa, 
glnau, 8. m. lime-twig, 
gloer, y. a. to lime. 

gluten, s. m. gluten; gluten; see 

glntineuz, se, a4j. glutinous, yiscid; 

gnome, s. m. gnome; yvoifiav, one 

that knows, a judge. 
go, in „tout d e go", freely, without 

obstacle; O.F. gob; Ir.gob, mouth, 

Gael, gob, mouth, gwp, beak. 
gobbe, 8. f. poison-ball (to kill dogs); 

see prec. 
gobe-mouches, s. m. fly-catcher, gull, 

person, who has no opinion of his 


gobelet, 8. m. goblet; O.F. gobeau, 

gobel; cupella, dim. of cupa, 

tub, comp. coupe. 
gobelin, s. m. goblin; M.L. gobeli- 

nus; £. goblin; Ge. kobold; tid- 

P&Xog, an impudent rogue. 

gobelins, s. m. pi. gobelins, imperial 
manufactory of carpets and tapes- 
try in Paris; so called after Gilles 
Gobelin, a famous dyer in the 
reign of Francis -I. 

gober, v. a. to swallow greedily, to 

swallow (fig.); see gobbe. 
goberges, s. f. pi. cross-bars of a 

bedstead. £t. a. 
goberger, (se), pr. y. to take o's ease, 

to amuse o's self. 
gabet, 8. m. piece swallowed, gobbet ; 

see gobbe. 
godailler, y. n. to drink to excess, 

to tipple; O.F. goder; Cymr. god, 

goder, y. n. to crease ; to pucker; 

probably for gander; Goth, yalt- 

jan; O.H.G. walzan; Ge. wael- 

zen; A.S. yealtjan; E. welter. 
godet, s. m. drinking cup without a 

handle or fpot; It. gotto; guttus, 

a narrow-necked yessel. 
godrom 8. m. godroon; see goder. 
gogo, (a), ady. in clover; O.F. go- 

gue, joke; Brit. g6g6; Gael, go- 

gan; Ir. Sc. sgeig. 
goguenard, e, adj. jeerer, banterer; 

see prec. 
goinfre, s. m. gluttonous ; O.F. goder; 

see godailler. 
goitre, s. m. goitre; guttur, gullet 
golfe, s. m. gulf; It Sp. Port golfo; 

noXnog, a bay; comp. gouffre. 
gomme, s. f. gum; gummi; xofifu. 
gommer, y. a. to gum. 
gommier, s. m. gum-tree. 
gond, 8.m. hinge; contus; xovrdg, a 

gondole, s. f. gondola (a boat);^ It 

gondola, dim. of gonda; Hovdv 

or %6vdvg, vase, 
gondolier, s. m. gondolier. 
gonfalon, s. m. gonfalon (a banner); 

Itgonfalone; O.H.G. gundfano, 

gund, battle, war, fan 0, Ge. fahne, 

flag, banner.. 

goniJBlonier, s.'ro. gonfalonnier. 
gonfler, v. a. to inflate, to swell; It 

gonfiare; con-flare, to blow to- 

gonflement, s. m. inflation, swelling, 
gorge, s. f. throat, bosom (of women), 

gorge, strait; It Sp. Prov. gorga; 

M.L. gorgia; Ge. gurgel; gurges, 


gorg^, 8. f. a mouthful. 
gorger, v. a. to gorge. 
gosier, s. m. throat, gullet; O.F. gu- 

euse; £t d. 
gothique, adj. gothic ; of the Goths. 
gouaene, s. f. a kind of water-colour 
painting; see g&cher. 


— 95 — 

iroudroB, s. m. tar; Sp. alquitran; 

Arab.; al-gatran. 
goudronner, v. a. to tar. 
gouffre, 8. m. gulf, whirlpool; for 

g o a f 1 e, transposition of g o 1 f e ; see 


gouge, 8. f. gonge (a kind of chisel); 

M.L. gnvia. 
gouge, 8. f. girl, servant-girl; Jewish 

gaye, Christian, 
goigat, s. m. servant in the army, 

goujon, 8. m. gudgeon; go bio, -onis; 

comp. rage-rabies etc. 
goulet, 8. m. narrow entrance to a 

harbour; O.F. goule lor gueule; 

see this. 
gouLot, s. m. neck (of bottles) ; see 

goulotte, 8. f gullet, gutter; see 

goulu.e, adj. gluttonous; see goulot. 
goupiilon, s. m. bottle-brush, water- 
sprinkle; O.F. goupil, golpil, fox; 

▼ nlpecnla, dim. of vulpes, fox. 
gourd, e, adj. benumbed; gurdus, 

a dolt; of Spanish origin. 
gourde, s. f. gourd; shortened from 

gongourde; cucurbita. 
gourdln,s.m. cudgel, rope's end.; It. 

cordino (cord). 

goure, s. f. adulterated drug ; of Ara- 
bic origin. 
gourmade, s. f punch (blow); see 

gourmand, e, adj. gluttonous; see 


gonrmandlBe, s. f gluttony. 
gourme, s. f mumps (disease); 0. 

North, gormr, mire, slime. 
gourmer, v. a. to curb (horses), to 

pommel; Et. d. 
gourmette, s. f. curb, curb-chain; 

Brit gromm; Sc. Ir. crom; A.S. 

crumm; 6e. krumm, curbed. 

gousse, s. f. pod, husk; Et. d. Sche- 
ler thinks it the same as housse; 
see this. 

gousset, s. m. arm-pit, gusset, watch- 
goilt, 8. m. taste; O.F. goust; gus- 

getter, V. a. to taste, to lunch, to re- 
lish; gustare. 
goutte, 8. f. a drop, gout; It. gotta; 
Sp. Port, gota; gutta. 
gottttelette, s. f. little drop, droplet. 

goutteiuc, se, adj. gouty, 
goutti&re, spout of houses, eutter* 
gouvernail, s. m. helm, rudder; see 

next w. 
gouverner, v. a. to govern, to rule, 

to steer; gubernare. 
gouvemante, the wife of the governor, 

gonvemement, 8. m. govemement 
gonvemenr, s. m. governor, ruler, tu- 
grabat, s. m. pallet (small bed), bad 
bed; grabatus; nqcipatog, a low 
grabttge, s. m. quarrel; O.F. gra- 
bouil; Scheler connects it with 
the 6e. g raben (in engrave) to dig. 

grace, a. f. grace, favour, pardon; 
gratia; gratus, kind, 
grader, v. a. to pardon. 
graoieoBeti, s. f graciousness. 
graoienz, se, adj. gracious, graceful, 
gradation, s. f . gradation ; gradatio, 

-onis, gradus, a step. 
grrade, s. m. grade, rank, degree; 
gradus, a step. 

gradin, s. m. step., seats rising one 
above another, 
graduel, le, a^. gradual 
gradner, v. a. to graduate. 

grailler, v.n. to recall the dogs with 
the horn; O.F. graille, jay; It. 
gracchio; Sp. grojo; graculus, 
a jay. 

graillon, s. m. rest of a meal; Sche- 
1 er thinks it a contraction of gra- 
tillon; see gratter. 

grain, s. m. grain; granum. 

graine, s.f. seed; grana, pi. of gra- 
num, grain. 

graisse, s.m. fat, grease; It grasso; 
M.L. grassus; crassus; seegras. 
graiBler, v. a. to grease, to dirt, 
graisseiiz, se, a^j. fatty, greasy. 

gramen, s. m. gramin^e, s. f. grass, 

gramineal plant ; gramen, pi. g r a- 

grammaire, s. f. grammar; Prov. 

gram air a; ygafiiiatiiiij ^ ypoffifia, a 

letter, yQd(p<o, to write. 

gramairien, s. m. grammarian, 
grammatical, e, adj. grammatical. 
gramme, s. m. gram, the unity of the 

French system of weights ; y^offtfta, 

one twenty fourUi part of an ounce. 
grand, e, a^. great, tall, grand ; gr an- 


— 96 — 

grandeur, 8. i. greatness, magnitude, 

grandiose, adj. grand, 
grandir, y.n. to grow up, to increase. 

grange, s. f. bam; Sp. Port. Prov. 

granja; grauea; see grain ;comp. 

linge, and neige. 
granit, s. m. granite; It. granite; 

granatus, having grains, g r a n u m, 

granulation, s. f. granulation; It. 

granuiazione; see grain. 
granuler, v. a. to granulate; It. gra- 

nulare; see grain. 
graphique, adj. graphic; ygatpmog, 

belonging to drawing, or painting; 

yQttq>a^ to write. 
grapin, see grappin. 

grrappe, s. t. bunch of fruit, grape; 

It. grappo; O.H.G. chrapfo. (E. 

grappiUer, v. a. to glean, to make a 

little profit. 

grappillon, s. m. cluster of grapes, 
grappin, s.m. grapling, grapnel; O.F. 

grappe, hook. 
eras, 86, a^j. &t, greasy, rich; O.F. 

cras3; It. grasso; Sp. grass; M. 

L. grassns; crassus. 

gras-double, 8.m. tripe; see double, 
gnuwet, te, adj. somewhat fat, incli- 
ned to fatness. 

grasseyer, T. n. to speak thick by ar- 
ticulating the letter r etc. imper- 

grasMuillet, te, adj. plump. 
gratifier, v. a. to confer, to bestow; 
gratificari; gratus, erateful, fa- 
cere, to make, (gratify) 
gratification, s. f. gratuity, donation; 
gratificatio, -onis. 
gratin, s.m. part which sticks to the 

saucepan; see gratter. 
gratis, ad?, gratis, gratuitously, free; 

gratitude, s. f. gratitude; M.L. gra- 
titudo; gratus, pleasing. 

gratter, v. a. to scrape, to scratch; 
It. grattare; Sp. Prov. gratar; 
M.L. cratare; O.H.G. chraz6n, 
Ge. kratzen; E. scratch, 
gratte-ool, s. m. the fruit of eglan- 
tine; see cul. 

grattoir, s. m. scraper, erasing-knife. 
gratuit, e, adj. gratuitous, free; gra- 
tuitus, gratus, pleasant, 
gratuity, s. f. gratuity, free gift 

grare, a^j. heavy, grave* gravis, 
gravitationi s. f. gravitation, 
gravity, s. f. gravity, weight, 
graviter, v. n. to gravitate. 
gravel eux, se, adj. gravelly, contai- 
ning gravel; see gravier. 
gravelle, s. f. urinary gravel, see 

graver, v. a. to engrave, to grave; 
Goth, graban; Dan. grave; Ge. 

graveor, s. m. engraver, 
gravnre, s. f. engraving. 

gravier, s. m. gravel; grit; O.F. grave 
(comp. gr^ve); Prov. grava; M.L. 
gravia; Et d. 

gravir, v. n. to climb; It. sradire, 
Schelerthinksgradire (gradus) 
changed to gra-ir, then v came in 
to fill up the hiatus, as in pou voir, 
(see this); O.F. poo ir. Chevallet, 
connects it with O.H.G. krapho, 
Ge. greifen, E. gripe; comp. 
agrafe etc. 

gravois, s. m. rubbish; see gravier. 
gravnre, s.m. engraving; see graver. 
gr6, s. m. will, free-will, liking; O.F. 

gret, gred; It. Sp. Port, grado; 

gratum, agreeable. 
gree, greque, adj. Greek, Grecian, 

miser, cheat; graecus; yQamog. 
griciser, v. a. to grecize. 

gredin, s. m. beggar, scoundrel, a 
species of dog; It. gretto, avarice; 
Goth, gred us; A.S. graedig; £. 

gr6er, v. a. to rig; O.F. agres, ag- 
rei, preparation, fitting out of a 
vessel; A.S. ge-raedian, geraed, 
in Ger. be-reiten, to prepare; E. 
gr^ement, s. m. rigging, 
grteur, s. m. rigger. 

greife, s. m. clerk's office, graft, in- 
craftinent; O.F. grefe, grate, gref- 
fe, a burin for writing or engra- 
ving; graphium; y^a^toy, a wri- 
ting style. 

greffer, v. a. to graft, 
greffler, s. m. clerk of the court, 
greffoir, s. m. grafling knife, 
gr^ge, s. f. raw (silk); It. greggio; 

Et d. 
gregeois, adj. (of fire) Greek, wild; 

O.F. gregois; se%grec. 
gr^le, adj. slender, sum, shrill; gra- 
cilis; comp. fr4le. 

— 97 — 

firrdle, s. f. hail; O.F. greslie; see 

grftler, v. n. to hail, 
grelon, 8. m. large hale-stone. 

grrelot, s. m. globular bell; crota- 

lum; KQ6t€cXov, a rattle, 
grelotter, v. d. to shiver. 
gr^ment, s. m. see gr^ement. 
grenade, s.f. pome-graDate, grenade; 

It. granata; granataxn (inaluxn); 

gran am, a grain, 
grenadier, s. m. pome-granate-tree, 

grenaille, s. f. minute grains, refuse 

grain; see grain. 
grenat, s. m. garnet; M.L. grana- 

tus; granum, a grain. 
greneler, v. n. to grain skins; see 


grener, ▼. a. to granulate, to stipple ; 

see grain. 
grenier, s. m. granary, the upper* 

most story of a building; see grain, 
grenonille, s.f. frog; O.F. renouille, 

renoille; ranula, dim. of rana, 

a frog, 
grenouillire, s. f. place full of frogs. 
grenu, e, adj. corned, grainy, gra- 
nular; see grain, 
grds, s. m. sand-stone, stone-ware, 

grit; O.H.6. krioz, griez; A.S. 

greet; 6e. gries; E. grit, 
grisil, s. m. sleet 

grdTe, s. f. strand y „Qreye", public 
square in Paris, where executions 
formerly took place; O.F. grave, 
grit, Pr. grava; Et d. comp. gra- 

greyer, V. a. to ifijure, to burden, to 
encumber with mortgage etc.; gra- 
vare, gravis, heavy, 
grive, s. f. strike of workmen. 

griboniller, v. jl to daub (paint bad- 
ly), to scrawl; O.F. grabouil; see 

gridche, adj. speckled, prickly. Et. d. 
Scheler gives graecus, greek, 
ortie gri^che, E. greek nettle. 

grief, ve, adj. grave, grievous; O.F. 
grefe, greve; gravis, 
gri^vet^, s. f. gravity, enormity. 

griffe, 8. f. claw, fang, stamped fac- 
simile of a si^ature ; Ge. g r i if, gripe ; 
Goth, greipan; E. gripe; Ge. 
greifen, to grasp. 

griibr, V. a. to take with > the cietws, 
to scratch. 

griffoxmage, s. m. scrawl, scribble, 
griffonnef, v. a« to scrawl, to scribble, 
griffon, s.m. griffin, griffon; It. grii- 
fo, griff one; Sp. grifo; gryps 
or grypbns, ypv^, yQ'^^^^s- 
grignon, s. m. hard crust (of bread); 
O.F. graignon, (comp. chignon); 
granum, a grain. 
grignoter, v. a. to nibble. 
grigou, 8. m. wretch, miser ; graecus, 

Greek; see Grec. 
gril, s. m. gridiron, toaster; O.F. grai 1 ; 

see next w. 
grille, s.f grate, railing; O.F. grail le; 
M.L. graticula; craticula, dim. 
of crates, wicker-work, 
grillage, s. m. wire-work, grate. 
griUer, v. a. to broil, to toast, to 
scorch, to rail in. 
griUon, 8. m. cricket ; g r y 1 1 u s ; yQvl- 

grimace, s. f. grimace, wry face; 0. 
N. grima, mask; A.S. grim a, 
mask, phantom. 
grimaud, s. m. little schoolboy , scrib- 
bler; see grim oi re. 
grimoire, s. m. conjuring book, un- 
readable handwriting; O.N. grima, 
witch; comp. grimace. 
grimper, v. n. to climb, to creep ; for 
glimper; A.S. climan, climban; 
E. climb; Ge. klimmen. 
grrineer, v. a. to grind (the teeth), to 
grate; Itgricciare; O.H.G. grim- 
misdn, to be grim; A.S. and E. 
grim; Ge. grimm. 
grinoement, s. m. grinding of the teeth, 
griotte, 8. f. a kind of cherry, a kind 

of marble; Et d. 
gripper, v. to seize, to snatch, to 
wrinkle; Goth. greipan; E. gripe; 
see griffe. 

grippe, s. m. fancy, whim, influenza. 
grippe-son, s.m. rate-collector, scrape- 
penny ; see sou. 
gris, e, adi. gray, tipsy; It griso, 
gri^io; M.L. griseus; A.S. graeg, 
greig; E. gray, Ge. grau, greis. 
grisaille, s. f. painting in gray, 
grisfttre, adj. grayish, 
griier, V. a. to intoxicate, to make 

grisette, s. f. gray gown, grisette *) 
<a shop-girl). 

*) Under Phllipp le Bel, the wives of the French mlddle-claeiet aied to wear generally 
Kray olothee and shoes, and were therefore ealled grisette s. 


— 98 — 

gzifon, BAf a^. gmy, gray-haired. 
gxiioaiMr, t. n. to get gray, to grow 

rme. 8. £ thrush: £t. d. 

grriTOis, e, adj. jouy; Et. d. 

irrogner. v. a. to growl, to grant, to 
grumble; O.F. groign er; It gr ug- 
nire; Sp. grunir; grunnire; £. 

Srunt; ygv, a grunt, ypv^a>, to grunt; 
e. grunzen. 

grognard, e, adj. grumbling, growling. 

groin, 8. m. snout of a pig; O.F. 

grommeler, v. a. to grumble; 6e. 
furumen, grumeln, grammeln; 
£. grumble; Ge. rummeln; E. 
gronder, v. n. to grumble, to roar, 
to thunder; v. a. to scolde, to re- 
buke; O.F. grondir, grondre; 
grundire, sameasgrunnire; see 

grondeur, se, adj. scolding, srnmbling. 
.grros, se, a^j. large, bulky, big, (fem.} 
pregnant; It. Vort. grosso; M.L. 
grosBus; crassus (gross). 

groMe,s.f. gross (12 dozen), estreat 

grofserie, s. f. iron-mongery , whole 

groMetie, s. f. pregnancy. 

grofienr, s. f. largeness, bulk, stout- 
ness, swelling. 
groseiUey s. f. currant, gooseberry; 
O.F. groiselle; Sp. grosella; 
Dutch: kruisbezie; Ge. kraus- 
beere, kraeuselbeere, kraus, 
crisp, be ere, berry; E. goose- 

groseillier, s. m. currant-tree, goose- 
grossier, dre, adj. coarse, rude, clum- 
sy; see gros. (grossier, also 
meant formerly wholesale-merchant;) 
E. grocer. 

grofsiireti, s. f. rudeness, coarseness. 
grossir, V. a. n. to make, to become 
big, stout, to magnify, to swell ; see 

grofsissement, s. m. magnifying. 
grotesque, adj. grotesque; It g ro- 
tes co;Sp. grutesco; the term has 
originated in Italy, upon the disco- 
very of some whimsically designed 
paintings in the grottos or ruins 
of the palace of Titus at Rome; see 
next w. 

grotte, 8. f. grotto, grot, crypt; It. 

grotta; Sp. gruta; M.L. crota; 

crypt a; x^vivn}, a covered place, 

x^oVro, to hide, 
grouiller, v. n. to stir , to move ; O. 

U.G. grubil6n, gruobilon; Ge. 

grUbeln; to rackets brain, grab en, 

to dig; comp. graver. 
grooiUement, s. m. rattling of the in- 
groupeyS.m. group, cluster; It grop- 

po, gruppo; E. group; Uerro. 

root, meaning agglomeration ; O.H.G. 

chroph; Ge.kropf; E. crop; Ge. 

krtlppel; £. cripple, etc.; comp. 

gruau, s. m. oat-meal, gruel; O.F. 

ffru, gruel, for grut, grutel; 

Sf.L. grutum, grutellum, gru- 

ellum; A.S. grut; M.H.G. gruz, 

sand; Ge. grQtze, groats. 
grue, s. f crane; grus. 
gruger, v. a. to craunch, to eat up; 

Diez proposes grut; see gruau. 
grumeau^ s. m. grume, clot of milk 

or blood; O.F. grumel, grume; 

It Sp. Port grumo; grumellus, 


gnuneler, (se), pr. v. to clot, to clod, 
grayer, dre, a4j. of the crane, (see 

grue); having a right to wood; M. 

H.G. gruo, green, and meadow. 

(Ge. grtln, £. green). 
gruydre, s. m. Gruyere cheese; Gri- 

ers orGruy^Fe, a village in Swi- 

'tzerland, where it is made. 
ga6, s. m. ford; O.F. guet, weit; 

It guado; vadum, a shallow place 

in water; comp. gagner, gant, 

guerre, etc. 
g«te, V. a. to ford a river, to water 

(horses), to wash (linen). 
guenille, s. f. rag, tatter; O.F. go- 

nelle, dim. of gone, gonne; M.L. 

gunna; £. gown. 
guenon, s. f. she -monkey, ugly wo- 
man; prostitute; O.H.G. quena; A. 

S. cwen, quena, woman; E. queen. 
gui^pe, s. f wasp; O.F. guespe; M. 

L. guespa; O.H.G. wefsa, waf- 

sa; £. wasp; vespa. 
guipier, 8. m. wasps^ nest 
gudre, gudres, adv. little, not very, 

scarcely; O.F. gu aires, w aires; 

O.H.G. w&ri; verus in the sense 

of very.*) 

*) ga^re is olivavt oonitracted with tbft negativ« ne; ne gu^re, not very. 

— 99 — 

garret, s. m. head-land, field; M.L. 
vervactum, warectum. 

gru^ridon, gueridon, small round table: 
Et. d. 

gu^rir, V. a. to cure , to heal ; O.F. 
guarir, garir; Goth, varjan; 
O.H.G.werjan, werran, Ge. weh- 
ren, to defend, to protect, (beware). 
guiriBon, s. f. cure, recovery from ill- 

gu^rite, s. £ centry box; O.F. garite, 

refuge, retreat; O.F. garir; see 

gnerre, s. fwar; It. Sp. Port guer- 

ra; M.L. guerra, werra; O.H.G. 

werra, dispute, revolt; £. war; 

comp. gu6rir, garder, garant 


guerzier, s. m. warrior, 
guenroyer, ?. n. to make, to wage war. 

guet, 8. m. watch, sentinel ; O.F. g a i t e, 
gaitter, wait, waiter; It. guai- 
tare; O.H.G. waht^n, to watch, 
£. wait; Ge. wacht. 
gnet-apeni, s. m. wait, ambuscade; 
O.F. guet-appense, premeditated ; 
see penser. 
gnetter, v. a. to watch, to look out 

guStre, s. f. gaiter; £t. d. 
gueule. s. f. mouth of animals, jaws, 
moutn; gula, gullet, 
gudnler, v. n. to bawl, to roar, 
gueux, se, adj. poor, beggarly; Et. d. 
gnenser, v. n. to begg, to go begging, 
gneuserie, s. f. beggary, poverty. 

gui, s. m. misletoe^ It visco, vis- 

chio; viscum, viscus. 
guiehet, s. m. wicket; D. wincket; 

E. wicket 

gnichetier, s. m. turnkey. 
guide, 8. m. suide, guide-book; s. f. 

rein of a bridle; It guida; Sp. 

guia; O.F. guis; see next w. 
gmder, v. a. to guide, to lead; O.F. 

guier; Et d. Diez suggests Goth. 

vitan, to observe, to suard. 
guidon, s. m. guidon, field colours. 

guigue, 8.f. a kind of cherry; O.F. 

guisne; Sp.guinda;Itviscio]a; 

O.H.G. wihsela; Ge. weichsel, 

gnignier, s. m. cherry-tree. 
guigner, v. a. to leer, to peep at; 

It ghignare; O.H.G. kinan, to 

guignon, 8. m. ill, bad luck; Et d. 

According to Menage and others 

Snigner, see this. 
llemets,8.m. pi. inverted commas; 
Scheie r says it is probably the 
name of the printer who first made 
use of inverted commas. 

gnilleret, te, adj. brisk, lively, slight; 
Et d. 

gailloeher, v. a. to guilloche; accor- 
ding to Menage from Guillot, 
the name of the inventor of this 
kind of ornament 

guillotine, s. f guillotine; from its 
introducer Joseph Ignace Guillotin, 
who is erroneously supposed both 
• to have invented and to have perish- 
ed by it (Brande.) 
goillotiner, v. a. to guillotine. 

guimaave, 8. f marsh-mallow; O.F. 
vimauve; M.L. bismalva; ibis- 
cum malva; comp. oauve. 

guimbarde* s. f. bar, Jew's harp ; Et.d. 

guimpe. 8. L veil of nuns; O.F. guimp- 
le; E. wimple; Ge. wimpel, a 

gmnder, v. a. to hoist, to raise; It. 
ghindare; Sp. Port guindar; 
Goth. A.S. vindan; O.H.G. wintan; 
. Ge. winden; E. wind, 
gaindage, s. m. hoisting. 

guin6e, s. f. guinea, muslin; E. gui- 
nea, Guineas were first coined of 
ffold, brought from Guinea. 

giungois, s. m, obliquity, crookedness; 
O.N. kingr. 

guingette, s. f. hedge-alehouse; F. 
guinguet or ginguet (see this), 
weak wine. 

guipure, s. f. guipure, Maltese lace ; 
O.F.guiper, to weave; Goth, vei- 
pan, to wreath; O.H.G. wifan, to 
weave; E. weave. 

gnirlande, s. f garland , wreath ; It. 
ghirlanda; 8p. guirnalda; E. 
garland; M.H.G. wiren, to turn, 
wiara, wreath. 

guise, s. f. manner, fancy; It Sp. 
Port. Prov. guisa; O.H.G. wis a; 
Ge. weise; £. wise (in otherwise 

guitare, s. f. guitar; Sp. guitarra; 
cithara; xi^of^a, the cithern; Arab, 

gttitaxiBte, s.m. guitarist, guitar-play- 

gustation, s. f. taste, tasting; gup. 
tare; gustus, a tasting; coms- 

— 100 — 

guttural, e, adj. gattural; guttara- 
lis; guitar, the throat. 

gymnase, gymnasium; YV(tvdeiov\ 
yvfiydfiD, to train naked in gymna- 
stic exercises; yviivog, naked, 
gymnattiqiie, adj. gymnastic; yvfiva- 

gynec^e, s. m. gynecium, a private 
apartment for women; gynae- 
cium; yvvainstov., yvvrl a female. 

gypse, s. m. gypsum, plaster ofParis; 

gypsum; yv^os. 
gypMiix, se, a4j. gypseous. 
gyromancle, s. f gyromancy (a sort 

of divination performed by walking 

in, or roand, a circle); yvQog a circle, 

liavTsia, prophecy. 


habile, adj. able skiHul; It. a bile; 

habilis; habere, to have (means); 

E. able. 

habilet^, s. f. ability, skill; habilitas. 

habilit^, s. f. competency (law); ha- 

habiliter, v. a. to qualify (law); M.L. 

habillement. s. m. dress, clothing; 
M.L. habilimentum, (habiliment); 
see next w. 

habiller, v. a. to dress , to clothe; 
some propose habile, able (see 
this) like E. able and to enable, 
to shape, to dress; like F. dres- 
ser, to arrange, to prepare and E. 

habit, s.m. garment, dress, coat, dress- 
coat; habitus, habit, deportment; 
habere, to have, (habit). 

habiter, v. a. to inhabit, to reside, 
tolive;habitare; habere, to have, 
habitable, adj. inhabitable^ habitable; 

habitant, s. m. e, s. f. inhabitant, re- 
habitation, s. f. habitation, abode, 
dwelling, residence; habit atio, 
-on is. 

habitude, s. f. habitude, usage, cus- 
tom; habitudo; habitus; see 

habituel, le, adj. habitual, usual ; Sp. 
habitual; It. abituale; see habit. 

habituer, v. a. to habituate, to ac- 
custom, to inure; Sp. habituar; 
It. abituare; habituare, habi- 
tus; see habit. 

*hftbler, v. u. to boast, to brag; Sp. 
hablar, to speak; fabulari;comp. 
'hablerie, s. f. boasting, bragging, 
'hableur, s.m. se, s.f. boaster, bragger. 

'haebe, 8.f. axe, hatchet ;Ge. ha eke; 

*) h preceded by ' la aspirate. 

hack en, to hack, to chop freq. of 
hanen, to hew. (hash.) 

'haoh^-paiUe, 8. m. chaff-cutting ma- 

'haehsr, v. a. to chop, to mince. 

'haehette, s. f. chopper. 

'hachifl, s. m. hash, minced meat 

'haehoir, s. m. chopping block, chop* 
ping knife. 

'haehuro, s. f. hatcning (in drawing 
or engr.). 

'hagard, e, haggard, wild; E. hag- 
gard; ace. to Diez from O.E. 
hauke now hawk, a haggard being 
„a species of hawk not easily tamed."^ 

*liaie, s. f. hedge; M.L. haga, hai'a; 
O.H.G.hag; 6e. hag; K hedge. 

^haillon, B. m. rag; M.H.G. had el; 

Ge. hader. 
'haine, s. f. hatred, aversion; O.F. 
halne; see hair, 
'hainenz, le, adj. hateful. 
*haYr, v. n. to hate; O.F. hadir, h^ 
dir; Goth, hatan; O.EI.G. hazdn; 
Ge. hassen; A.8. hatian; £.hate. 
'haissbale, adj. hateful, odious. 

'haire, s. f. hair-shirt; O.H.G. h&ra; 
0. ]N. haera, tissue made of hair; 
(Ge. haar, E. hair). 

]halage, s. m. towage; see baler. 

'hftle, s. m. burning heat of the sun; 
Et. d. 

haleine, s. f. breath; It. alena; an- 
helare, to draw the breath with 
difl&culty; halare, to breath, (in- 

'hftler, V. a. to burn, to tan ; see h^Ie. 
'haler^ v. a. to haul, to heave; O.H.G. 

halon, ho Ion, to drag hither; Ge. 

holen, to bring; E. hale, haul. 
'haleter, v. n. to pant for breath; It 

aletare; halitare; halare, to 


— 101 - 

'haletaati e, adj. pantiiig, puffing. 
*halle, 8. f. market-place, market; 0. 
H.G. halla; Ge. halle; E. hall. 
'luOlage, s. m. market-due. 
*hallebarde, s.f. halberd; It. Sp. Port. 
helm, staff, barte, axe. 
'hallebardier, s. m. halberdier. 
'hallier, s. m. thicket; MX. has la, 

a branch, (hallier). 
*hallueination, s.f. hallucination; hal- 
lucinatio, allucinatio; alucina- 
ri, to wander in mind, to dream. 

'halo, 8. m. halo; &Xmg. 

*]ialte, 8. f. halt, halting-place; Ge. 
halt, stop, halt en, to hold, to stop, 

'hamae, s. m. hammock; D. hang- 
mat; Ge. haengematte, hangen, 
to hang, to suspend, matte, mat. 

'hameau, s.m. hamlet; O.F. ham el, 
dim. of O.F. ham, village; Goth. 
haim;O.H.G. helm; A.S.ham; (in 
Buckingham etc.) E. home. 

*hame<^on, s. m. fish-hook; O.F. halm; 
hamus, a hook. 

'hampe, 8.f. staffof a halberd, handle 
of a painters brush; O.H.G. hant- 
habe; Ge. handhabe. handle, 
hand, hand, haben, to naye. 

^hanehe, s.f. hip, haunch; O.F. anche, 
tube; M.L. banc a; It. Sp. Port, 
anca; O.H.G. ancha; Ge. anke; 
joint; E. ankle. 

'hanebane, s.f. henbane; E. hen bane. 

'hangar, s. m. shed, cart- shed; ace. 
to Manage; M.L. angarium, a 
shed for shoeing horses. 

'hanneton, s. m. may-bug, cock** chaf- 
er; dim. of Ge. hahn. cock (E. hen), 
comp. E. cock- chafer. 

'hanse, s. f. Hans-towns; Ge. hansa, 
hanse, a league of towns, first for- 
med for mutual defence in the 13^ 
century; O.H.G. hansa, a body of 
'luuiB^atiqiie, adj. hanseatic. 

'hanter, v. a. to frequent; Ge. han- 
tiren, to handle; E. haunt; O.N. 
heimta, to take home; Ge. heim, 

*happe, s.f cramp-iron; O.H.G. hap- 
pa, sickle; Ge. happen, a bit. 
happer, v. a. to snap, to catch. 
*haquet, s. m. dray; O.F. haque, 
a nag; Ge. hack; E. hack, 
'haquetier, s. m. dray-man. 
'harangue, s. f. harangue, oration, 

address; It. aringa; Sp. Port, aren- 
ga; O.H.G. bring, circle, assembly. 

*harangaer, v. a: to harangue, to ad- 
dress; see prec. 

'haras, s.m. stud; M.L. hara, hara? 
cium, herd. 

'harasser, y. a. to harass, to weary; 
Et. d. 

*hareeler, y. a. to harass, to torment; 
O.F. herceler; O.F. herce; see 
herse. (haggle) 

*harde, s. f. leash, *hardes, s. f pi. 

wearing apparel, clothing; Et. d. 
*harde, s.f. herd of deer; O.F. herde; 


Ge. heerde. 
harder, .y. a. to 'leash. 
'hardi, e, adj. bold, hardy; O.F. har- 

dir; Itardire; Goth, hardus; A. 

S. heard; E. hard; Ge. hart, 
hardiesae, s. f. boldness, hardihood, 
hardiment, ady. boldly. 
*hareng, s. m. herring; O.H.G. he rinc; 

A.S. haering; E. herring; Ge. 

haering; L. halec, fishpickle; 

aXg^ salt. 

*hargneux, se, adj. surly, quarrelsome ; 

O.F. hargnier, to quarrel; O.H.G. 

harmjan; to offend; A.S. hearm; 

E. Ge. harm. 
'haricot, s. m. kidney-bean, stew of 

mutton and yegetables; O.F. hali- 

gote, herligote, piece, lump; 

Et d. 
*harideUe, s. f. jade, a worthless horse ; 

Et. d.; comp. E. harridan. 

*harmonie, s. f. harmony, unison, uni- 
on; harmonia; agfiovia. 
'harmonieoz, se, harmonious, 
'harmoniqne, adj. harmonic. 

'hamaeher, y. a. to harness; O.F. 
harnas; see next w. 

'harnais, or harnois, s. m. harness, 
formerly armour; O.F. harnas; for 
harnasc; M.L.harnascha, her- 
nasium; It. arnese; Sp. arness; 
from Celt, h aiarn , iron ; comp. Ger. 
harnisch, harness, armour. 

harpagon, s. m. miser; the name of 

the miser in Moliere's play „VAvare"; 

harpago, a rapacious person; 

aqndyri, a rake, ccgitdtto, to grasp 

'harpe, s. f. harp; A.S. hearpe; E. 

harp; Q.H.G. harafa, harpha; 

It. Sp. Port, arpa; A.S. hreppan, 

to gripe, to seize. 

— 102 — 

harp^ge, or arp^gre, s. m. arpeggio; 

It. arpeggio, arpa, harp. 
'harpie, s. f. harjpy; harpyiae; «^- 
nviai. the Harpies, i. e. the spoilers, 
aQytd^a}^ to seize. 
'harpiste, s. m. f. harpist; see harp e. 

harpon, s. m. harpoon ; E. h a r p o u n ; 
6e. harpune; harpago-oni8(see 
harp agon); A.S.hreppan,to8eize. 

'harponntr, v. a. to harpoon. 

'harponnenr, s. m, harpooner. 
*bart, 8. f. withe, rope ; same as h a r d e, 

leash; Et. d. 
'basard, s. m. chance, hazard, ran- 
dom; O.F. hazard, hasart; It. 
azzardo;Pr. azar;Sp.Fort. azar, 
ill luck; ace. to M aJin from Arab, al 
sahar and slir, the die, later as- 

^ sahar and assar. 

*hasarder, v. a. to hazard, to risk. 

'hasardeuz, se, adj. hazardous. 
'base, s. f. doe, hare; O.H.6. ha so; 

6e. hase; A.S. hare; E. hare. 
'hAte, St. haste, hurry; O.F. haste; 

^ Ge. hast; E. haste. 

'hater, y. a. to hasten, to hurry. 

*hati^ ve, adj. forward, precocious. 
*baabans9 s. m. pi. shrouds of a ship ; 
D.hobantfor hoof d band, hoof d; 
6e. haupt; E..head; bant; Ge. 
E. band. 
'hanbert , s. m. hauberk , a coat of 
mail; O.F. halberc, hauberc; It. 
usbergOjOsb ergo;M.L.halsber- 
ga, O.H.Q. halsperc; hals, neck, 
oairgan, 6e. bergen, to save. 

'haabergeon, s. m. small hauberk. 
'hansser, v. a. to raise, to lift, v. n. 
to rise; O.F. haucier, haucer; 
It. alzare; Sp. alzar; Prov. alsar, 

^ aasar; M.L. altiare; altus, high. 

'haasse, s. f. rise, advance. 

'hanasement, s. m. raising, shrug (of 
the shoulders). 

'hanssier, s.m. a speculator on a rise 
of stock. 

bant, e, adj. high, lofty, elevated, 
proud, haughty; O.F. halt; altus. 
The h is due toUie German hoch, 

^ E. high. 

'haat, 8. m. height, top, upper part. 

'haatain, e, adj. haughty. 

'haut-de-chansse, s. m. breeches ; see 
chausse, and has. 

jhantemtot, adv. highly, aloud. 

'haatesse, s. f. highness. 

'baatear,s.£ height, hillock, haughti- 
ness, arrogance. 

bantbois, s. m. hautboy; ha at, high, 
bo is, wood (8. t.) in allusion to the 
high tone of the instrument 

*hftve, adj. emaciated, pale; O.F. has- 
ve; A.S. hasva, parched, pale. 

harir, v. a. to scorch; O.H.6. heian, 
to bum. 

'havre, s. m. haven, port; O.F. haf- 
ne (comp. diacre and diaconus); 
A.S. haefen; E. haven; Ge. ha- 

*haTre-sae,s.m. knapsack, wallet; Ge. 
habersack, haber, oates, sack, 
bag, (haversac). 

bebdomadidre, a4j. weekly; hebdo- 
mas-adis, iddofiag , . the number 
seven, seven aays. 

b^bergrer, v. a. to lodge; O.F. her- 
berger, Ge.herbergen, to lodge; 
see auberge. 

h^b^ter, v.n. to stupefy, to hebetate; 
hebetare, to make blunter dull, 
hebes, blunt, dull. 

h^braYque, adj. Hebrew, Hebraic; hc- 

b^breu, adj. and s. m. Hebrew; he- 
brae us. 

b^eatombe, s. f. hecatomb; i%ar6fi§rj, 
lit. an offering of hundred oxen, 
a public sacrihce, . fxaroV, a hun- 
dred, §ov£^ an ox. 

beetare, s.m. hectare, French mea- 
sure equal to 100 Square metres; 
fxatoV, a hundred, area, a piece 
of ground; comp. are. 

heetique, adj. hectic ; exrtxoV, habitual , 
or consumptive, iitg, a habit 

beetogramme. s. m. hectogramme, 
French weight equal to 100 gram- 
mes: £xatoV, a hundred ; y^ff/itfia, the 
twenty fourth part of an ounce; 
comp. gramme. 

hectolitre, s. m. hectolitre, a French 
measure of capacity, equal to 100 
litres; IxaroV, a hundred, X^tqUj a 
pound; comp. litre. 

h^las, inteij. alas! ah!; Prov. ailas; 
It ahi lasso; E. alas; ai denoting 
grief, lassus, weary. 

*h^ler, V. a. to hail ships, to call to; 
E. hail. 

bailee, s.f. helix, screw; Ai$ any thing 
twisted or spiral; eiiaaoD, to twine. 

b61iotrope<8. m. turnsole, heliotrope; 
rlhog^ the sun, Tgenm, to turn. 

Hellenes, s.m. pi. Hellenes, Greeks;. 
ISUt^i^, Hellen, son of Deucalion, his 
descendants '^EXlrjvtg^ at first, dwell* 

— 103 — 

ers in the Thessaliaii Hellas, later 
the Gommon name for all the Greeks. 
l^elUniqae, ac^. Hellenic, Grecian, 
helliniste, s. m. Hellenist, Greek 

helT^tiqae, adj. Helvetic, Swiss; H el- 
veticus, Helvetia, Switzerland. 

h^mi> a prefix, signifying half; equi- 
valent to demi, and semi (s. t) 

h^mleyele, s. m. hemicycle*, i^fu-half, 

HvnXog, a circle. 
h^misphdre, s. m. hemisphere; ijfti- 

half, etpatQcc, a sphere. 
h^mistiehe, s. m. hemistich; ^/iM-half 

azixog^ a verse. 
h^morragrie, s f. hemorrhage, flux of 

blood; aC(iof(ccy^a, afycc^ blood 

QTJyvvfUy to burst 
h^merroYdes, s. f. pi. hemorrhoides, 

piles; crrfMx, blood, (im, to flow. 
^ hteiorroidid, e, acfj. hemorrhoidal. 
'hennir, v. n. to neigh; hinnire. 
'henniflsement, s. m. neigh, neighing. 

h^patique. adj. hepatic; '^natmog, 
^nciQf tne liver. 

h^raldique, adj. heraldic; see next w. 

*h^raat. s.m. herald; O.F. h^ralt; It. 
aralao; Sp. haraldo, heraldo, 
Fort, arauto; E. herald; Ge. he- 
rold; M.L. haraldus; O.H.G. ha- 
riowalt, hario; Ge. heer, army, 
wait, Ge. walten, to command. 

herhe, s. fherb, grass, weed; herba. 
herbae^ e, adj. herbaceous, 
herbage, s. m. herbage, pasture, 
herber, y. a. to grass, 
herbette, s. f. short grass, 
herbeux, se, adj. herbous, grassy, 
herbier, s. m. herbarium, 
herbivore, adj. herbivorous; v or are, 

to devour, 
berborisatioxi, s. f. herborization. 
herboriser, v. n. to herborize, 
herboriate, s. m. herbalist 
herbn, e, adj. grassy, covered with 


*hdre9 8. m. (poor) fellow, wretch, 
,«here", a game of cards; Ge. herr; 
D. heer, sir, gentleman, master. 

h^r^ditaire, adj. hereditary, inheri- 
table; hereditarius, hereditas; 
see next w. 

h^r^dit^9 s. f inheritance ; hereditas, 
heres, an heir; comp. heritier. 

h^r^sle, s. f. heresy; haeresis, aC- 
Qsaig, a taking, choice. 

hMtiqve,a4J. heretical; haereticus, 

'hMsser, v. a. to bristle, to bristle 

up; see next w. 
'h^risson, s. m. urchin, hedge-hog, 

herisson; O.F. h^ri^on, eri^on, 

iri^on; It riccio; Port ericio; 

Sp. erizo; E. urchin; erinaceus, 


hMter, V. a. to inherit; O.F. eriter; 

It ereditare, eredare; Sp. he- 

redar; hereditare, heres, heir. 

h&ritage, s. m. inheritance, heritage. 

heritier, s. m. -iire, s. f. heir, heiress, 


hermaphrodite, s. m. hermaphrodite ; 
hermaphroaitus; eQiiatpQSditog, 
a person who has the characteristics 
of both sexes, so called after the 
son of Hermes and Aphrodite, who, 
when bathing, grew together with 
Salmacis into one person. 

herm^tique, adj. hermetic, hermetical; 
from Hermes or Mercury, the 
fabled inventor of alchemy or che- 
mistry. » 
herm^quement, adv. hermetically. 

hermine, s. £ ermine, winter- weasel; 
It ihermellino; armellino, Sp. 
ermino; Port. ermini, ermin;Ge. 
Hermelin; M.L. hermellinus; 
Armenia; the fur of this animal, 
called by theLatinmus ponticus* 
came originally from Armenia. 

hermite, s. m. hermit, solitary; see 

^ hermitage, s. m. hermitage. 
'hernie^ s.f. hernia, rupture; hernia, 
'hemiaire, adj. hernial. 
h^roY-eomique, acy< heroi-comic,mock- 

heroic; see heros and comique. 
h^roYne^ s. f. heroine; hero in a; 

f^gmivri, a demi-goddess, heroine. 
h^roYque, adj. heroic; heroicus; 


h^roYsme, s. m. heroism ; It e r o i s m o ; 
Sp. heroismo; heros-ois, see 

'h^roA, s. m. heron; O.F. hair on; 
Prov. aigron;' It aghirone; Sp. 
airon; Goth, heigiro, heiger, 
hreigiro; A.S. hrHgra, comp. ai- 

'heros, s.m. hero; heros-ois; riqcog. 

*herse, s. f. harrow, herse ; O.F. h e r ce, 
hierche; M.L. hercia; Ge. har- 
ke; It erpice; hirpex-icis. 

•_ 104 — 

|h0n«g», 8. m. harrowing. . 

*hener, v. a. to harrow. 

h^siter, y. n. to hesitate, to pause, to 
falter; haesitare, freq. of hae re- 
re, to stick. 

h^tation, s. f. hesitation; haesita- 
tio, -onis. 

h^t^ro-, a prefix, signifying difference ; 
BTSQog, the other. 

hit^roclite, adj. heteroclite, anomalous, 
irregular, odd; itSQOHXitog, yMvca, 
to incline. 

hit^rodoze, adj. heterodox; stegodo- 
£off, ^^£a, an opinion ; comp. ortho- 
hit^rogine, adj. heterogeneous, incon- 
gruous, stspoysvjjg; yivog, kind, 
h^t^rog^niit^, s. f. heterogeneou^ness ; 
see prec. 

'h^tre, s. m. beech, beech-tree; O.F. 
hestre; D.hester,hei8ter, shrub ; 
Ge. heister, hester, hester, a 
young beech. 

hear, s. m. luck; good luck; O.F. 
atlr, ettr, hefir; Prov. auguri, au- 
gur, ^agur; 8p. aguero; Port, 
agouro; Itaugurio; augurium, 
augury ^ comp. bonheur, and mal- 

henre, s. f. hour, time, o'clock, pray- 
er book; hora. 

heureasement, adv. happily, fortuna- 
tely; see heur. 

heureux, se, adj. happy, fortunate; 
see hfur. 

*hearter, v. a. to strike, to hit, v. n. 
to knock, to hurt; O.F. hurter; E. 
hurt; A:S. hyrt, wounded; It. ur- 
'heurt, s. m. collision, shock, blow, 
knock; It. urto; E. hurt. 

hexa-, a prefix, the 6r. f£, six. 
hezagone, adj. and s. m. hexagonal, 
hexagon ; i^ciyoi>vov, yoavia, an angle, 
hexamltre, s. m. hexameter ; i^diietgog; 
fiszQOv, a measure. 

hiatus, s. m. hiatus; hiatus. 

'hibou, s. m. owl; O.H.O. htifo; It. 
gufo; A.S. ule; E. owl; ulula; 
6e. Eule, Uhu; said to be onoma- 

hidenx. se, adj. hideous, frightful; 
O.F. hide, hisde, horror; Et. d. 
Diez suggests O.H.O. egidi, hor- 


hidensement, adv. hideously, fright- 
hie9 8.£ paving-beetle. D. hei; D. hei- 

jen torhijghen, to ram; 6e. hey- 
en, hauen; E. hew; Ge. he ye, ram. 
hier, ady. yesterday; O.F. h'er, er, 
ier; Prov. her; It.ieri; Sp. ayer; 
*hierarehie, s. f. hierarchy; [BQcc^x^tt, 

tsffdg, sacred, dgzi^, rule, 
'hiirarehique, ac^. hierarchical. 
hi^roglyphe, s. m. hieroglyphic, hie- 
roglyph; CsQoyXvtpog, tsgog^ sacred, 
yXvqxo, to engrave, 
hiiroglyphique , adj. hieroglyphical, 

hilarite, s. f. hilarity, laughter; hi- 

larita-s; hilaris, lively, gay. 
hippo-, a prefix, the Gr. tnnog, a horse. 
hippodr6me, s. m. hippodrome, race- 
course ; rTrTrod^dfiog, d^ofioff, a course, 
hippogriffe, s. m. hippogriff, a fabu- 
lous winged horse; y^v*^, a griffin, 
hippopotame, s. m. hippopotamus; tir- 
nondtanog] notafidg^ a river. 
birondelle, s. f. swallow; dim. of O.F. 
hironde; O.F. aronde; It. run- 
dine; hirundo. 
'hisser, v. a. to hoist; It. issare; Sp. 
Port.izar; Ge.hissen; Dan.hiss; 
Sw. hissa. (O.E. hoise, E. hoist.) 
histoire, s.f. history, tale, story; his- 
toria; tatOQia^ an inquiry, 
historien, s. m. historian, 
historier, v. a. to adorn, to embellish, 
historiette, s. f tale, story, 
historiqae, adj. historical ; h i s t o r i c u s. 
histrlon, s. m. histrion, a stage-player; 
histrio, -onis. 

histrioniqae, adj. histrionic, stage- 
hiver, s.m. winter; hibernum (tem- 
pus), wintry season, (hibernal), 
hivemal, e, wintry, 
hivemer, v. n. to winter ; h i b e r n a r e. 
'hobereao, s. m. hobby, a species of 
falcon, a country squire ; E. hobby. 
'hoehe, s.f. notch; ue. hoek, hough, 

heel; E. hock, 
'hoeher, v. a. to shake, to toss one's 
head; D. hutsen; Wal. hossi, a 
^ toy, (hotch-potch), 
'hoehement, s. m. tossing of the head, 
'hoohepot, s. m. hadge-podge, hotch- 
potch; see pot. 
'hochequene, s. m. nuthatch, wagtail; 
see queue. 

hochet, 8. m. coral for children, rattle, 
hoir, s. m. heir; O.F. heir; heres. 
hoirie, s. f. inheritance. 

— 105 — 

holocanste, s.m. holocaust, sacrifice; 

clomavazov^ oXog, whole, nalm, to 

Ihomard, s. m. lobster; 6e. Da. Sw. 


hombre, 8. m. ombre, a game of cards; 
Sp. I'hombre, a man. 

hom^lie, s. f. homilv; Sp. homilia; 
It. omelia; oiuXCa^ instruction. 

homielde, adj. homicidal, murderous 
s. m. homicide, murder, manslaugh- 
ter; homicida, homicidium, 
homo, a man, caedere, to kill. 

hommage, s. m. homage, respect; It. 

omaggio; Sp. homenage; M.L. 

homagium; homo, a man. 
homme, s. m. man; It. uomo; Sp. 

hombre; Fort, homem; homo, 

-inis, hominem. 
hommaBse, adj. masculine, manlike. 

homo-, a prefix, denoting resemblance ; 
hiitdg, one and the same. 

homog^ne, adj. homogeneous; oiioye- 
vi}s, of the same race or family, yc- 
vog, race. 

homog&i^it^, s. f. homogeneousness; 
see prec. 

homologue, adj. homologous, like; 
dfuiXoyog, agreeing, Xoyog^ proportion. 

homologuer, Y. a. to confirm officially; 
see prec. 

homonTiiie, adj. and s. m. homony- 
mous, homonym, namesake; oucovv' 
(log, having the same name, ovofia, 
a name. 

homophonie, s. f. homophony; cpoavrj, 
a sound. 
homoeopathie, s. f. homoeopathy, the 
doctrine that „like is cured by like" 
ofioioTcd&aia, likeness of condition 
ofAOiog, like, nd&og, suffering. 

homoeopathique, adj. homoeopathie. 

homoeopathiste, s. m. homoeopatist. 

*hongrre, s.m. a gelding; hungarus, 
Hungarian. The Huns or Hungarians 
used to geld their horses before ex- 
porting them, 
'hongrer, y. a. to geld horses. 
^Hongrle, s.m. Hungary; Hungaria. 
*hongroi8, s. m. e, s. f. Hungarian; 
honn^te. adj. honest, becoming, re- 
spectable; honestus. 
honn^tet^ s. f. honesty, propriety, re- 
honneur, s.f honour; O.F. honour; 

honorable, a^]. honourable, credita- 
ble; honorabilis. 

honoraire, adj. honorary; s. m. fee; 

honorer, y. a. to honour; honorare. 

honorifiqne, adj. honorary; ho nor i- 
honnir, y.a. to dishonour, to disgrace; 
It. onire; Prov. aunire; Goth, 
hdunjan; O.H.G.h6nan; Ge. hfth- 
nen, to scorn. 

hoimi,e, adj. dishonoured, disgraced. 

'honte^ 8. f. shame, disgrace; O.H.G. 
h6nida; see prec. 

*hontea8ement, adv. shamefully, dis- 

*honteaz, se, adj. ashamed, shameful, 

hdpital, s. m. hospital, alms-house; 
O.F. hospital; It. hospedale, 
spedale; M.L. hospitale; hos- 
pes, a guest. 

'hoquet, s. m. hiccough, hiccup; ono- 

'hoqueton, s. m. archer, archers cloak; 
O.F. auqueton; Prov. alcotd; Sp. 
alcoton; Arab, al-goton, the cot- 
ton; comp. CO ton. 

horaire, adj. horary, horal; hora- 
rius; hora, an hour. 
^ 'horde, s. f. horde; M.L. horda, or- 
da; 6e. horde; It. orda; Kuss. 
or da; Alban. hordi; of Tartarian 

*horion, s. m. thump; Et. d. 

horizon, s. m. horizon; oqiSoov, ogitca, 

to limit, 
horizontal, e, adj. horizontal. 

horlogre, s. m.^ clock; horolo^ium; 
wQoioyLov'^ caQUf an hour, Xsym, to 

horloger, s. m. clock and watch-maker. 

horlogerie, s.f. clock and watch-mak- 
ing, clock-work. 

hormis, adv. save, but, except; ho rs- 
mis(s.t.); for as missum, put out, 

horoscope, s. m. horoscope; horo- 
s copu s ; caQoanonog, mqa, an hour, 
anoTtEoa, arisntoficcL, to observe. 

horreur, s. f. horror, fright, abhor- 
rence, awe; horror, horrere , to 

horrible, adj. horrible, horrid; horri- 

*hors, prep. out, beyond, except; O.F. 
for8;ioras, outside; comp.dehors 
and for 8. 

— 106 — 

honhd'oeuTre, s.m. outwork, side-dish; 
see oenvre. 

bortieulteur, s. m. horticulturist; hor- 
tus, a garden, cnltor, a tiller, co- 
le re, to cultivate. 

hortienltare, s. f. horticulture; hor- 
tus, a garden, cultnra, a cultivation. 

bospiee, s.m. hospice, hospital, alms- 
house; hospitium, hospes, a 

hospitaller, dre, adj. hospitable ; hos- 
pitalis, hospes, a guest 

hospitality, s. f. hospitality; hospi- 
talitas, hospitalis; see prec. 

hoBtie, s. f. offering, victim, host; 
hostia, avictim,ho8tire, to strike. 

hostil, e, adj. hostile, adverse; hos- 
tilis, hostis,.an enemy, 
hostility, s. f. hostility, enmity. 

hdte, s. m. landlord, host, guest; -esse, 
s.f. landlady, guest; contr. of hospte, 
ho8te;hospes-itis, guest andhost 

hdtelL s. m. mansion, house, inn, hotel ; 

O.F.hosptel, hostel; hospitale, 
hospitable; see prec. 
hMel-dian, s. m. hospital; see dieu, 
god, „because thee poor are received 
tor gods-sake". (Nicot.) 
hMelier, s m. inkeeper, landlord of 
an inn, -Are, s. f. landlady of an inn. 
hMellerie, s. f. inn, hotel. 
'hotte, s.f. basket carried on the back; 

Ge. hotte; Swiss: hutte. 
'hottte, s. f. basket full. 
^ 'hottanr, 8.m. -euse, s.f. basket-carrier. 
*hoablon, s. m. hop, hops; O.F. hou- 
belon, haubelon; 6e. hopfen; 
'honblonner, v. a. to hop. 
*hoabloiiiiike, s. f. hop-plantation, hop- 
'hone, s.f. hoe; O.H.O. houwa; Ge. 
^haue, E. hew, hoe. 
'*honer, v. a. to hoe. 
'honille, s.f. coal; M.L. and Sp. bul- 
la. Wall, hoie; Et. d. 
'LrailUre, s. f. coal-pit, colliery. 
'lumillenr, s. m. collier. 
'honiUeax, le, adj. coaly, containing 
*hoale, 8. f. swell of the sea, surge, 
billow; Sp.ola; D.hool; Ge.hohl; 
E. hollow. 

'luralenz, se, adj. swelling of the sea, 
rough . 
'honppe, or happe, s.f. tuft; Sp. h op- 

Eo; upupa, E. hoopoo; this bird 
aving a tnfl of feathers on the head. 

*hoiipper, ▼. a. to tuft 

'houppelande, s. f. a sort of great 
coat; ace. to Hue t from Uplandia, 
a Swedish province. 

*honrder. v. a. to rou^cast; O.F. 
hourdis; £. hurdle; M.L. hurdi- 
cium; A.S. hyrthil; Ge. hflrde, 

'bouspi11er,v.a. to worry, to ill-treat; 
Diez connects it with the A.S. 
hosp, insult. 

'houssage, s. m. sweeping with a birch, 
dusting with a feather-broom; see 

*hoassaie, s.f. holly-grove; see hoax. 

^bousse, 8. f. horse-cloth, housing, 
hammer-cloth, cover; M.L. hussia, 
houcia; A.S.hosa,hosc;E.ho8e, 
O.E. houss; E. housing. 

'housser, V. a. to sweep \ri& a birch, 
to dust with a feather-broom; see 

*honssine, s. f. switch; see hoax. 

*hoassoir, 8. m. birch-broom, feather- 
brom; see houx. 

'hoax, 8. m. holly, holly-tree; O.F. 
houlx; O.H.G. huls; A.S.holegn, 
holen; E. holly. 

'hoyaa, s. m. mattock, pick-axe; see 

'baehe, s. f. kneading-trough, hopper 
of a mill; O.F. huge; M.L. huti- 
ca, hucha; E. hutch; probably 
connected with Ge. hUtte, E. hutt 

'haeher, v. a. to call with the bom 
(see next); Pic. h uquer; Ppov. 
uchar, ucar; hue, here, 
'hnohet, s. m. hunting horn. 

haer, v. a. to hoot, to shout after; 
onomatopoeia, hu, inteij. 
ha6e, s. f. hooting, shouting, 
'haette, s. f. howlet, owlet. 

'huguenot, s.m. huguenot; the origin 
of this name as applied to French 
Protestants, was already a matter 
of doubt and discussion in the life- 
time of those who first bore it 
Mahn mentions fifteen different ety- 
mologies of it. Some deduce it from 
Hugues Capet, or^king Hugon, 
or the gates at Tours, called (after 
that king) Hugons, at which these 
Protestants held their first meeting. 

liui, adv. to-day, thisdaj, (inaujour- 
d'hui = to-day, see jour); ho die. 

huile, s. f. oil; oleum, 
huiler, v. a. to oil. 
huilenz, le, adj. oily, greasy. 

107 — 

huiUer, 8. m. craet-stand. 
hois, 8. m. door; It ascio; Prov. 
uis, us; ostium. 
Imiflflier, s. m. usher, sheriffs officer, 
bailiff; It. usciere; ostiarius. 
*hait, adj. eight; O.F. huict; octo, 
comp. nuit. 
'littitaiiie, s. f. eight days, a week, 
'hnititeie, adj. eighth. 
huitre, s.f. oyster; O.F. huistre; 
H.G.aostar;D.oe8ter; A.S.ostrie 
E. oyster; Ge. auster; ostrea. 
*hiilotte^ s. f. howlet, owlet; ulula; 

see hibou. 
homain^ e, adj. human, humane; hu- 
manus, homo, man. 
homainement, adv. humanly, humanely, 
hnmaiiiser, y. a. to humanize, to soften, 
humaniste, s. m. humanist, 
humanity, s. f. humanity, human na- 
ture, mankind, pi. polite literature; 
humble, adj. humble, low, meak ; hu- 

milis, humus, the ground. 
humecter, y. a. to wet, to moisten; 

hnmectation, s. f. wetting, moistening. 
.humer, v. a. to inhale, to suck in; 
Et. d. ace. toDiez perhaps an on o- 
humerus, s. m. humerus; humerus, 
hvniiral, e, adj. humeral. 
hamenr, s. f. humour, mood, temper; 

humor, a liquid. 
humide, adj. liquid, watery, humid, 
damp; humidus. 

humidity, s. f. wateriness, moisture, 
dampness, humidity. 
humllier, v. a. to humble, to humiliate ; 
humiliare, humilis, low; comp. 
homiliant, e, adj. humiliating, 
humiliation, s.f. humiliation, abasement. 
humility, s. f. humility, humbleness ; h u- 
militas, humilis; comp. humble. 
hmnoriste, adj. and s. m. one who 
attributes all diseases to a depraved . 
state of the humors, whimsical per- 
son, humorist (wit); see humeur. 
humus, s. m. soil; humus. 
*hune, 8. f. top (naut), O.N. hftn. 
'hnnier, 8. m. top-sail. 
*huppe, s. f. hoopoo, tuft; up up a; 
. see houppe. 

'htippi,e, adj. tufted, high, great, (be- 
cause of the tuft on doctors caps). 
*bifre9 s. f. head of different 'animals ; 
Ee. d. 

*hurler, v. n. to howl, to bellow, to 
^ yell;It.urlare; ululare.(E.howl). 
^hnrlement, s. m. howling, howl, yell. 
hussard, s. m. hussar ; Hung, h u 8 z a r, 
the twentieth, husz, twenty; Ma- 
thias of Hungary in the year 1445 
levied every twentieth man for the 
cavalry, which were therefore cal- 
led huszar. 

'hutte, s.f. shed, hut; O.H.G. hutta; 
Ge. htitte, E. hutj 
'hatter, (ae), pr. v. to make a shed, 
hut, to live in a shed', hut, to hut. 

hyacinthe, s.f. hyacinth ;hyacinthus; 
vdynvd'og: comp. jacinthe. 

hy bride, adj. hybrid; hybrid a. 

hydraulique, adj. hydraulic; s. f. hy- 
draulics ;hydraulicu8; ydgavhTiog, 
pertaining to the water-organ, vdgctv- 
Xts, water-organ ; vdioQ, water, auidg 
a pipe. 

hydre, s.f. hydra; vSqu, a water-ser- 

hydro-, a prefix signifying water; vdwg, 

hydrocMe, s. f. hydrocele; vSgoytrjlrj^ 

wjlrj, a tumor, 
hydroc^phale, s. f. hydrocephalus, drop- 
sy of the brain, water in the head; 

vSQO'Kiq)aXog^ %s(paXTJt head.- 
hydrographie, s. f. hydrography ; yga- 

qjoa, to write, 
hydrog^ne, s. m. hydrogen; yswdatj 

to produce, 
hydrophobie, s. f. hydrophobia; vdQO- 

qpopia, (po^ogy fear, 
hydropique, adj. dropsical, hydropic; 

hydropsie, s. f. dropsy; vdqcoip, 

hy^mal, e, adj. hyemal, wintry; hye- 

malis, hi ems, winter. 
hy^ne, s. f. hyena; hyaena; vcetvcc. 
hygi^ne,'s. f. hygiene; vyieivdg, vynjgj 


hygrom^tre, s.m. hygrometer; vygog, 
wet, fi^tgovj a measure. 

hymen, hynien^e, s. m. hymen, mar- 
riage; ^TfiTiV, Hymen the god of mar- 
riages, vfisvaiog, a wedding song. 

hymne, s. m. hymn; vfivo^. 

hyperbole, s. f. hyperbola, hyperbole ; 
vTzsQ^oXij, a throwing beyond, vitsg- 
pdXXco, to throw beyond, 
hyperbolique, adj. hyperbolic. 

hypoeondre, s. m. hypochondria, hy- 
pocondriac; vnoxovSgia^ vjto', under, 
Xovdgogy a cartilage. 

— 108 — 

hjpoeoBdrimpw, adj. hypochondriac; 

hjp«coiidrie» 8. f. hypochondriasis. 
bypoerlsie, 8.1 hypocrisy; vnwgieig^ 
playing or acting, vnon^ivofiai , to 
play a part, dissemble. 
bypoerit<^ s. m. hypocrite; vnoxqixTJg, 

an actor, a dissembler. 
bypothdque, s. f. mortage; vnod'ijnri, 
vno-t^vijui, to place under, to pledge, 
hjpothteain, adj. on or of mortgage. 

hTpoth^ner, t. a. to mortgage. 
hy potbese, s. f. hypothesis, supposition ; 
vn6^satg, a placing under, a soppo- 
sition; vnozid'riiu, to place under. 

hypothitique, a^. hypoUietic; vMo&t- 


bysope, s. f. hyssop; hyssopus; tfc- 

byst^rie, s. f . hysteria, hysterics ; ^9- 

tSqcc, the womb, 
hyst^riqne, adj. hysterical, vcti^tnog. 


iambe, s. m. iambus, iambic ; iambus; 

iambiqoa, adj. iambic. 
ieelni. ieelle, pron. this, that; O.F. 

icel, icelle; ecce ille, eccMlle.. 

iebnograpbie* s. f. ground-plot, ich- 
nography; txvoyqatpiu^ ^X^og, % t^^t- 
step, yQciqxoy to describe. 

iebtbyolofirie, 8. f. ichthyology; Ix^vo- 
Xoy^a, fx^vg, a fish, 'Aoyog, a dis- 
iethjologiqne, adj. ichtyological. 

iei^ adv. here, hither; i-ci; ecce hie; 
comp. (a. 

ieonoelaste) s. m. iconoclast, image- 
breaker; eUovoHldati^gy stHoiv, an 
image, nXdm^ to break. 

ieonograpbie, s. f. iconography, de- 
scription of images ; slucav, an image, 
ygatpoi, to describe. 

iconolfttre, s. m. iconolater, image- 
worshipper; stuoav, an image, AoftQig, 
a servant 

id<Sal, s. m. and adj. ideal; idealis; 
see idee. 

idialiser, v. a. to idealize, 
idialiste, s. m. idealist. 

id^e, 6. f. idea, notion; idea; Idia, 
the look of a thing, e^^o>, to see. 

identifier, v. a. to identify; It. iden- 
tificare; Sp. identificar; idem, 
the same, facer e, to make. 

identique, adj. identical, the same; 
It. Sp. identico; idem. 

identity, s. f. identity; It. identita; 
Sp. iaentidad; M.L. identitas; 
idem, the same. 

id6ologie9S.f. ideology; ISia, an idea, 

Xoyog, a discourse. 
id^Iogiqne, adj. ideological, 
id^logue, s. m. ideologist. 
idiome, s.m. idiom, language, dialect; 
(dUoiia, Hdiogj peculiar. 

idiosynerasie, s. f. idiosjrncrasy; Idio- 
avyKQiaittf iStog, peculiar, evyu^Afm, 
to compound. 

idiot, s. m. e, s. f. idiot; idimtfjg, a 
private person, one who has no pro- 
fessional knowledge, hence, nnsldlied, 
an ill-informed feUow ; tdtog, private, 
idiotie, s. f. idiocy, idiotism, imbeci- 
idiotism«, s.m. idiom, idiotism, imbe- 

idolfttre, adj. idolatrous ; sldmXolaTpjjg^ 
an idol-worshipper^ stdoaXov^ an im- 
age, XdxQig, a servant 
idol&trer, v. n. to, to worship idols; 
V. a. to idolize. 

idol&trie, s. f. idolatry; sidaXoXatffeia. 
idol&triqne, adj. idolatrous. 

idole, s. f. idol; sldmXov, sldog, the 

idylle, s. f. idyl; idyllium; bI&6X' 
Xiovy strictly a little form, usu. a 
short, descriptive poem, sldog^ a form. 

if, s.m. yew, yew-tree; Sp. Port, iva; 
M.L.ivus, juus; A.S.iw; E.yew; 
O.H.G. iwa; Ge. eibe. 

ignare, adj. ignorant; ignarus, in- 
gnarus, not-knowing. 

ign6, e, adj. igneous; igneus, ignis, 
ignition, s. f. ignition. 

ignoble, adj. ignoble, base, vile; ig- 
nobilis, in-gnobilis, the origi- 
nal form of n b i 1 i s , un-known. 

ignominie, s. f. ignominy; ignominia, 
in-gnomen, the orig. form of no- 
men, lit a deprivation of one's good 
ignominiensement, adv.' ignominiously. 
ignomiiiienz, se, adj. ignominious; ig- 

ignorer, v. a. not to know, to be ig- 
norant of; ignorare. 

— 109 — 

Ig&orammMit* adv. ignorantly, unk* 

igneranoe, s. f. ignorance; ignoran- 
ignorant, e, a^j. ignorant ; i g n o r a n s, 

ignorantin, s. m. isnorant. 
il, pron. he, it; ille. 
il- prof, an-: in: see im and in. 
ile9 8.£ island, isle; O.F. isle; It. i so- 
la; Sp. isla; insula. 
illegal, e, acy. illegal, unlawful; in- 
1 eg a lis, on-legaT. 
ilUgalit^ s. £ illegality ; It illega- 
lity; Sp. ilegalidad. 
ill^gritime, adj. illegitimate; It. ille- 
gittimo; Sp. ilegitimo; in-legi- 
timus, lexy legis, law. 
iUigitimit^ s. f. illegitimacy. 
illettr^, e, adj. illiterate, unlettered; 
illiteratus, inliteratus, un- 
learned; comp. let t re. 
illicite, a^. illicit, prohibited: illi- 
cit us, in-licet. un-allowea. 
illimit^, e, adj. unlimited; in-li mi- 
tare; see limite. 
illisiMe, adj. illegible, unreadable; in- 

legibilis; see lisible. 
illuminer, v. a. to light, to illuminate; 
illuminare, in-luminare, lumen, 

illumination, s. f. lighting, illumination. 
lUiiminiBnie, 8. m. illuminism, doctrine 
of the Illuminati. 
Illusion, s. f. illusion, fallacy; illu- 
sio, -onis, il-ludere, illusus, 
to play, upon, to illude. 
illnsoire, adj. illusory; It illusorio; 
Sp. ilusorio. 
illastre, adj. illustrious; illustris, 
prob. contr. of illucestris; lux, 
fucis, light 

illoitration, s. f. illustration, explana- 
tion; illustratio, -onis. 
illnstrer, v. a. to illustrate; illus- 
llqt, s. m. islot; see lie. 
ilote, s. m. helot, a Spartan slave, a 
slave; EtXcatrig, inhabitant oi'^EXog 
or Helos, a Laconian town con- 
quered by the Spartans, who made 
all the prisoners slaves. 
im-,pref. im-,in-, un-, the lat in, before 
b and p, im, n asssimilated before 
1, m, and r; comp. in. 
image, s. m. image, picture; imago. 
jmagJTiftiTOt adj. imaginary; imagi- 

imaginer, v. a. to imagine; imagi- 

nari, imago, image, 
imaginable, adj. imaginable; It im- 

maginabile; Sp. imaginable, 
imaginatif, ve, adj. imaginative; It 

immaginativo; Sp.imaginativo. 
imagination, s. f. imagination, fancy; 

imaginatio', -onis. 

imbeeile, adj. imbecile, silly; imbe* 

imbecility, s.f. imbecility, idiocy; im- 

imberbe, adj. beardless; im-berbis, 

barb a, beard. 
imbiber, v. a. ^ imbibe, to absorbe; 

imbn, e, adj. imbued, impressed; im- 

butus, p.p. of im-buere, of which 

hi here is a redupl. 
imbroglio, s. m. intricacy, confusion, 

imbroglio; It. imbroglio; It im- 

brogliare;F.embrouiller, E.em- 

broil; see brouiller. 

imiter, v. a. to imitate; imitari. 
imitable, adj. imitable; imitabilis. 
imitateur, s. m. -trice, s. f. imitator; 

imitatif, ve, adj. imitative; imitati- 

imitation, s. f. imitation; imitatio, 


immaeul^, e, adj. immaculate, spot- 
less; immaculatus, in-macula- 
tus, un-spotted, macula, a spot 

immangeable, adj. uneatable; see 

immanquable, adj. infallible, unfai- 
ling, certain; see manquer. 

immat^riel, le, adj. immaterial; see 

immatriculer, v. a. to matriculate; 
It matricolare; matricula, a 
register; see matricule. 
immatricnlation, s. f. matriculation. 

imm^diat, e, adj. immediate; It im- 
mediate; in, in, medius, the 
midst; see mediat 
imm^diatement, adv. immediately, in- 
stantly, directly. 

immemorial, e, adj. immemorial; in- 
memorial; memorialis, pertai- 
ning to memory, memoria, me- 

immense, adj. immense: immensns, 
in-mensus, p. p. oi metiri, to 
immeniit^, s. f. immensity; It. im- 

— no — 

mensitli; 8p. immensidad; im- 
mensitas, -atis. 
Immerg'er, V. a. to immerse; immer- 
gere, in-mergere, to dip, to 
plunge; comp. 6 merger, 
inuaenioiiiy s. f. immersioB; immer- 
sio, immersus, p.p. of immer- 
Immeiit^, e, adj. nndeserred, unmer- 
ited; immeritus, in-meritu8, un- 
immenble, adj. landed , immovable ; 

immeuble, s. m. landed property. 
immigrer, v. n. to immigrate; im- 
migrare, in-migrare; comp. 

immigratien, s. f. immigration. 
imminent, e, adj. imminent, impen- 
ding; It. imminente;Sp.inminen- 
te, imminens, -tig, pr.p. of im- 
m in ere, to impend, 
imminenee, s. f. imminence. 
immiseer, (s^), pr. v. to interfere, to 
meddle witb, to enter on possession 
(law); immiscere, to mix in. 
immiztion, 8. f blending, entering on 
immobile. ad| immovable, motionless; 
im-mooilis; comp. immeuble. 
immobilier, s. m. landed ' property, 
immobility, 8. f. immobility; It. im- 
mobility; Sp. inmobilidad; im- 
mobilitas, -atis. 
immod^r^9 ®9 ftdj. immoderate; im- 

moderatus; seemod^re. 
immodeste, ady. immodest; immo- 
destus; see modeste. 
immodestiei s. f. immodesty; immo- 
immoler, v. a. to immolate, to sacri- 
fice; immolare, orig. to sprinkle 
a victim with sacrificial meal (mo- 
la salsa), 
immolation, s. f. immolation, sacrifice; 
immolatio, -onis. 
immonde, ac^. unclean, impure; im- 
mundus, in-mundus. 
immondioe, s. f. dirt, uncleanliness, 
impurity; immunditia. 
immoral, e, adj. immoral; see mo- 

immorality, s. f. immorality. 
immortel^ le, ady. immortal; immor- 
talis, in-mortglis; see mortel. 
immortaliier, v. a. to immortalize, 
immortality, s.f. immortality; immor- 
talitaSi -atis. 

immttrtelk, s. f. everlasting flowen . 

imm«jible,adj. immutable, unchangea- 
ble; Sp. inmovable; im-muta- 
bilis; see muer. 

immitiiit^, s. f. immunity; immuni- 
tas, -atis, exemption from public 
services or taxes; munus, office, 

immutability, b. f. immutability; im- 
mutabilitas, -atis; comp. im- 

impair, e, adj. odd, uneven number; 
im-par; comp. pair. 

impalpable, ac^j. impalpable; see pal- 

impardonable, adj. unpardonable, not 
to be forgiven; see pardon. 

imparfait, e, adj. impeifect, unfi[ni8hed, 
imperfect tense; imperfectus; see 
imparfaitement, adv. imperfectly. 

impartial, e, adj. impartial; see par- 
impartiality, 8. f. impartiality. 

impasse, s. m. lane withojut egress, 
blind suley; see passer. 

impassible, adj. impassible, unmoved ; 
im-passibilis, in, un, passus, 
p* p. of patiri, to bear. 
impasBibiliti, s.f. impassility; impas- 
sibilitas, -atis. 

impatient, e; adj. impatient, eager; 
im-patiens, -entis; see patient, 
impatiemment, adv. impatiently, ea- 

impatience, s. f. impatience; impa- 
impatienter, v. a. to provoke, pr. -v. 
to get impatient 
impay able, adj. invaluable ; see payer, 
impenetrable, adj. impenetrable; im- 
peuetrabilis; see penetrer. 
imp^nitrabilit^, s. f. impenetrability. 

imp^ratif, ve, adj. imperative; im- 
perativus, imperare, to com- 
mand; mand. 

imperatriee, s. f. empress; impera- 
trix, -icis, imperare, to com- 
comp. cmpereur. 

imperceptible , adj. imperceptible ; 
imperceptus, percipere, to per- 

imperfection, s. f. imperfection; im- 
perfectio, -onis;see perfection. 

imperial, e, adj. imperial; imperia- 
lis, imperium, empire; comp. 
empire, empereur. 

— Ill — 

imp^riale» s. f. the outside seats of a 
stage-coach, crown imperial (a plant), 
impirieuaement, adv. imperiously, 
impirieoz , euae.; ,adj. imperious, 

haughty; imperiosus. 
imp^rlssahle, adj. imperishable; see 

imp^ritie, s. f. unskilfulness, incapa- 
city; im-peritia, inexperience; 0. 
F. imperit; imperitus, inexperi- 

imperm^ahle, adj. impermeable, im- 
penrious; see permeable. 

impersonnel, le, impersonal; see per- 

impertinent, e, adj. impertinent, in- 
solent; in-pertinens, pertlnens, 
pertaining to; see pertinent, 
impertinence, s. f. impertinence, inso- 

imperturbable, adj. imperturbable; 

im-perturbabilis, perturbare, 

to disturb. 

imperturbability, s. f. imperturbability. 
imp^trer, v. a. to impetrate; im-pe- 

trare, to obtain, patrare, orig. 

to appoint a person as father, then 

to execute; pater, father. 
imp^taeax, se, adj. impetuous, wild; 

impetuosus, impetus, force, in, 

against, pete re,, to go towards, 
imp^tootit^, s. f. impetuosity. 

impie, adj. impious, ungodly; im- 

impiM, s. £ impiety; impietas. 
impitoyable, adj. pitiless, unsparing; 

see pitoyable. 
implaeable, adj. implacable; im-pla- 

cabilis, placare, to calm. 
implanter, v. a. to implant, to plant; 
•see planter. 

implantation, s. f. implantation, plan- 
imjplexe, a^j. implex, complicated; 
implexus., p. p. of implectere, 
to entwine. 

implieation, s. f. contradiction, com- 
plication; implicatio, im-plica-. 
re, to involve; comp. impliauer. 

implleite, acy. implicit, implied; im- 
plicitus, implicare; see next w. 

impliquer, v. a. to implicate, to im- 
ply; to involve; im-plicare, to 
involve, pile are, to fold; comp. 

implorer, V. a. to implore to beseech; 

impoli, e, adj. impolite, uncivil; im- 
politus; see poli. 
impolitesae, 8. f. impoliteness, rudeness. 
impolitique, adj. impolitic; see po- 

imponderable, adj. imponderable ; in- 
pondera bills, capable of being 
weighed; see ponderable. 
impopulaire, adj. unpopular; in-po- 
pularis, see populaire. 
impopularit^, s. f. unpopularitv. 
important, e, adj. important; imp or- 
tans, -antis pr. p. of importare; 
see importer, 
importance, s. f. importance. 
importer, v. a. to import, v. a to im- 
port, to matter; im-portare; por- 
tarOt to carry. 
importateiir» s. m. importer, 
importation, s. f. importation, imports. 

importun, e, adj. importunate; im- 
portunus, inconvenient. 

importuner, v. a. to importune, to in- 

import«nit6, s.f. importunity; impor- 

impose]^ V. a. to impose ; im-ponere, 
impositum, in - upon, p on ere, to 

imposable, a^. taxable. 

impesant, e, adj. imposing. 

imposition, s. f. imposition, impost; 
impositio, -oni s. 

impossible, adj. impossible; im-pos< 

sibile; comp. possible, 
impossibility, s. L impossibility; im- 

possilitas, atis. 
imposteur, s.m. impostor; impostor, 

imponere, see imposer. 
imposture, s. f. imposture; impos- 

tura, impositum, see imposer. 
impdt, s. m. tax, impost ; 0. F. i m p o s t ; 

impositum; see imposer. 

impotent, e, adj. impotent ;impotens, 

-tis, p<)tens, powerful, posse, to 

be able, 
impotence, s. f. impotence ; impoten- 

impraticable, adj. impraticable; see 

imprecation, s. t. imprecation; im- 

precatio, imprecari, to invoke. 
impr^gner, v. a. to impregnate; It. 

impregnare; Sp. emprenar; M. 

L. impraegnare; praegnans, 

cont. from praegignens, prae- 

giguere, to bring forth. 

— 112 — 

ImpreBabk, adj. impregnable ; F. pre- 

Bable, to be taken; see prendre. 
impreseriptible , acy. indefeasible, 

imprescriptible; see prescrire. 
impression^ 8. f. impression, printing; 

impressio, -onis, im-primere, 

pressi, pressum, to impress, to 

imprint; comp. imprimer. 
imprMiionable, adj. excitable, sensitive, 
impreuioiier, y. a. to impress, to 

make an impression. 
impr^Toyanee, s. f. improvidence; 

see pr6voir. 
impr^Toyant, 69 adj. improvident; see 

impr^TO, €9 a^. unforseen, unawares; 

see pre voir. 
imprimer, v. a. to imprint, to impress, 

to print; im-primere, premere, 

to press. 

impzlxnerie , s. f. printing, printing- 
house, printing- ofilice. 
imprimenr, s. m. printer. 
improbable, adj. improbable, unlikely; 

im-probabilis; see probable. 
improDateur, s.m. -trlee, s. f. disap- 

prover;improbator, improbare; 

see improuver. 
improbation, s. f. disapprobation; 

improbatio, improbare; see 

improbit^^ s. f. improbity, dishonfesty; 

improbitas, im-probus; see 

improduetif, ve,-adj. unproductive; 

see productif. 
impromptu, s. m. impromptu; in 

promptu, in readiness, promptus, 

prompt, read^. 
impropre, adj. improper; im-pro- 

rius; comp. propre. 
impropriety, s. f. impropriety. 
improuTer, v. a. to disapprove; im- 

Erobare. im-probus, of bad qua- 
ty, proDus, good. 
improTiser, v. a. to speak extempore, 
to extemporize, to improvise; It. 
improvvisare;im-provisus, un- 
forseen, provider e, to forsee. 
improyisatenr, s. m. -trice, s. f. ex- 
temporizer, improvisator. 
improvisation, s. f. improvisation. 
improTiste, (k V) adv. suddenly, unex- 
pectedly; It. imp ro vv i sto, im- pro- 
viso; see prec. 
imprudent, e, ad[j. imprudent; im- 
prudens, -tis, see prudent 
impmdemmeat, adv. imprudently. 

impmdeaoa, s. f. imprudence ; im prn- 

impudent, e, adj. impudent; imp a- 
dens, -tis, pudere, to be asha- 

impndenee, s. f. impudence; impu- 

impugner, v. a. to impugn; im-pug- 
uare, to fight against; pugnare, 
to fight. 

impulssant, e, adj. powerless, impd- 

tent; see puissant 
impmssanoe, s. f. impotence. 
impulsif, ve, adj. impulsive; It im- 
pulsive; impnlsus, p. p. of im- 
p ell ere; see next w. 
impulsion, s. f. impulse, impetus; 
impulsio, -onis, impellere, to 
impun^ment, adv. with impunity; 
impune, punire, to punish, 
impuni, e, adj . unpunished ; i m p u n i s. 
impunity, s. f. impunity; impunitas. 

impnr, e, adj. impure; im-purus; 

see pur. 
impnreti, s..£ impurity; im-puritas. 
imputer, v. a. to impute, to deduct; 
im- put are, to bring into recko- 
ning, to charge, putare, to reekon. 
imputable) adj. imputable, chargeable, 
imputation, s.f. imputation, deduction. 
in, pref. corresp. to the E. pre£ in- 
un-; see im. 

inabordable, adj. inaccessible, unap- 
proachable; see aborder. 

inaeeeptable, adj. unacceptable; see 

inaccessible, adj. inaccessible; i n -ac- 
cessibiiis; see accessible. 

inaeeordable, adj. that cannot be 
brought to agree, that cannot be 
granted; see accorder. 

inaccontum^, e, adj. unaccustomed, 
unwonted; see accoutumer. 

inachev^, e, adj. uncompleted, unfi- 
nished; see achever. 

inaetif, ve, adj. inactive; see actif. 
inactivity, s. f. inactivity. 

inaction, s. f. inaction; see action. 

inadmissible, adj. inadmissible; ad- 
mis sum, admittere, to admit; 
comp. admission. 

inadvertance, s.f. inadvertence, over- 
sight; O.F advertance, attention; 
M.L. advertentia; advertere, to 
direct the attention to a thing; comp. 

— 113 — 

Inalienable, a^j- inalienable ; see al i e- 

inalterable, adj. unalterable, unchan- 
geable; see alt^rer. 
inamoyible, acy . irremovable ; see m o u- 

inanime, e, adj. inanimate, lifeless; 

inanimus, anima, the soul; see 

Inanite, s. f. inanity, emptiness; ina- 

nitas, -atis, inanis, empty, ?oid. 
inanition, s. f. inanition; inanitus, 

p. p. of inanire, to make empty, 

inanis, empty. 

InapereeTable, adj. imperceptible ; see 

InaperQu, e, adj. unperceived, unob- 
served; see apercevoir. 

inapplicable, adj. inapplicable , irre- 
levant; see appliquer. 

inappreeiable, adj. inappreciable, 
inestimable; see apprecier. 

inaptitude, s. f. inaptitude, unfitness ; 
see apitude. 

inartieoie, e, adj. inarticulate; see ar- 

inattaquable, adj. unassailable; see 

inattenau, e, adj. unexpected; see 

inattentif, ve, adj. inattentive; see 

inattention, s. f. inattention; see at- 

inaugrurer, v. a. to inaugurate; in- 
augurare, augur, an augur, 
inavgnral, e, adj. inaugural, 
inauguration, s. f. inauguration ; inau- 
* guratio, -onis. 

incalealable, adj. incalculable; see 
. calcul. 

incandescent, e, adj. incandescent; 
in-candescens, -tis, pr. p. of in- 
candescere, to become hot, can- 
dere, to shine, 
incandesoenoe, s. f. incandescence. 

incantation, s.f. incantation; in-can- 
tatio, -onis, in'cantare, to sin^in, 
can tare, freq.'of canere, to siog; 
comp. chanter. 

ineapable, adj. incapable, unable; see 

incapaeite, s.t. incapacity; see capa- 

incare^rer, v. a. to incarcerate, to 
imprison; M.L. carcerare, to im- 
prison; career, a prison. 

ineareiration, s. f. incarceration,- inr- 

inearnat, e, adj. incarnate, flesh-red, 
flesh-coloured ; It. i n c a r n a t o, c a r- 
ne, flesh :caro, carnis, flesh. 

inearner, (s'), pr. v. to become in- 
carnate; incarnare, caro, carnis, 
incarnation, s. f. incarnation. 

ineartade, s. f. wanton insult, frolic; 
Et d. 

incendie, s. m. fire, conflagration; 

incendium, incendere, to kindle, 

inoendiairv, s. m. incendiary; incen- 

ineendier, v. a. to kindle, to set fire 

to; incendere. 
ineertain, e, adj. uncertain , unsure ; 

see cer taint 
inoertitttde, s. f. uncertainty. 

ineessant,e, adj. incessant, unceasing; 

see cesser. 
inoMBamment, adv. immediately, short- 
ly, incessantly. 
ineeste, 8.m. incest; in-cestus, ca- 
st us, chaste. 

inoestutux, se, a4j. incestuous. 
inehoatif, ve, adj. inchoative ; i n c h o a- 
tivus, inchoare, to begin. 

ineident, e, adj. incidental; incidens, 

-tis, pr. p. of in-cidere, to fall 

into, cadere^ to fall, 
ineidenoe, s. f. incidence, 
inoident, s. m. incideht, occurrence, 
ineidenter, v. a. to raise incidents. 
inein^rer, v. a. to reduce to ashes; 

cinis, -oris, ashes. ' 
incineration, s. f. incineration. 
inciser, v. a. to incise; incisare, freq. 

of in-cidere, tocutinto, caedere, 

to cut. 

inoisif, ve, adj. incisive, 
incision, s. f. incision; incisio, 

-onis, incidere, incisum. 

ineiter, v. a. to incite, to instigate; 

incitation, s.f. incitement, inducement. 
ineivil, e, adj. uncivil; see civil. 

incivility, s. f. incivility, 
inclement, e, acy. inclement; see cle- 

incl6inence, s. f. inclemency. 
incliner, v. a. to incline, to bow; in- 

inolinaiion, s.f. inclination (physical- 
ly); inclinatio, -onis. 


— 114 — 

faaMwfttiim, s/f. incKnation (morally); 
inclinatio^ 'Onis. 
taelns, e, adj. enclosed; inclustis, 
p. p. of in-c!udere, to shut in. 
iaeliudTemeiit, adr. incltfsively, inclu- 
ineogrnito, adv. incognito; It. Sp. in- 
cognito; in-cognitus, not known, 
cognoscere, to perceiv&. 
ineoh^rent, e, a^j. incoherent; see 
ixMMnmM, B. i. incoherence. 

ineolore, adj. colourless, uncoloured; 
color, colour. 

ineombastible, adj. incombustible; 
see combustible. 

ineommensnrable, adj. incommensu- 
rable; see commensurable. 

Incommode, adj. inconvenient, incom- 
modius; incommodus; see com- 

ineommoder, v. a. to inconvenience; 
iaeommoditi, s. f. inconvenience; in- 

. commoditas. 

ineomparable, adj. incomi>arab1e, 
matchless; in- comparabilis; see 
comparer. * 

.ineompatlble, adj. incompatible, in- 
consistent; see compatible. 

Incompetent, e, a^j. incompetent; see 
Inoomp^tenoe, s. f. incompetence. 

ineomplet, dte, adj.. incomplete, im- 
perfect; see complet. 

ineomplexe, adj. incomplex ; see com- 

incomprehensible, adj. incomprehen- 
sible, unintelligible; see compre- 

incompris, e, adj. not understood ; F. 
compris, p. p. of comprendre, 
s. t. 

inconcevable. adj. inconceivable; see 

ineonelliable, adj. irreconcilable; see 

Ineongro, e, adj. incongruous, impro- 
per; in-congruens; see congru. 
incongruity, s. r. incongruity, impro- 

ineonno^ e, adj. unknown ; see c o n n u. 

ineonsequenee, s. f. inconsequence; 
see consequence. 

ineonsequent, e, adj. inconsequent; 
see consequent. 

ineonsidere, e, adj. inconsiderate, 

thoughtless; inconsideratus; see 

inconsolable, adj. inconsolable; in- 
consolabilis; see consoler. 

inconstant^ e, a^j. inconstant, un- 
steady; in-constans, -antis; see 

inoonttanoe, s.f. inconstancy, unsteadi- 
ness; inconstantia. 

ineonstitutionnel, le^ adj. unconsti- 
tutional; see constitution. 

incontestable, adj. incontestable, in- 
disputable; see con tester. 

i neontinent, adj. incontinent, unchaste ; 
adv. fortwith; in-continens, -tis, 
continere, to keep within; comp. 

ineonvenant, e, a(]y. improper, unbe- 
koming; see convenir. 

ineonvenient, s.m. inconvenience; in- 
conveniens, -entis, pr.p. of con- 
venire; see convenir. 

ineorporer, v. a. to incorporate, to 
embody; incorporare, corpus, 
-oris, a body, 
incorporation, s. f. incorporation. 

ineorreet, e, adj. incorrect; in-cor« 
rectus; %ee correct 

incorrigible, acy. incorrigible ; i n- c o r- 
rigibilis; see correct 

incorruptible^ adj. incorruptible; in- 
corruptibils; see corrompre. 

ineredibUite, s. f. incredibility; see 

ineredale, a(](j. incredulous; incre- 
dulus; see credule. 
InorMnlit^, s. f. incredulity. 

ineriminer, v. a. to incriminate ; M.L. ' 
incriminare; criminari, crit 
men, -inis, a crime. 

ineroyable, adj. incredible; see cro- 
yable and croire. 

inernster, v. a to incrust, to inlay; 
in-crustare, crusta; comp. 

• croute. 
incniBtation, s. f. incrustation, inlaid 

ineubation, s. f . incubation ; i n c u b a- 
tio, -onis, in-cubare, to lie upon. 

ineube, s.m. incubus, nightmare; in- 
cubus, incub are, to lie upon. 

inculper, v. a. to accuse, to charge; 
M.L. in-culpare; culpare, to 
reprove; culpa, fault 

inculpation, s. f. accusation. 

inculquer, v. a. to inculcate; in-cnl- 
care, to tread in, calcare, calx, 
calciSi the heel. 

— 115 — 

ineulte, adj. uncultiTated ; i n c n 1 1 n s ; 
comp. culte. 

ineurable, adj. incurable; is -cur a- 
bilis, curare, to care for. 

incarie, s. f. carelessness; in-curia, 
cura, care. 

inearsion, s. f. incursion, partial in- 
vasion; in-cursio,incurrer.e, to 
run into. 

inde, s. m. indigo, indigo-blue; India, 
comp. Indigo. 

Inde, 8. f. India. 

ind^eent, e, a^}. indecent ;in-decens, 
-tis, pr. p. of decet, it behoves, 
indteenoe, s. f. indecency. 

ind^chiffrable, adj. undecipherable, 
illegible; see dechiffrer. 

indi^eiSf aoy. undecided, uncertain, 
wavering; decisus, p.p. of deci- 
de r e, to determine ; comp. decider, 
ind&oision, s. f. indecision. 

indeclinable, adj. indeclinable; see 

indecomposable, adj. indecomposable ; 
see composer. 

indefini, e, acy* indefinite; in-defi- 
nitus, p. p. of definire, to de- 
fine; comp. d^finir. 
indiflnissahle, adj. undefinable, unac- 
. countable. 

indeiebile, adj. indelible ;in-delebi- 
lis, deiere, to efface. 

indeiieat, e, a^j- indelicate; see de- 
ind^eatesse, s. f. indelicacy. 

indemniser, v. a. to indemnify; in- 
demnis, harmless, damnum, in- 
jury; comp. domage. 
indemnity s. f. indemnity. 

ind^pendant, e, adj. independent; 
It. independente; dependens, 
-entis, p. p. of dependere, to 

indipendamment) adv. independently, 
ind^endanoe, s. f. independence. 

indestructible, adj. indestructible ; see 
destruction and detruire. 

Indeterminable, adj. indeterminable; 
see determiner. 

index, s.m. index, fore-finger, table 
of contents; index, the pointer, an 

indieateor, s. m . indicator ;indicator, 
indicare; see indiquer. 

indication, s. f. indication ; i n d i c a t i o, 
-onis, indicare; see indiquer. 

indiee, s. m. indication, mark; in- 
dicium, index. 

indieible, adj. unutterable; dlc^r#, 

to say. 
indien, ne, adj. Indian. 
indifferent, e, adj. indifferent; in* 
differens, -entis, p.p. of differe, 
to differ; comp. differer 
indifttremment, adv. indifferently, 
indifff&renoe, s. f. indifference. 

indlgenee, s. f. indigence, poverty; 
indigentia; see indigent 

indigene, adj. indigenous, native ; in- 
digena, indu, old form of in, and 
gen, root of gignere, genituro, 
to beget 

indigent, e, adj. indigent, poor; indi- 
gens, entis, p. p. of indigere; to 

indigeste, adj. indigestible, indigested; 
in-di|;estns, unarranged, confu- 
sed, digerere, digestum, to ar- 
indigestion, s. f. indigestion. 

indigne, adj. unworthy, worthless ; i n- 

indignity, s. f. unworthness, indignity ; 


indigner, v. a. to make indignant, to 

excite, pr. v. to be indignant; in- 


indignation, s. f. indignation; indig- 

natio, -onis. 
indigo, 8.m. indigo-plant, indigo; in- 

dicum, from India, 
indigotier, s. m. indigo-plant, indigo- 

indiquer, v. a. to indicate, to point 
out; indicare, index. 

indirect, e, adj. indirect, in -di rec- 
tus; see direct 

Indlseret, ete, adj. indiscreet, impru- 
dent; in-discretus, indiscrimi- 
nate, see discret 
indiiosAtion, s. f. indiscretion. 

indispensable, adj. indispensable; It 
indispensabiie; see dispenser. 

indlsposer, v.a. to indispose, to make 

unwell; see disposer, 
indisposition, s. f. indisposition. 
Indlssolable, adj. indissoluble; in-dis- 

solubilis, dissolvere, to dis- 
solve; comp. dissoudre. 
indistinct, e, acy. indistinct, undistin- 

guishable; in-distinctus, see di- 

IndlTidu, s. m. individual; in-divi- 

duus, indivisible, dividere, to 


8* • 

— 116 — 

iBdlfidiudiMr, v. a. to indindaalize. 
iadiiddvaUU, s. f. individuality. 
fadiTidoel, le, adj. individual. 
IndifiSy 69 adj. undivided; in-divi- 
sus; see diviser. 
iadiTiiiUa, a4j. indivisible. 
Indocile, indocile;- in-docilis; see 

iadoellitA, s. f. indocility. 

Indolent, e, ady. indolent; in-dolens, 
-entis, pr. p. of dole re, to feel 

• pain. 

indolence, s. f. indolence; in-dolen- 

Indomptable, adj. indomitable, unman- 
ageable; see dompter. 

lndompt6, e, adj. untamed, wild; in- 
domitus; see dompter. 

indu, e, adj. undue; see du. 

Indabitable, adj. indubitable, beyond 
dotrbt;in-dubitabilis, dubitare, 
to doubt. 

Induetion, s. f. induction ; i n - d u c ti 0, 
-on is, a leading or bringing into, 
indu cere; see next. 

induire. v. a. to lead into, to induce, 

to infer; in-due ere, to lead or 

bring into, 
indulgent, e, a4j. indulgent; in-dul- 

gens, -tis, pr. p. of indulgere, 

to be indulgent. 
indnlgmiM, s. f. indulgence; indul- 

alt, s. m. indult, indulto; indul- 
tum, p.p. of indulgere; seeprec. 
indilment, adv. unduly; see indu. 

indastrle, s. f. skill, trade , business, 
industry; industria. 
indoitridi, le, adj. industrial , manu- 

indnstrieuz, se, adj. industrious, skil- 
ful; industriosus. 
In^branlable , adj. immovable, firm; 

see ^branler. 
In^dit, e, acy. unpublished, unedited; 
in-editus, not known, edere, to 
emit; comp. Editor. 
Ineffable, aaj. ineffable, inexpressible; 
in-effabilis, effari, to speak out 
ineffabiUt^, s. f. ineffability. 

IneffaQable, adj. indelible; see ^ffa- 

inefAeaee,a4J- inefficient, inefficacious ; 
in-efficax; see efficace. 
inefftoaelt^, s. f. inefficacy. 

in^gal, e, adj. unequal; in- ae qua- 
ils; see 6 gal. 

inAgalit^ s. f. inequality; in-aeqaa- 
inepte, ^j. unfit, absurd ; in-eptus, 

aptus, fitted, 
inaptia, s. f. absurdity; ineptia. 
in^poisable, adj. inexhaustible; see 

inerte, adj. inert, inactive; in-ers, 

ertis, without skill, ars, skill, 
inertia, s. f inertia, inertion, inac- 
tivity; inertia. 

inesper^, e, adj. unhoped for, unex- 
pected; see esp6rer. 

inestimable, adj. inestimable, invalu- 
able; in-aestimabilis; see esti- 

inevitable, adj. inevitable, unavoid- 
able; in-^evitabilis; see 6viter. 

inexaet, e,* adj. inaccurate , inexact ; 
see exacte. 

inazaetitade, s. f. inaccuracy, inexact- 

inexcusable, adj. inexcusable, unju- 
stifiable; in-excusabilis; see ex- 
pense r. 

inex^eutable, adj. impracticable, un- 
achievable ; see execute r. 

inexere^, e, adj. unexercised, unprac- 
tised; see exercer. 

inexorable, adj. inexorable, unre- 
lenting; 'in-exorabilis, ex-orare, 
to prevail upon. 

Inexperience, s. f. inexperience; see 

inexperimente, e, adj. inexperienced; 
see experimenter. 

inexpiable, adj. inexpiable, unatonable ; 
in-expiabilis; see expier. 

inexplicable, adj. inexplicable; in- 
explicabilis; see expliquer. 

inexprimable,a^. inexpressible, unut- 
terable; see exprimer. 

inexpugnable, acy. unexpugnable, im- 
pregnable; in-expugnabilis, ex- 
pugnare, to take by assault 

inextiiiguible, adj. inextinguishable; 
ext'inguere, to put out; comp. 

inextricable, adj. inextricable ; i n - e x- 
tricabilis, extricare,' to disen- 
infailiible, adj. infallible, unerring; 
see failiir. 
in&iUibiUte, s. L infallibility. 
infftme, adj. infamous; in -fa mis, 
fama, saying, fame, 
intemia, s. f. infamy; infamia. 

— 117 — 

Infant, s. m. Infant, Infante, s. f. 
Infanta, a title given in Spain and 
Portugal to all the Royal children, 
except the eldest; in fans, ntis, a 
little child; comp. enfant 

infanterie, s. f. infantry; It. infan- 
teria, fanteria; It fanto, Ge. 
fant, a young man, a servant; in- 
fans; the servants of the knights 
were on foot. 

infantieide, s. m. infanticide, childmur- 

der; in fan tic i da, murderer of a 

child, infanticidium, childmur- 

der, infans, -ntis, a child, cae- 

. dere, to kill. 

infatigrable, a4j. indefatigable, uflwea- 
ried; indefatigabilis; see fa- 
tig uer. 

infatuer, v. a. to infatuate; in -fat u- 
are; see fat 
infatuation, s. f. infatuation. 

inf^eond, e, adj. unfruitful, sterile; 

in-fecundus; see fecond. 
infieonditi, s. f. sterility, unfertility; 
infeconditas, -atis. 
infect, e. ad^j. infectious; in feet us, 
p. p. ot inficere, to mix with, fa- 
cere, to make, 
infeotir, v. a. t^ infect 
infection, s. f. infection. 

inf^oder, v. a. to enfeoff; M.L. in- 
feodare, feudum; comp. fief, 

infiodation, s. f. infeudation, enfeoff- 

inf^rer, v. a. to infer, to conclude; 
in-ferre, to bring upon, to infer. 

inf^rieuT, e, a^j. inferior, lower, sub- . 
ordinate; inferior, comp. of in- 
ferus, below, 
inferiority, s. f. inferiority. 
infernal, e, acy. infernal, hellish; in- 
fernalis, infernus; comp. enfer. 
infertile, adj. unfruitful, infertile, ste- 
rile; in-fertilis; see fertile, 
infertility, s. f. infertility, barreness. 

infester, v. a. to infest; infest are, 

infestus, old p. p. of inferre, 

to throw into. 
inflddle, adj. unfaithful, infidel; in- 

fidelis; see fiddle, 
infidelity, s.f. unfaithfulness, infidelity; 


inflltrer, (s'), pr. v. to infiltrate; see 
infiltration, s. f. infiltration. 

iniime, adj. lowest; infimus, sup. of 

infer us, below. 
inftni, e, adj. infinite, endless; in-fi- 
nitus; see finir. 
infinite,. s. f. infinity; infinitas. 
infiniteiinial, e, adj. infinitesimal; It. 
inflnitif, s.m. infinitive; infinitivus. 

inftrme,a4j. infirm, weak; in-firmus; 
see ferme. 

infirmer, v. a. to invalidate, to disaf- 
firm; infirmare. 
inflrmerie, s. f. infirmary, 
infirmier, s. m. infirmiire, s. f. nurse, 
infirmite, s. f. infirmity; infirmitas. 
Inflammable, inflammable; It in flam- 
mare, to inflame. 
inflammation, s. f. inflammation; in- 
flammatio, -onis, inflammare, 
to inflame. 

inflammatoire, adj. inflammatory; It 
inflammatorio; inflammare, to 
» inflame. 

inflexible, ac^j. unbending, inflexible; 

in-flexibilis, flexus, a bending, 

fleet ere, to bend. 

inflezibiHte, s. f inflexibility. 

inflexion, s. f. inflection ; i n - f 1 e x i o, 

-0 n i s, a bending, fleeter e, to bend. 

infliger^ v. a. to inflict; in-fligere, 

to strike on. 
Inflner, v.a. to influence; in -flu ere, 
to flow into, 
infiuenoe, s. f. influence, 
inflnenoer, v. a. to influence, 
influent, e, adj. influential. 

in-foUo, s. m. folio; in, fo|io, fo- 
lium, a leaf. 

Informe, adj. unformed, shapeless; 
informis, forma, form, 
information, s. f. inquiry; in -form a* 
tie, -onis, an outline. 

Informer, V. a. to inform, to acquaint; 
in-formare, to give form to. 

Infortnne, s.f. misfortune; infortu- 
nium, fortuna; see fortune. 

infortan6,e, adj. unfortunate; in-for- 
tunatus, fortuna, chance, luck. 

Infraetenr, s. m. infractor, infringer, 
infractus, p. p. of infringere, 
to infringe; comp. enfreindre. 

infraction, s. f. infraction, infringe- 
ment; in-fractio, -onis; see prec. 

infranehlssable, acy. insuperable ; see 

Infiructnenx, se, a^j. fruitless; in- 
fructuosns, fructus, fruit 

- 118 — 

lalhietataMBMnfti adv. fruitlesslj, to 

no purpose. 

infas, e^ adj. intuitWe; infusus, p. 

p. of in-fundere, to pour into. 

inftuer, ▼. a. to infuse. 

inftiiion,s. f. infusion : infu sio, -onis. 

infdsible,' adj. infusible; see fusible. 

ingambe, adj. active, brisk; gam be, 
old form of j a m b e , see this. 

ingr^nier, (s*), pr. v. to tax one's in- 
genuity; M.L. ingeniari; inge- 
niuni; see next. 

ing^niear, s. m. engineer; O.F. en- 
gin, (s. t.) engine; O.F. engeig- 
nier, to outwit, to find out; ML. 
ingeniu m, natural quality; see ge- 

ing^nieax, se, adj. ingenious; inge- 
niosus,^ ingenium. 

iDg^no; e, adj. ingenuous, open, frank; 
ingenuus, inborn; gen, root of 
gignere, {yevm), to beget, 
ing&uiti, s.f. ingenuousness, candor; 
' ingenuitas. 
ingtoimient, adv. ingenuously, openly, 
ing^rer, (sO« pr. v. to intermeddle; 
in-gerere, to carry, or put into. 
ingrat, e, adj. ungrateful , thankless ; 
in-gratus, unpleasant; comp. gr^. 
ixigratitade, 8. f. ingratitude, ingra-r 

ingredient, s. m. ingredient; ingre- 

diens, -entis, pr. p. of in-gre- 

di, to step into, to enter, gradi, 

to step. 
inhabile, adj. unskilful, awkward; in- 

habilis, unfit; see habile 
inhabilet6, s. f. unskilfulness, inability. 
inhabitable, adj. uninhabitable; in- 

habitabilts, see habiter. 
inhabits, e, a^. uninhabited; inha- 

bitatus, p.p. of in-habitare, 

see habiter. 

inli^rent, e, adj. inherent ;inhaerens, 

-entis, pr. p. of in-haerere, to 

adhere to. 
inherence, s. f. inherence. 
inhiber, v. a. to forbid, to inhibit; 

in-hibere, to hold in, habere,. 

to have, to hold, 
inhibition, s. f. prohibition ; i n h i b i t i o, 

•onis, a restraining. 
inhospitalier, dre, adj. inhospitable; 

in-nosnitalis; seehospitalier. 
inhospltalite, s. f. inhospitality; in- 

hospitalitas; see hospitality. 

inhumalBf e, ad^j. inhuman; in-hu- 

manus; see humain. 
inlraauuiiU, 8. f. inhumanity; inhu- 
inhnmer, v. a. to inhume, to inter, to 
bury; hu mar e, to cover with earth, 
humus, the earth, 
inhumation, s. f inhumation, inter- 
ment, burial. 

inimaginable, adj. unimaginable, in- 
conceivable ; see i m a ff i n'e r. 

inimitable, adj. inimitable; see i mi- 

inimiti^, s. f. enmity; inimicitia, 
inimicus, amicus; see ennemi 
ai^ ami. 

inintelligiible, adj. unintelligible; see 

iniqae, adj. iniquitous; in-iquus, 

unequal, aequus, e<}ual. 
iniquity, 8. f. iniquity; iniquitas. 

initial, e, adj. initial; initialis, ini- 
tinm, a beginning, 
initiale, s. f. initial (letter). 
initier, v. a. to initiate ; i n i t i a r e, i n i- 

tium a beg|inning. 
initiation, s. f initiation; initiatio, 

initiative, s. f. initiative. 

injecter, v. a. to inject; in-j ice re, 
injectum, to throw in, j ace re, 
to throw, 
injection, s. f. injection; injectio, 

injonction, s.f. injunction; in-junc* 
tio, -onis, a joining; jungere, to 
yoke, to join. 
injure, s. f insult, injury; injuria, 
jus, juris, right 
injorier, v. a. to insult, to offend, 
injurienz, se, adj. insulting, outra- 
geous; injuriosus. 

i^jaste, adj. unjust, wrong; in-ju" 

stus; see juste, 
injoitlce, s. f. injustice, wrong; in- 

inn6, e, adj. innate; innatus, p. p. 

of in-nasci, to be born in. 
innoeenf, e, adj. innocent, harmless; 

in-nocens, -entis, nocere, to 

innoeemment, adv. innocently, harmless, 
innocence, s. f. innocence ; i n - n o c e n- 
' tia. 
innoenite, s. f. harmlessness ; in-no- 

cuus, innocuous, nocere, to 


-^ 119 — 

innoiiibrable,a4j. innumerable, count- 
less; in-numerabiliB,numeru8; 
comp. n ombre. 
imiOTer, v.n. to innovate; in-novare, 
to renew, noTus, new; comp. neuf 
and nouTi9au. 
innovatoiir, s. m. innovator. 
innoTation, s. f. innovation. 

liioeeap^9 e, a^j. unoccupied, unem- 
ployed; see ecu per. 

in-oetavo, s. m. octavo ; o c t a v u 8, tbe 
eight; having eight leaves to a sheet. 

inoealer, v. a. to inoculate, to ingraft; 
in-oculare, oculus, an eye. 
inoenlation, s. f. inoculation; ino- 
culatio, -onis. 

Inodore, adj. inodorous; in-odorus, 
odor, a smell. 

inoffensif, ve, adj. inoffensive; It. 

inoffensive; in-offensus; see 

inonder, v. a. to inundate, to overrun; 

in-undare, unda, a wave, 
inondation, s. f. inundation; inun- 

datio, -onis. 
iiiopin^9 e, ad^'. unexpected, unfor- 

seen; in-opinatus, p. p. of opi- 

nari, to suppose, 
inoppin^ment, adv. unexpectedly. 

Inopporton, e, adj. inoportune, incon- 
venient; in-opportunus; seeop- 
inopportimAmeBt, adv. inopportunly. 
inopportnnit^ s. f. inopportunity. 

inorganlque, adj. inorganic; see or- 

inouY, e, adj. unheard of; in- and i- 
tus, p. p. of audire, to hear; 
comp. ouir. 

in-qaarto, s. m. quarto; quart us, 
the fourth part; four leaves to a sheet. 

inquiet, dte, adj. uneasy, restless, un- 
quiet; in-quietus, p. p. of quies- 
cere, to rest; comp. coi. 

•inquUter, v. a. to disquiet, to make 
uneasy, to trouble; inquietare.. 
inqniitade, s. f. uneasiness, disquie- 
tude, anxiety. 

inqnlsiteur, s. m. inquisitor; inqui- 
sitor, a searcher, in-quirere, to 
examine, quaerere,to seek; comp. 
inqniflition, s. f inquisition; inqui- 
sitio, -onis. 

insaisissable, adj. not seizable, not 
distrainable, indiscernible; see sai- 

insalubre, adj. insalubrious, unhealth- 
y; in-salubris; see salubre. 
iasalubrit^ s. f. insalubrity. 
insatiable, adj. insatiable ; i n • s a t i a- 
bilis, satiare, to satiate, satis, 
enough; comp. rassasierandsati- 
insatiability s. f insatiability. 

inseription, s. f inscription, entry; 

in-scriptio, inscribere, in- 

scriptum; see next w. 
inseiire^ v. a. to inscribe, to enter, 

to register; in-scribere, to write 

inscrutable, adlj. inscrutable; scru- 

tari, to searcn. 
inseete, s. m. insect; in-sectum, 

in-secare, to cut into. 

insens^, e, insane, senseless; sens as, 
p. p. of sentiri, to perceive, 
insensible, adj. insensible; ^ ens i bi- 
lls, sensible; comp. sensible, 
insensibility, s. f. insensibility. 
inseparable, a4j. inseparable; sepa- 
rabilis. separare, to separate, 
comp. separer. 
insurer, v. a. to insert, to put in; 
in-serere, to insert, 
insertion, s. f. insertion; ins er tie. 
insertum, sup. of inserere. 

insidleux, se, adj. insidious; insi- 

diosus, insidiae, an ambush, in- 

sidere, to sit upon, sedere,tosit. 
insigno, acy. signal, notorious; insig- 

nis, remarkable, noted; signum, 

a sign, 
insigne, s.m. badge, pf. insignia; in- 

signe, a badge of honour, comp. 

insignifiant, e, adj. insignificant; si^- 

nificans, -antis, pr.p. of signi- 

ficare, see signifier. 

insinaer, v. a. to insinuate; insinu- 

are, sinus, the bosom, 
insinuation, s. f. insinuation; in-si- 
nuatio, -onis. 
insipide, adj. insii>id, tasteless; It. Sp. 
insipido; insipidus, sapidus, 
sap ere, to taste, 
insipidity, s. f. insipidity. 
insister, V. n. to insist, to urge; in- 
sist ere, to stand upon, 
insistance, s. f. insisting, 
insociable, adlj. unsociable; in-soci- 
abilis; see sociable, 
insooiabiliti, s. i. unsociability. 
insolent, e, adj. insolent, impudent; 

120 — 

in-Bolens, -tig, contrary to cus- 
tom, unusual, insolent; sol ere, to 
be accustomed. 

imolenoe, s. f. insolence, impudence; 

insollte, adj. unusual; in-solitus, 
sol ere, to be accustomed. 

insoluble, adj. insoluble, not to be 
solved; in-solubilis,so]yere, to 
dissolve'; comp. soluble, solution, 
iniolabilit^, s. f. insolubility. 

insolvable, adj. insolvent; solvere, 
to dissolve, to pay. 
iniolTabilit^ s. f. insolvency. 

insomnie, s.f. sleeplessness; insom- 
nia, insomnis, sleepless, som- 
nus, sleep, (insomnious). 

insouciant, e,ady. careless; see sou ci. 
insouoianee, s. f. carelessness. 

insoamisje, unsubdued, unsubmissive; 
soumis, p.p. of soumettre, s.t. 

insoutenable^adj. indefensible, unten- 
able; see soutenir. 

inspeeter, v. a. to inspect, to survey, 
to examine; in-spectare, freq. 
of inspicere, tolook at,specero, 
to look. 

Inspeeteur, s. m. inspector, surveyor. 

inspeetioii, s. f. inspection , examina- 
tion, survey; inspectio, -on is. 

inspirer, v. a. to inbale, to inspire; 
in-spirare, to breath into, 
impiratenf, trioe, adj. inspiratory, 
iaspiration, s. f. inspiration. 
instability, s. f. instability; stabili- 
tas, -atis; see stable. 

installer, v. a. to install; It. M.L. 
installare; see stalle. 
installation, s. f. installation. 

instance, s. f. entreaty, instance; in- 
s tan t i a, a standing upon, persever- 
ance, in-stare, to stand in, upon. 

instant, e, adj. earnest, urgent; in- 
stans, -antis, pr. p. of instare 
see prec. 

instanunent, adv. earnestly, urgently. 

instant, s. m. instant, moment. 

initantani, e, adj. instantaneous. 

initantanAment, adv. instantaneously. 

instar, (k T), adj. like, as, in imita- 
Cion of; instar, image, likeness, 
instar prob. contains the root sta 
or Stat, „place" and is thus equi- 
valent to our in-stead. (Smith.) 

instigaer, v. a. to instigate; insti- 

gare, roots tig, prick; comp. stig- 
ma, stimulus, etc. 

instigateiir, s. m. -trioe, s. f. instiga- 
tor; instigator, instigatrix, 

initigation, s. f. instigation. 

instiller, V. a. to instil; in-stillare, 
to pour in by drops, still a, a drop, 
instillation, s. f. instillation. 
instinct, s. m. instinct; instinctus, 
instigation, in-stinguere,to insti- 
gate, root stiff ; see instiguer. 
instinotif, to, a^j- instinctive. 
instinetlTement, adv. instinctively. 

instituer, v. a. to institute, to estab- 
lish; in-stituere, to erect; sta- 
tu ere, to place; comp. statuer. 

institnt, s. m. institution, institute (a 
scientific body); institutum. 

institateur, s. ip. -trice, s. f. institutor, 

institation, s. f. institution, establish- 
ment, school, academy; institutio, 
- o n i s. 
instruire, v. a. to jinstruct, to inform ; 
instruere, to pile upon, to instruct. 

instmotenr, s. m. instructor; instruc- 

initmctif, ve, adj. instructive. 

instniotion, s. f. instruction, education, 
learning; instructio, -onis. 

instrument, s. m. instrument, tool, 
musical instrument; instrumen- 
tum, instruere, to instruct 
instrumental, e, adj. instrumental, 
instrumentation, s. f. instrumentation, 
initnimenter, v. n. to make, draw in- 
struments, deeds. 
insu,(l^r), unknown to; in-su, p.p. 

of s avoir, s. t. 
insabordonation, s. f. insubordination ; 

see subordination- 
insueeds, s. m. failure; see succes. 

insofiisant, e, a^j. insufficient, inade- 
quate; see suffisant. 
insnfflsamment, adv. insufficiently, 
insnfflsance, s. f. insufficiency. 
insofller, v. a. to blow in, to breathe 

into; suf flare, to blow upon. 
insalaire, adj. insular; insularis, 

insula, an isle. 
insulter, v. a. to insult; insult are, 
freq. of insilire, to leap into, to 
spring at; s a lire, to spnng. 
insnlte, s. £ insult, affront. 
insapportable, ady. insupportable, un- 
bearable; see supporter. 

— 121 — 

insnrger^ (s'), pr. y. to rise in insii- 

rectioD, to revolt; in -surge re, to 

rise up. 
ixumrg^, s. m. insurgent. 
insurmontable^ adj. insurmountable; 

see surmonter. 
insnrreetion, s. f. insurrection, rising; 

insurrectio, insurrectum, sup. 

of insurgere; see insurger. 
insarrootlonnel, le, adj. insurrectionary. 
intact, 69 adj. untouched, intact; in- 

tactus, p.p. of tangere, to touch. 

iiltarissable , adj. inexhaustible; see 

integral, e^ acy. whole, entire, inte- 
gral; It. mtegrale; integer; see 
next w. 

int<^gre, adj. just, upright, of integri- 
ty; in-teger, un-touched, tag, root 
of tangere, to touch. 

intigrit^, s. f. integrity, probity; in- 
intelleet, s. m. intellect, understand- 
ing; intellectus, intel-ligere, 
to choose between, to perceive, in- 
ter between leg ere, to choose. 

intelleotael, le, adj. intellectual. 
intelligent, e, adj. intelligent, quick; 
intelligens, -entis, pr. p. of in- 
telligere; see intellect. 

intelligence, s. f. intellect, understand- 
ing, intelligence; intelligentia. 

intdUgible, adj. intelligible, audible; 

intemp^rant, e, adj. intemperate; in- 
temperans, -antis, temperare, 
to check; see temp^rer. 
intemperance, s. f. intemperance; in- 

intempir^, e, adj. intemperate; see 

intemp^rie, s. f. inclemency of cli- 
mate or weather; in-temperies, 
temperare; see temperer. 

intempestif^ ve, adj. unseasonable, 

untimely; in-tempestivus, tem- 

pestas, a season, 
intempestivement, adv. unseasonably. 
Intendant, s. m. steward, intendant; 

intcndens, -entis, p. p. of in- 

tendere, to stretch towards, to 

direct one's attention to. 
intendanoa, s. f. administration, inten- 

intense, adj. intense, severe, strong; 

intensus, p.p. of intendere; see 


intensity, 8. f. intensity. 
intenter, v. a. to bring an action, to 
begin a law-suit; intentare, freq. 
of intendere; see intendant. 

intention, s. f. intention; intentio, 
-onis, intendere; see prec. 
intentionn^, a, adj. intentioned. 
intentiosnel, le, adj. intended. 
inter-, a prefix, the L. inter, be- 
tween, among. 

intercaler, v. a. to intercalate, to in- 
terpolate; inter -cal are. 

interoalaire, adj. intercalar; interca- 

intercalation, s. f. intercalation; in- 
tercaiatio, -onis. 

intercMer, v.n. to intercede; inter- 
cedere, to go between. 

interceptor, v. a. to intercept, to cut 
off; interceptum, sup. of inter- 
cipere to take between, cap ere, 
to take, 
interception, s. f. interception; inter- 
ceptio, -onis. 

intercesseur, s. m. interceder, inter- 
cessor; intercessor, interce- 
dere, intercessum; see inter- 

intercession, 8. f. intercession; inter- 
cessio, -onis; see prec. 

interdire, v. a. to forbid, to prohibit, 
to inderdict; inter-dicere. 

interdiction, s. f. interdiction, prohi- 
bition; interdictio, -onis. 

interdict, s. m. person interdicted, in- 
terdict; interdictum, sup. of in- 

int^resser, v. a. to interest; inter- 
esse, to be or lie between; comp. 
int^ressant, e, adj. interesting. 

int^rdt, s. m. interest, share; inter- 
est, inter-esse, to be or lie be- 

interfolier, v. a. to interleave, to in- 
terfoliate; inter, folium, a leaf. 

int^rieur, e,adj. inside, interior; in- 
terior, comp. of intra, within; 
comp. in time. 

int^rienr, s. m. interior, home, hqme- 

interim, s. m. interim; inter-im, im 
for e u m, (t e m p u 8 understood) dur- 
ing that time, 
int^rimaira, adj. ad interim. 

interjection, 8. f. interjection; lodging 

— 122 — 

of an appeal; interjectio, inter- 
jicere, see next. 
interjeter, t. a. to lodge an appeal; 
interjectum, sup. of inter-ji- 
cerc, to throw between, j ace re, 
to throw. 

interligrne, s. m. space between two 
lines; s. f. lead, space-line (print); 
inter-ligne, s. t. 
interligner, v. a. to lead (print), 
interliniaire, adj. interlinear. 

interlocuteur, s. m. -triee, s. f. in- 
terlocutor; inter] ocu turn, sup. of 
interloqui. to speak between. 

ioterloeatlon, s. f. interlocution; see 

interlocutoire, s. m. interlocutory 
decree; see prec. 

interloqner, v. a. to award an inter- 
locutory decree, to puzzle. 

interlope, s.m. interloper; E. inter- 
lope; ifiter, D. loopen, to leap. 

intermdde, s. m. interlude, intennede ; 
inter, medius, middle, 
interm^diaire, adj. intermediate, inter- 
intennMiat, e, adj. intermediate. 

interminable^ adj. interminable; in- 
terminabilisy terminare, to 
end; comp. terminer. 

intermission, s.f. intermission, inter- 
ruption; inter-missio, missum, 
sup. of mittere, to let go. 

intermittent, e, adj. intermittent; 

intermittens, -entis, pr.p. ofin* 

ter-mittere, to let go between; 

comp. prec. 

intermittenoe, s. f. intermission. 

international, e, adj. international; 

inter-national, s. t 
interne, adj. internal; internus; 

comp. extern e. 
intemat, s. m. boarding-school, func- 
tions of house-surgeon in a hospital, 
interne, s. m. f. boarder in a school, 
house-surgeon or student in a hos- 

intcrnonce, s. m. internuncio ; i nter- 
nuntius, a mediator, nuntius, or 
nuncius, (contr.of novi-?entius, 
newly arrived) a messenger. 

interpeller, v. a. to call on, to put 
a question in Parliament; inter- 
pell are, to interrupt in speaking, 
appellare, to call upon, 
interpellation, s. f question, call for 
^ reply. 

interpoler, v. a. to interpolate; in- 
terpolare, to give a new form or 
appearance, to falsify, i n t e r-p o 1 i r e, 
to polish. 

intazpoUteiir, 8. m. interpolator. 

interpolation, s. f. interpolation. 

interposer, v. a. to interpose; inter- 
positum, sup. of interponere, 
to place between; comp. poser, 
interposition, s. f. interposition, inter- 

interprdte, s. m. interpreter; inter- 
pres, -etis, an agent between two 
parties, interpreter, 
interprttation, s.f. interpretation; in- 
terpretatio, -onis. 
interpreter, v. a. to interpret; inter- 

interrdgne, s. m. interregnum; in- 
ter-regnum;'8ee r^gne. 

interroger, v. a. to question, to inter- 
rogate; inter-rogare. 
interrogasenr, 8. m. -trioe, s. f. inter- 
rogator, examiner; interrogator, 
interrogatif, ve, adj. interrogative; 

interrogation, s. f. interrogation, ques- 
tion ; interrogatio, -onis. ^ 
interrogatoire , s. m. examination of 
parties accused. 

interrompre, v. a. to interrupt; in- 
ter-rum pore, to break up. 
intiemipteiir, s. m. -trioe, s< f. inter- 
rupter, interruptus, p. p. of in- 
intermption, s.f. interruption; inter- 
ruptio, -onis. 

intersection, s. f. intersection; inter, 
sectio, -onis, a cutting, secare, 
to cut 

interstice, s.m. interstice; intersti- 

interralle, s. m. interval; inter- val- 
lum, the space between two pali- 
sades, interval, vallum, a rampart 

intervenir, v. n. to interfere, to inter- 
vene; inter-venire, to come be- 

intervention, s. f. intervention; inter- 
ventio, -onis. 

intervertir, v. a. to invert, to change 
an order of succession ; inter-ver- 
tere, to turn aside, to change. 

intestat, adj. and s.m. intestate; in- 
to status, that has made no will, 
testari, to witness; comp. tester. 

intestin, e, adj. intestine; intesti- 

— 123 — 

n a 8, inward, internal, i n t n s, ivtog^ 
. intestinal, e, ad(j. intestinal. 
inteitinB, 8. m. pi. intestines, bowels; 

intime, adj. intimate; intimus, sup. 
of intra, within, comp. int^riear. 
intimation, 8. f. summons, legal notice, 
intimflment, adv. intimately, 
intimer, y. a. to notify, to give legal 
notice of. 
intimity, s. i intimacy. 
intimider, v. a. to intimidate; It. in- 

timidar^, in, timidus, timid. 
intitiQer, v. a. to give a title to, to 
name; M.L. intitulare; titulus, 
a title. 
intolerable, adj. intolerable, unbear- 
able; in-tolerabilis; see tol6- 

intol^Tanee, s. f. intolerance; in-to- 

lerantia; see tol§rer. 
intolerant, e, adj. intolerant; in-to- 

lerans, -antis, pr. p. oftolerare; 

see tol^rer. 
intonation, s. f. intonation; It. into- 

nazione; in-tonare, to thunder, 

to sound. 
intradnisible , acy. untranslatable ; 

see traduire. 
intraitable, adj. intractable, unman- 
ageable; in-tractabilis, see trai- 

intransitif^ Te, adj. intransitive; in- 
^ transitivus; see transitif. 

In-trente-deux, adj. and s. m. book 
in thirty-twos, (thirty-two leaves to 
the sheet); see trente-deux. 

intr^pide, adj. intrepid, fearless; in- 
trepidus, un-shaken. 
intrepidity, 8. f. intrepidity. 

intrigrner, v. a. to embarras; v. n. to 
intrigue; intricare, tr icae, trifles, 
tricl^, ace. to Plinius, from Tri- 
c a ,. the name of a small, unimpor- 
tant town in Apulia, 
intrigant, e, adj. and s. intriguing, in- 
triguer; intricans, -antis, pr. p. 
pf intricare. 
intrigue, s. f. intrigue, plot. 

intrinsdqae, adj. intrinsic; intrin- 
secus, on the inside, intrinde, 
intra, secus, in-side. 

Introdidre, v. a. to introduce; intro- 
ducere, to lead in, to introduce, 
introdnotenr, s. m. -trice, s. f. intro- 

lntrodnetion,8.f. introduction; intro- 
ductio, -onis. 

introniser, v. a. to install or enthrone 
a bishop; M.L. i nth r on is are, iv^ 
^Qovitm^ ^Qdvog, a throne, 
intrenisation, s. f enthronization. 

introuTable, adj. undiscoverable , not 
to be found; see trouver. 

Intras, e, adj. intruded; in-trusus, 

p. p. of in-trudere, to thrust in. 
intnuion, s. f. intrusion; intrusio, 

intnitif, ve, adj. intuitive; M.L. in- 

tuitivus; intnitus, p. p. of in- 

tueri, to look at. 
intoition, s. f intuition; intuitus, 

see prec. 

inusite, e, adj. unused, unusual; in- 

usitatus; see usite. 
inutile, e, adj. useless, unnecessary; 

in-utilis; see utile, 
inutility, 8. f. uselessness, unutility, 

useless thing; in-utilitas. 

invalide, adi. and s. m. invalid, in- 
firm, disabled; in-validus, not 
strong; see valid e. 

invalider, v. a. to invalidate, to viti- 

' ate; It. invalidare. 

invaliditi, s. f invalidity; It. invali- 

invariaMe, adj.-invariable, unchange- 
able; see variable, 
invariability, s. f. constancy, unvaria- 

invasion, s. f. invasion; invasio, 

-onis, invasus, p. p. of in-va- 

dere, to go into. 
inyectiye, s.f. invective; invectivus, 

invectus, p. p. of in-vehere, to 

carry into, to inveigh, 
invectiver, v. a. to inveigh. 

inventaire, s. m. inventory; inven- 

tarium, in- venire, to come upon, 

to find. 

inventorier, v. a. to inventory. 
inventer, v. a. to invent; in-venire, 

to come upon, to find out. 
inventenr, s. m. -trice, s. f. inventor; 

inventor, inventrix, -icis. 
invention, s. f. invention; inventio, 

inventif, ve, adj. inventive; It. Sp 


inverse, adj. inverse, inverted; inver- 
sus; p. p. of in-vertere, to tvLTn, 
in, to upset. 

— 114 — 

iwviicB, 8. f. inTenioiiy inTerted or- 
der; inyersio. -onis. 

larertebr^, e, adj. iiiTertebrate; see 

inresti^tear, s. m. -trice, s. t in- 
▼estigator ; inqairer ;inYestigator, 
in-Testigare, to trace out 

inrestigatioB, s. f. investigation, in- 
quiry; investigatio, -onis, in- 
vestigare; see prec 

iBTestir, ▼. a. to invest; vestire, to 
clothe, to vest, vestis, a garment; 
comp. V Element. 

inTwtisHaient, s. m. investment. 
imraftitaT*, s. f. investiture. 

iBT^t^rer, (s^) pr. v. to become, to 
grow inveterate; in-veterare, to 
render old; vetus, -eris. old. 

inTinelble, avj. unconquerable, invin- 
cible; in-vincibilis, vincere, 
to conquer; comp. vain ere. 

inviolable 9 adj. inviolable; in-vio- 
labilis, violare, to violate. 
mTiolabilit^ s. f. inviolability; It in- 

iiiTisible, adj. invisible; see visible, 
inyisibiliti, s. f. invisibility. 

inviter, v. a. to invite; invitare. 
inTitation, s. f. invitation; invitatio, 

inToeation, s. f. invocation ; i n v o c a- 
tio, -onis, invocare; see invo- 

InTolontaire, adj. involuntary; see 

ioToqaer, v. a. to invoke; invocare, 
to call upon. 

inTraisemblable, adj. unlikely, impro- 
bable; see vraisemblable. 

iDTuln^rable, adj. invulnerable; in- 
vulnerabilis; see vulnerable. 

iode, 8. m. iodine; lo-Bidrjg, violet-co- 
lored, tov, the violet, eldog, the form. 

iOBien, ne, adj. Jonic; "Icovj Ion, the. 
son of Xuthus or Apollo and Creu- 
sa, from whom sprang the Jonian 

ionique, adj. Ionic; 'loovmog, "loav^ Ion; 
see prec. 

lota, s. m. iota, a tittle, a jot; Imta^ 
the smallest letter in the Greek al- 
phabet, hence in the New testament 
a jot, a tittle. 

ira, irai, etc., fut of aller, to go; ire. 

irascible, adj. irascible; irascibilis, 
irasci, to be angry, ira, anger. 
8. m. iris, rain-bow; iris; Igig, 

ihe rainbow, ^Ipig, Iris, the messen- 
ger oi the gods esp. between the 
gods and men. 
irlandnis, c, Irish; £. Ireland. 

Ironic, s. £ irony; ironia; slgnvsla^ 
dissimulation, esp. an ignorance, par- 
posely affected to provoke an an- 
tagonist, sCgmv, dissembler, 
ironiqae, adj. ironical. 

irradiation, s.f. irradiation; Itirra- 
diazione; in-radiation, s. t 

irraisonablc, adj. irrational; see in- 

irationnci, le, adij- irratiDnal (math.); 

irrationalis; see in-rationnel. 
irr^coneiiiable, adj. irreconciliable; 

It irreconciliabile; see in, and 

irr^cnsable , a^. unobjectionable^ 

unexceptionable ; in, r ^ c u s e r, s. t 
irr^fl^hl, c, a^j. thoughtless, nah; 

see in, reflechir. 

irrefragable, adj. irrefragable, irre- 
futable; irrefragabilis, in, re- 
fragari, to oppose. 

Irr^gnlier, drc, adj. irregular; irre- 
gularis, in, regularis; see re- 
irregolarit^ s. f. irregularity ; It i rr e- 

irr^ligieux, se, acy irreligious; ir- 
religiosus; see in, religieux. 

irremediable, adj. irremediable; ir- 
remediabilis; see in, remade.* 
irremissible, adj. irremissible. 

irreparable, a4j. irreparable, irre- 
trievable; ir-reparabilis; see in, 

irreproehable , adtJ. irreproachable; 
see in, reprocher. 

irresistible, adj. irresistible; It irre- 
sistible; see in, resistor. 

irresoln, e, a(|j. irresolute;ir-re8o- 
lutus; see in, resolu. 
irrisolation, s. f. irresolution; It ir- 
resoluzione; Sp. irresolucion. 

irreverent, e, acy. irreverent; ir- 
reverens, -entis; see in, reve- 
re r. 
irrivtonee, s. f. irreverence; ir-re- 

irrevocable, adj. irrevocable; ir-re- 
vocabilis; see in, r^voquer. 

irrigation, s. f. watering, irrigation; 
ir-rigatio, -onis, ir-rigare, to 

— 125 — 

irriter^v. a. to irritate, to excite; ir- 
ritare, to provoke, to excite, £t. d. 

irritable, adj. irritable; irritabilis. 

irritability, 8. f. irritability ; irritabi- 

irritation, s. f. irritation; irritatio, 

irraption^ s. f. irruption; irriiptio, 
-onis, ir-r ampere, to break into. 

isabelle, adj. isabel-celour, cream-co- 
loar; supposed to be tbe name of 
a Spanish princess. 

isoehrone, adj. isochronous; toog, 
equal, XQovog^ time. 

isoler, v. a. to isolate; It. i sol are; 
isola, an isle; insula. 
isolation, s. f. insulation (action). 
isolement, s. m. loneliness, insulation, 
isoloir, s. m. insulator (Elec). 
Israelite, a4j. Israelitic, Jewish ; s. m. 
f. Israelite, Hebrew , Jew, Jewess ; 
descended from Israel, or Jacob. 

issu, 8, a^. descended, sprung; O.F. 

issir, to issue, Prov. eissic; It. 

escire; ex-ire, to got out. 
issue, s. f. issue, outlet. 

isthme, s. m. isthmus ; isthmus; M- 
(iog^ a neck, a neck of land. 

itaUqiie, a4j. italic; Italic us,Italien; 
Italic letters were invented about 
the year J 500 by Aldus Manu- 
t i u s, a celebrated printer at Venice, 
who dedicated them to the states of 
Italy; whence the name. (W.) 

it^ratif, to, adj, iterative, repeated; 
Sp. iterative; iterare, to repeat, 
iterum, again; comp. r^iterer. 

itineraire, adj. and s. m. itinerary; 
itinerarium, iter, itineris, a 

ivoire, s. m. ivory; Prov. evori; It. 
avorio; eboreus, made of ivory, 
ebur, ivory; Sans, ibha, an ele- 

ivraie, s.f. tare, darnel; O.F. ivroie; 
Prov. abriaga;ebriacus, ebrius, 
drunk, because of its inebriating 
quality, comp. next 

ivre, adj. inebriated, intoxicated, 
drunk; ebrius. 

ivressa, s. f. inebriation, intoxication, 
ivrogne, s. m. drunkard, 
ivrognerie, s. f. ebriety, intoxication. 


ik^ adv. (obs.) already; jam; It. gia; 
Sp. ya; Port, ja; jam, comp. deja. 

jabot, s. m. craw, frill of a shirt; gib- 
ba, a hunch. 

jacasser, v. n. (of magpies) to chat- 
ter^ to jabber; jacot, dim. of Jac- 
ques, a name wich is often given 
to parrots and mac^pies. 

jaehdre, s. f. fallow ; M.L. g a s c a r i a ; 

» Et. d. 

jacinthe, s. f. hiacinth, jacinth ; same 
as hyacinthe; s. t. 

jacobin, s. m. Jacobin-friar, Jacobin 
(one of a political club in the first 
French revolution which used to meet 
in a convent near the streetSt. Ja- 
ques(Jacobus) in Paris; Jacobus. 

jaconas, s. m. jaconet Et d. 

jaetanee, s. f boasting ; jactantia, 
jactare, freq. ofjacere, to throw. 

jaeulatoire , acg. ei'aculatory; jacu- 
latorius, jaculari, jacere, to 
throw; comp. Ejaculation. 

jadis, adv. formerly, in old times; 

. jam diu, already a long while; see 

jailllr, V. n. to ^sh out, to spring 
forth, jaculari; seejaculatoire. 

jailisiant, e, gushing, spouting, 
jailissement, s. m. guslung, breaking 

jais, s. m. jet ; O.F.jayet; gagates, 

jale, s. f. large bowl; O.F. jalon, 
sallon; Sp. galon; £. gallon; 
M.L. galo; Sc. sgal; Ir. sgala. 

jalaga, s. m. tax on wine retailed. 

jalon, s. m. stake, pole; £t d. D%z 

suggests aequalis; see j auger. 

jaloitx, 86, adj. jealous, envious; It 
geloso, var. of zeloso, zelo; 
t^Xog, zeal. 

jalouser, v. a. to be jealous of. 
jalousie, s. f. jealousy, envy, window- 
blind; It gelosia. 

jamais, adv. ever, never; It giam- 
mai; jam magis, ever more. 

jambe, s. f. leg; It Sp. Prov. gam- 
ba; M.L. gamba, leg, ham ma, 
ham; £. ham. root cam in cama- 
ra, xofficx^a, a vault 

jambage, s. m. jamb, stroke, pot-hook 

jambon, s. m. ham, bacon. 

— 126 — 

Janissaire, s. m. j anissary ; Turk, y e n i 
tscheri, new troops. 

jans^nismev s. in. Jansenism, doctrine 
taught by Cornelius J an sen, bish- 
op of Ypres in Flanders, 
jani^nitte, s. m. f. jansenist. 

jante, s. f. felly; cant has; ^avd'og^ 
a wheel-tire. 

JaiiTier, s. m. Januaiy; Januarius. 
apper, v. n. to yelp; onomatop. 
Jaque, s. m. (mail) coat; It. giaco; 
6e. jacke; E. jack, jacket, 
jaquette, s.f. jacket; It. giachetto; 
Sp. jaqueta. 
Jardln, s. m. garden; It. giardi no; 
8p. jar din; Prov. gardin; O.H.G. 
garto; 6e. garten; E. garden, 
yard; 6oth.gairdan, to gird round, 
gards, house, 
jardinage, s. m. gardening, 
jardiner, ?. a. to garden, 
jardinier, s. m. gardener, 
jardiniire, s. f. gardener, flower^stand, 
dish of vegetables. 
Jargon, s. m. jargon, jargoon ; It g e r- 
go; Sp. gerigonza, xerga; Etd. 
jargMiner, v.n. to talk jargon, gibber- 
Jarre, s. f. jar; It. giara; Sp. Port. 
Prov. jarra; E. jar; Arab, gar- 
rah, a water-jug. 

Jarret, s. m. ham; O.F. garret; It. 
garetto; Sp. Port, jarette; Cym. 
garr; M.L. garectum, leg; Etd. 
jarretl^re, s. f. garter. 
Jars, s.m. gander; Bretgarz; Etd. 
Jaser, v. n. to chatter, to talk; O.F. 
gaser; M.H.G. gSigen, to gaggle, 
^f. gat z en. 
jasexie, s. f. chatter, talk. 
jBMttQif s. m. 86, s. f. chatterer, chat- 
Jasmin, s.m. jasmine, jessamine ; Arab. 

Jaspe, s. m. jasper; iaspis; Haanig. 
Jatte, s. f. bowl; Pic, gate; It ga- 
vetta; Sp. gabata; gabata, a 
jatte, (cnl de), s. m. cripple. 
jattAe, s.f. bowl full. 
Janger, v. a. to gauge; Et d. Diez sug- 
gests aequalificare, to equalize, 
(comp. Ge. aichen, to gauge, from 
aequare, to equalize) or qualifi- 
care, to qualify, to fix the quality; 
jauge, 8. f. gauge, 
jaugeage , s. m. gauging. 

jaiig«iir,.s. m. jauger. 
Jaune, adj. yellow; O.F. jaln; gal- 
bin u s , greenish-yellow, 
jaunatro, ac^. yellowish, 
jaunir, v. a. to make yellow; y. n. 

to get yellow. 
jauniBse, s. f. jaundice. 
javeief, v. a. to bind up in sheaves; 

see javelle. 
Javeline, s. f. j avelin ; It giavelina; 

Sp. jabalina; same as javelot, 

s. t 
jayelle, s. f. sheaf; Prov. guavella; 

Sp. gavilla; M.L. gavella; O.H.G. 

gauffel, a handful. 
Javelot, s. m. javelin; O.F. gavelot; 

A.S. gafeloc; E. gavelock. 
Je, pron. J; O.F. eo, ieo, jeo; It 

io; Sp. yo; ego. 
Jean, s. m. John; Joannes. 
J6r^miade,s.f.jeremiade ; Jeremiah, 

the prophet 
J6suite, s. m. Jesuit; a member of 

the Society of Jesus, founded 

by Ignatius Loyola a Spaniard in 

j^gnitiqae, adj. Jesuitic, 
j^nitisme, s. m. Jesuitism. 
Jesus, s. m. long royal (paper); so cal- 
led from such paper having born 

as water-mark the name of Jesus. 
Jeter, v. a. to throw, to cast, to jet; 

Prov. getar, gitar; It gettare, 

gittare; Sp. jitar; jactare, ja- 

jet, 8. m. throw, jet; It geto; Prov. 

jette, s. f. jettee, pier; It gettata. 
Jeton, s. m. counter, token; It get- 
tone; see jet 
Jeu, s. m. play, game ; Prov. j o i, j u e c ; 

Sp. juego, It giuoco; jocus; 

comp. jouer. 
Jendi, s.m. Thursday; Prov. dijous; 

It giovedi; Jovis dies, the day 

of Jove, Jupiter, Jovis. 
Jeun, (&), adv. fasting; jejunus 0^' 


jetknB, s. m. fasting, fast; jejunium. 
jeaner, v. n. to fast. 
Jeune, adj. young, junior; O.F. jov6- 

ne; It giovane; juvenis. • 
jeunegge, s. f. youth, young people. 
Joailiier, s. m. i^re, s. f. jeweller; 

O.F. jo el; scejoyau andjoie. 
joaillerie, s. f. jewelry. 
joerisse, s. m. simpleton, fool; £t. d. 

prob. connected with Jocus, joke. 

— 127 — 

Joie^ 8. f. joy, mirth; Prov. joia; It. 
gioja; gaudia, pi. of gaudium, 
gaudere, to rejoice. 
joig'naiit, e, adj. adjacent, joining; 

'pr. p. of joindre, s. t. 
Jouidre, v. a. to join, to unite, to 
add; jungere; comp. oindre, po- 
joint, 8. m. joint. 
jolntiire, a. f. joint. 
joll, e, adij. pretty, nice; O.P. jolif 
j olive, gay, E. jolly; O.N. j6l; 
A.S. geol, yule; E. yule, a great 
festival in ancient times^ 
jone, 8. ni. rush; j uncus. 
joneher, v. a. to strew, to scatter, to 

jonohie, s. f. strewing, cream-cheese, 
(made in a widcer oasket). 
jonction, s.f. junction, joining; junc- 
tio, -onis, junctuniy sup. of jun- 
gere; comp. joindre. 
jonglear, 6. m. juffgler; O.F. jogle- 
or; It. gioccolatore; E. jugg- 
ler; joculator; joculari, (O.F. 
j ogl^r), to joke, jocus, a joke. 
jonglerie, s. f. juggling, juggle. 
Jonqne, s. f. junk; It. giunco; Sp. 
junco; juncus,'a rush; comp* 
JoualUer, v.n. to play, for mere amuse- 
ment; see jouer. 
J#abarbe, s. f. sengreen, house-leek; 
Sp. jusbarba; It. barba di Gio- 
ye; Jo vis barba, Jupiters beard; 
comp. jeudi. 
joue, s. f. cheek; O.F. joe; It. go- 
ta; Prov. gauta; M.L. gavata; 
gabata, a vessel; comp. jatte. 
joaer, v. a. n. and pr. to play, to re- 
present, to deceive, to mock; Prov. 
jogar; Sp. j ugar; It. giuocare; 
jocari, to joke, jocus, a joke, 
jouet, 8. m. play-thing, toy. 
joueor, 8. m. -ease. s. f. player, gam- 
joigoa, s. m. play-thing, toy. 
joufflu, e, adj. chub-cheeked; prob. 

joue and enfler, s. t. 
Joug, 8. m. yoke ; Ifgi o g o ; j u g u m, 

root jug in jungere, to join. 
joidr^ V. n. to eigoy, to prossess; 0. 
F. joir, goir; It. godere, gioire; 
gaudere; comp. joie. 
jottissance, s.f enjoyment, possession. 
jour, 8. m. day-light, day; O.F. and 
Prov. jorn; Itgiorno; diurnus, 
daily, dies, day. 

joum^ 8. f. a days-time, a days- 
work, a days-journey. 

journal, s. m. journal, diary, news*- 
. paper; It. giornale; diurnale> 
diurnus; see prec 

janmalter, -Ure, adj. dail^. 

joumaliite, s. m. journalist. 

joumellement, adv. daily. 

joater, v. n. to joust, to tilt; O.F. 
joster,ju8ter; Prov. jo star, jus- 
tar; Sp. Port, jus tar; It. gius- 
tare, gio^tare; juxta, close to, 
(O.F. jouste, joste; Prov.josta; 
It giusta). 

jonte, s.f. joust, tilt, fight; Prov. j os- 
ta, justa; It. giostra. 

joateur, s. m. tilter, antagonist. 

joHvence, s. f. (obs.) youth; jnven- 
ta, the season of youth, jnvenis, 
jouTenoean, s. m. lad, young fellow. 
jouTeaeelle, s. f. lass, young girl. 

jovial, e, ac|j. jovial, joyful; It gio- 
viale, giovare; juvare, to de- 
light, to gratify. 

joyan, s. m. jewel; O.F. joel, joail; 
It. gioja; Sp. joya; Port joia; 
gaudia; see joie and joailler. 

joyeox, se, acy. joyful, joyous; It gio- 
1080, gioja; see joie. 

jub^, 8. m. roodloft; Ace. to Mana- 
ge and Roquefort from Jube, 
Domine, ben edi cere, first words 
addressed to the congregation of a 
church by the reader of the gospel. 

jabil^, s.m. jubilee; jubilum, a joy- 
ful shout; Heb. iobel, horn. 
jnMlaire, adj. of jubilee, 
jubilation, s. f. festivity, rejoicing. 
jueher9V. n. to roost, to perch; Etd. 
jnohoir, s. m. roosting-place. 
V judaYque, adj. Jewish, Judaic; Judai- 
cus; Judah. • 

jadaisme, s. m. Judaism, Judah. 

judicatare. s. f. magistracy, judica- 
ture; M.L. judicatura; judica- 
tio, a judging, j udex, -icis, judge. 

judieiaire, adj. judicial, legal, foren- 
sic; judicarius, judicium, a 
court of justice, judex, a judge. 

judicieux, se, adj. judicious; judi* 
cium; see prSc. 

juge, s. m. judge; E. judge; Sp. ju- 

ez; It judice; judex, -icis. 
jugement, s. m. judgement ^ sentence, 
jnger, v. a. to judge; judicarc. . 

— 128 — 

Jngvlaire, a4j- jueular; jugulum, 
the collar-bone, uie throat. 

Julf, 8. m. jniTe, a. f. : It. giudeo; 
judaeus; comp. Juaai'que. 
jniTerie, s. f. jewery, usury. 

Juillet, 8. m. July; Dim. of Jules 
(Julius). In O.F. the name of this 
month was juinet, juignet, that 
is the second month of June. La- 
ter in order to assimilate tibe form 
juinet to the L. Julius, it was 
' changed into Juillet. This is the 
only way, says S che 1 e r, to explain 
the diminutive form given to the 
name of this month. 

Join, 8. m. June; Junius. 

J^Jabe, 8. f. jujube; zizyphum, the 
fruit of the Khamnus zizyphus. 

julep, 8. m. julep; It. giulebbe; 
Sp. julepe; M.L. julep us, j ula- 
pium; Arab, golab, prop, rose- 

julienne, s. f. dames-violet, vegetable 
soup; prob. 80 called after a cook. 

Jameau, s. m. jamelle, s. f twin ; 0. 
F. gemel, ^emeau; gemellus, 
dim. of geminus, twin. 
jnnMUflf, s.f. pi. twin (thing like ano- 
ther), gemel, (mech.) cheek, double 

jument, s. f. mare; jumentum, a 
beast of burthen, contr. from jug u- 
mentum, root jug in jungere, 
to join, to yoke; comp. joindre 

Jape, 8. f. petticoat, skirt; Prov. ju- 
pa; It. giuppa, giubba;O.E.jub, 
juml^; Ge. jope, jupe; Arab, al- 
gubbah, undergarment of cotton, 
jnpon, s. m. petticoat ; It. giubbone; 
Sp. Prov. jubon. 

Jurer, v. n. to swear, to clash; ju- 
rare, jus, juris, the law, O^^or). 
jmr^ s. m. juror, juriman. 
jurement, s. m. oath, swearing. 

Juridlctioii, 8. f. jurisdiction ; j uris- 
dictio, -on is, lit the saying 

of the law; jus, juris, the law, 
die ere, to say. 

jnridique, adj. judicial, legal; juri- 

joriseonsulte, s. m. jurisconsult, law- 
yer; jurisrconsultus, learned 
in the law, jus, juris, law, con- 
sul ere, to consult 

Jurispmdenee , s. f jurisprudence, 
law; M.L. jurisprudentia; jus, 
juris, law, prudentia, knowl- 
edge, p r n d e n 8, foreseeing, knowing, 
contr.of providens; see prudent. 

jariste, s. m. jurist; It giurista; 
Sp. jurista; It giurista; jus, 
juris, law. 

Inron, s. m. oath; see jurer. 

jury, s. m. jury; E. jury. 

Jus, s. m. juice, gravy; jus, broth. 

jasque, adv. to, as far as, until, till; 
O.F. dusque; de, usque. 

juste, adj. just, accurate, right, tight; 
Justus, jus, law, right 
justanoorps, s. m. close coat; see au, 

jnstesse, s.f. justness, accuracy; jus- 
justice, 8. f. justice, fairness, court of 

law; justitia. 
jnstioier, s. m. justiciary, 
justioier, v. a. to inflict corporal pu- 
justiciable, adj. amenable to a court 
of justice. 

justiner, v. a. to justify, to prove; 
justificare, Justus, just, fa- 
cere, to make, 
justificatif, ve, adj. justificative. 
justifLcation, s. f justification. 

juteux, se, adj. juicy; see jus. 

juvenile, adj. juvenile; juvenilis, 
juvenis, young. 

Juxtaposer, (se), pr. v. to be in jux- 
taposition; juxta, ponere, to pla- 
ce near, comp. poser, 
joztapoution, s. f. juxta-position ; po- 
sitio, -onis. 


kal^idscope, s. m. kaleidoscope; xa- 
X6g, beautiful, sldos, form, anonioo, 
to look. 

kali, 8. m. kali; Arab, qali, soda; 
the Arabs first obtained soda from 
the ashes of this plant and called 
it al-qali. 

kilo-, pref. signifying thousand; x^'^'-^h 

kilogramme, s. m> kilogram, thousand 
grams; see gramme, 
kilolitre, s. m. kilolitre, thousand li- 
tres; see litre. 

kilem^tre, s. m. kilometre, thousand 
metres; see metre. 
kiosque, s. m. kiosk; Turk. 
kyrielle, s. £ litany; xv^tc ilir^aoVf 
the beginning of tne litany. 

— 129 — 

la, art. and pron. f. the, she, her; il- 

ll^ ad?, there; Prov. la, lai; It. la, 
Sp. all&; iliac, by that way, ilia, 
with the snfHx c =- ce. 

la« 8. m. a in music; see nt. 

laoear, s. m. hard and painful labour, 
toil, bookwork; O.F. labour; 
labor, labour. 

labial, e, ac|j. labial; M.L. labialis; 
labia, a lip. 
labi^, e, a4j. labiate. 
laboratoire, s. m. laboratory; M.L. 
laboratorium; laborare, to la- 
bour, labor, labour, 
lahorieax, se, adij. laborious, indus- 
trious; laboriosus, labor, labour. 
lahonr, s. m. tilth; labor, labour, 
labourer, t. a. to till, to plough; la- 

labouraga, s. m. husbandry, tillage, 
labourear, s.m. husbandman, plough- 

labFTlnthe, s. ni. labyrinth ; 1 ab y r i n • 

thus; XixpvQiv9og, 
lac, s. m. lake; lac us. 
laeer, v. a. to lace; see lacs. 
lac^rer, y^a. to lacerate, to tear; la- 

cerare, lacer, mangled, root lac, 

same as Greek Xandg, a rent. 
lacet, 8. m. lace, braid; see lacs. 
Iftche, adj. slack, loose, cowardlv, 

mean; O.F. lasche; Prov. lasc; It 

lasco; laxus. 
I&eher, y. a. to slacken, to loosen, to 

let go; comp. laisser. 
Uohet^, s.f. cowardice, dastardly act. 

laconiqae, adj. laconic; XcnuovMog, 
Laconian;^ ^axosyticr/jLaconia, after 
the manner of the Lacons or Spar- 
laeoniame, s. m. laconism. 

lacrymal, e, adj. lachrymal; It. la- 
grimale; Sp. lacrimal; lacryma, 
a tear; comp. larme. 

lacrimatoire, adj. lachrymary; lacry- 
ma; see prec. 

lacs, s. m. thin string, snare, noose; 
comp. lacer, lacet. 

laet^, e, adj. lacteal, milky; lacteus, 
lac, lactis, milk; see lait. 

laeune, s. f. gap, chasm; lacuna, a 
ditch, chasm, lac us, oxig.any hol- 
low; comp. lac. 

ladre, -dresse, ac|j. leprous, hevrtlfss, 

stingy; Xiazarus; see Luke, XVI, 

20, comp. Lazaret. 
Udrerie, s. f. leprosy, stinginess. 
iagune, s. f. lagoon; It. Sp. laguna; 

lacus, a lac; comp. lac, laeune. 
lai. e, adj. lay;- laic us; XaXnog, XcC' 

og, the people; comp. laique. 

lai, s. m. layman. 

lai, s.m. lay (poem); O.F. lai s; Prov. 
lais, lay; A.S. leoth; Ge. lied; 
Prol Goldstticker says that in old 
Sanscrit musical manttscripts the 
same word occurs, namely lay a, 
with the same meaning as in E. 
apd F. 

laid, e, adj. ugly, improper; It lai- 
do; Proy. lait; O.F. lait, bad; A. 
S. l&dh; O.H.G. leed, leit; Ge. 
leid; E. loath. 

laideron, s. f. ugly girl, ugly crea- 
laidear, s. f. ugliness. 

laie, 8. f. wild sow (female of the 
boar); M.L. leha; Et d. 

laie, s.f. path in a forest; O.F. )aye; 
M.L. lad a, leda; O.N. leid; A.S. 
r^d; O.H.G. leit, a tract, way; Ge. 
leiten; E. lead. 

laine, s. f. wool; Ian a; Xfivog^ Dor. 
X&vog (lanary, lanated). 
lainage, s. m. fleece, woollen goods, 

lainenz, se, adj. woolly, fleecy, l^at- 

laYque, a^j. and s. m. lay, laic, lay- 
man; lai'cus; see laL 

laisse, s. f. leash, string; O.F. 
lesse; It lascio; E. leash; see 

laisser, y. a. to leaye, to let, to allow; 
It lasciare, lassare; Proy.lais- 
sar; Port leixar; laxare, to un- 
loose; laxus; comp. l&che, lltcher. 
lait, s. m. milk; lac, lactis. 

laitage, s. m. milk- food. 

laitance, or laite, s. f. milt of fish, 

* soft roe. 

laiterie, s. f. dairy, dairy-farm. 

laiteux, se, adj. milky. 

laitier, s. m. milk-man. 

laiti^re, s. f. milk-maid , dairy maid, 
milk-woman, a^j. (of cows) living 
laiton, s. m. latten, brass; O.F. le- 


— 130 — 

ton: Sp. laton, alaton; It. otto- 
ne tor lottone; M.L. lato; (E. 

laitue, 8.f. lettuce; O.F. laictue; It 
lattnga; Sp. lechuga; lactuca, 
lac, 1 actis, milk, this plant abound- 
ing in a muky juice. 

lamaneur, s. m. harbour-pilot: Aec. 
to Ghevallet the same word as I o c- 
man, 6e. lothsmann, loth, lead, 
mann,man; E.loadsman; others 

' give the Celt, loman, guide, 
lamanage, s. m. harbour-piloting. 

lambeau, ^ m. shred, rag, fragment; 
O.F. lamoel; Sp. lambel;rootlab 
inO.F. labiau, labeau, E. label; 
M.L. labellus; comp. d61abrer. 

lambin, s. m. dawdler; said to be the 
name of a renowned commentator of 
the 1 6th century, Lambinus, whose 
annotations were exceedingly long 
and tedious. 
lambiiMr, y. n. to dawdle. 

lambris, s. m. panelling, wainscot; 0. 
F. lambre; lamina, a thin piece 
of metal, wood, etc. 

lambrissage, s.m. panelling, wainscoting. 

lombriMer, v. a. to panell, to wain- 
lame, s. f. plate of metal, blade , bil- 
low; lamina; seelai^bris; (lami- 

iBoaif 6, adj. (material) embroidered 
with (gold or silver-) wire. 

lamenter, v. a. to lament; lame.n- 

lamentable, adj. lamentable; lamen- 

lamentation, s. f. lamentation ; 1 am en- 
tatio, -onis. 
laminer, v. a. to flatten (metalsjT; la- 
mina; see lame, 
laminage, s. m. flattening (of metals), 
laminoir, s. m. flattening-mill, rolling- 
lampe, s. £ lamp; lampas, -adis; 
lafiwaff, a torch, Xdfina, to shine, 
lamperon, s. m. wick-holder, 
lampion, s. m. illumination-lamp. 
lampiBte,s.m. lamp-maker, lamp-ligh- 
lamper, v. a. to quaff; same as la- 
per, (s.t.); lamb ere; to lick; root 
fab in labia, a lip. 
lampon, s. m. lampoon. 
lamproie, s. f . lamprey; Sp. Port. 1 a m- 
prea; It. lampreda; Ge. 1am- 

prete;M.L. lampetra; lambere 
to lick, petra, a rock, these fishes 
attaching themselves by the mouth 
to rocks. 
lanee, s. f. lance, spear; Pro v. la*n- 
9a; Sp. Port, lanza; 6e. lanze 
lancea, ace. to Yarro of Spanish 

lanoer, v. a. to dart,' to throw, to 
launch; comp. 6 Ian, 61ancer. 

lancette, s. f. lancet. 

lanoier, s. m. lancer. 

landau, s. m. landau; so named be- 
cause originally made in Landau, 
a town in Germany, 

lande, s. f. waste land; It. Prov. Sp. 
Port Ian da. Diez thinks it con- 
nected with the Celt lann, brier, 
lannou, heath. 

landgrave, s. m. landgrave, a title 
assumed by some German counts 
in the 12*^ century; Ge. Landgraf, 
land, 'country, soil, graf, ^ount 
landgraviat, s. m. landgraviate. 

laneret, s. xn. lanneret; see lanier. 

langage, s. m. language; It Ijingua- 
ggio; Sp.lenguage; lingua; see 

lange, s.m. swaddling-band ; laneum 
woolen, lana, wool; comp. grange, 

langourenx, se, adj. languishing; see 
langue ur. 
langonrensement, adv. languishingly. 

langouste, s. f. very large lobster; 
locust a, locust, (locust of the sea). 

langue, s. £. tongue, language ; lingua. 
laBgaette, s. f. languet, index of sca- 
les etc. 

langnir, v. n. to languish, to linger; 

laiigueur, s.f. languor, languish; lan- 

laaguiwaiit, e, adj. languid, languish- 
ing, dull; pr. p. of languire; lan- 
guescere, languere. 
Ifuigonreaz, s. t 

lanier, s.m. lanner. It lanier e; la- 
niarius, a butcher, laniare, to 
tear to pieces; comp. laneret 

laniare, s. f. thong; lanarius, per- 
taining to wool, Tana, wool; comp- 

lansquenet, s. m. lansquenet; Ge. 
landsknecht, land, countryt 
knecht, a hired servant 

— 131 — 

lanterne, s.f. lanteni, nonsense; lan- 
terna , laterna; XanntriQ^ alight, 
Idfinm; see lampe. 

lantemer, v. a. n. to dally, to talk 

laatemler, &• m. lantern-maker, lan- 
tern-lighter, trifler. 

laper, v. n. to lap with the tongue, 
to lick; It lapare; 6e. lap pen; 
D. lapen; lamhere;lo9rTa), onom.; 
comp. lamper, lamproie. 

lapereau, s. m. yonng rahhit ; see 

lapidaire, s. m. lapidary; lapidari- 
us, lapis, -idis, a stone. 

lapider, v. a. to stone to death; la* 
p id arc, to throw stones at, lapis; 
see prec. 
lapidation, s. f . lapidation ; lapidatio, 
-on is. 

lapin, s. m. rabbit; for clapin, 0. 
F. clapier, (E. clapper), a place 
for rabbits to burrow in; O.N.k lap- 
pa; Ge. klappen; E. clap, 
lapine, s. f. rabbit. 

lapis-lazuli, s. m. lapis lazuli; lapis, 
stone; Pers. lazur; comp. azur. 

laps, s.m. lapse; lapsus, a slipping, 
labi, lapsus, to slide. 

laquais, s. p. footman, lackey; Sp. 
Port, lacayo; Ge. lakei; Rom. 
leccaro, to lick, hence lacca'i, 
parasite (plant), lecai, gourmand. 

laque. s. f. lac, gum -lac; It lacca; 
Sp.Prov.laca; Ge. lack; Pers.lak. 

larcin, s. m. larceny, theft; O.F. ia- 
recin; Prov. laironici; Sp. la- 
dronicio; It ladroneccio; la- 
trocinium, highway robbery, la- 
trocinari, la^ro, a robber; comp. 

lard, s. m. lard, pig's fat, bacon; la- 
ridum, lardum. 
larder, v. a. to lard, to interlard, 
lardoire, 8. f. larding pin. 
lardon, s. m. thin slice of lard or ba- 
con, je^. 

large, adj. broad, wide, large, liberal; 
largus, abundant, large; comp. 
largesse, 8.f. largess, bounty, liberal- 
ity; iargitas. 
largenr, s. f. breadth, width. 

largue, adj. large, at sea; var. of 
large, s. t 
largaer, y. a. to let go, to let ropes 

larme, s. f. tear, drop; Prov. lag re- 

ma; Sp. Port. It lagrima; la^ri- 
ma, old form dacrima, dox^v- 
jLia, dd^Qv. 
lannoyer, v. n. to cry. 

larron, s. m. thief, dogsear; latro, 
-0 n is, XdzQig, a hired servant; comp. 
larroiuiesse, s. f. femal thief. 

larve, s. t. larva, larve; larva, a 
ghost, a mask, lar, 1 aris, a home. 

larynx, s. m. larynx; laQvy^. 

las, se, adj. tired, weary; it lasso; 
lassus, languere; see languir. 
laiier, v. n. to tire, to weary; las- 

lastitade, s. f. lassitude, weariness; 

lasclf. ve, a4j. lascivious, lascivus, 
pro D. the same as laxus, lax, loose, 
laseiveti, s, f. lasciviousness. 

last, laste, s. m. last (a measure or 
weight, usually 4000 lbs.); It las to; 
Port.lasto; lastro; Ge. last, load, 
weight; comp. lest 

latent, e, adj. latent, concealed; la- 
tens, -entis, pr.p. of latere, to 
lie hid. 

lateral, e, adj. 'lateral, side; late- 
ralis, latus, -eris, the side. 

latin, e,a4j' latin; latin us, Latium. 
latibadser, v. a. to latinize; It latiniz- 
zare; M.L. latinizare. 
latiniime, s. m. latiuism; It Sp. la- 
latixiifte, s. m. latinist; It latinista. 
latinit^, s. f. latinity; latinitas. 

latitude, s. f. latitude, extent; lati- 
tudo, latus, broad, wide. 

latrines, s. f. pi. water-closet, pri- 
vy; latrina, cont of lavatrina, 
a bath, a privy, lavare, to wash. 

latte, s. f. lath; It latta; Sp. Prov. 
lata; O.H.G. latta, ladda; A.S. 
latha; Ge. latte; E. lath, 
latter, v. a. to lath, 
lattis, s. m. lath-work. 

laudanum, s.m. laudanum; ladanum, 
Xccdavov, Iridavovj a gum from a 
shrub called lad a, Xrloov; ace. to 
Scheler: Arab, lodan. 

laudatlf, ve, adj. laudatory; lauda- 
tivus, lau4are, to praise. 

laur^at, &dj. laureate; laureatus, 
laurea, a laurel wreath; laurus, 
a bay-tree. 

laurler, s. m. laurel, laurel-tree, bay- 
tree; laurus. 

lavabo, s. m. towel lor the priest 


— 132 — 

(Rom. CtXkif wath-stand; lavabo, 
J shall waali, (lavare, to wash) 
word prononnced by the priest be- 
fore washing hands during the mass. 

IftTAf^. see laver. 

IftTftneliey layaiige, s. f. snow-slip; 
corruption of avalanche, s. t or 
M.L. labina, a falling down; labi, 
to slip. 

laTande, s. f. lavender; It lavanda, 
lavandola; Sp. lavandula; 6e. 
lavendel; It. lavanda, ablution 
(L. lav are, to wash) lavender being 
used in baths. 

lave, s.f. lava; 6e. Sp. It. lava; Ne- 
apolitan dialect lava, torrent; la- 
varoy to wash. 

lETement; see next w. 

layer, v. a. to wash; lavare. 
lavage, s.m. washing, slop (mean li- 

lavementt s. m. washing, lavement 

lavette, s. f. dishclout 
laTens, s.m. laveuie, s.f. washer, scul- 

lavis, s. m. wash (draw.). 
laveir,8.m. wash-notlse, lavatory, ba- 
lavuM, 8. 1 hojpHrash, washing. 

UuEatify ve, a^j. laxative; laxatus, 
p. p. of laxare, to loosen. 

layer, v. a. to lay out a path in a fo- 
rest; see laie. 

layette, s. f. small box, drawer, baby- 
linen; O.F. laye, box; D. laeye, 
laede; Ge. lade, chest, drawer, 
layetler, s. m. box-maker. 

lazaret, s. m. lazaretto; It lazzaret- 
to; lazzaro, a lazar; Lazarus; 
see lad re. 

le, les, art. and pron. the, him, them; 
ille; comp. la. 

1^, 8. m. breadth of textile fabrics ; 
O.F. Idt, broad; latus. 

Idehefrite^ s. f. dripping-pan; see le- 
cher, frit 

Idoher, lea. to lick; It leccare; 
O.H.G.lecchdn; A.S. liccian; Ge. 
lecken; E. lick. 

le<^on, s. f. lesson, lecture; Pro v. 1 eis- 
Bo, lesso; lectio, -onis,legere 
to read; comp. lecture, lire, for 
the form, fa^on, ran^on. 

leetenr, 8.m. -triee, s.f. reader, lec- 
turer; lector, leg ere, to read, 
lecture, 8. f. reading; iectur a, part 

Mgal, e, ad|j. legal; lawful; leg a lis, 
lex, leg is, law; comp. loi. 

Ugaliser, v. a. to authenticate. 

Ugaliiatien, s.f. legalization, authen- 

lAgaUti, legality. 

16gat, s. m. legate; legatus, lega- 
re, to send as ambassador, 
lotion, s. f. legation, embassy; le- 
gatio, -onis. 

l^gatalre, s. m. legatee ; legatarius, 
legatum, a legacy, legare, to be- 

l^gende, s. f. legend; It leggenda; 
Sp. legenda; Ge. legende; le- 
genda, to be read, legere, to 
read; The„legends'^ used to be read 
on certain days in the churches. 
Ugandaiie, s. m. legendary. 

l^ger, dre. adij. light, nimble, frivo- 
lous; It leggiero; Prov. leugier; 
levis comp. all^ger, cage etc. 

1^, a^. light (ship). 

Ug^rement, adv. lightly, slightly. 

l^fteeti, s.f. lightness, slightness, fri- 
legion, s. f. legion; It leggione; 
Sp. legion; legio, -onis, legere, 
to collect 

Ugionnaixe, s.m. knight T>f the legion 

' of honour. 

l^gislateor, s. m. legislator, law-maker ; 

legis-lator, lex, legis, a law, 

later, a bringer, mover, latus, p. 

p. of ferre, to bring. 
Ugislatif; ve, adj. legislative; It Sp. 

Ugidatien, s. f. legislation ; It legis- 

iazione; Sp. legislacion. 
Ugialatare, s. f. legislature ; It Sp. 

l^giste, s. m. legist, lawyer; It Sp. 

M.L. legista; lex, legis, a law. 

legitimation, s. f. legitimation; It 
leggitimazione; Sp. legitima- 
cion; see next w. 
legitime, adj. legitimate, lawful; le- 

gitimus, lex, legis, a law. 
l^timer, v. a. to legitimate, to justify, 
l^tlmiste, s. m. f. legitimist 
Mgitfmiti, s. f. legitimacv, legality. 
l^guer, V. a. to bequeatn, to leave; 

legs, s. m. legacy, bequest. 
legmae, s. m. vegetable, legume; le- 
gume n, legere, to gather. 
UgwaamXt le, adj. leguminous. 

— 138 — 

lemine, 8.m. lemma; lemma, l^ififMt, 
a theme, XaiipdvtOf cAi^fiiMei, to take. 

lendemaiiif s. m. foUowine day, day 
after to morrow; instead of le en« 
domain, le Qonr) en demain 
8.t.; It 1' indomani; see demain. 

l^nifler, v. a. to lenify; lenis, loft, 
facere, to make. 

l^nitlf, ye, adj. lenitive; It Sp. leni- 
tivo; lenire, to soften. 

lent, e^adj. slow; lentns; comp. ra- 
lentevr, s. f. slowness. 

lentllle, s. f. lentil, lens; lenticnla, 
dim. of lens, lentis, lentil. - 
Isatienlairo, aclj. lenticular, lentiform; 

l^onin, e, adj. leonine, of a lion; It Sp. 
leonino; leoninus, leo,-oni8, a 
lion; leonine verses are so called, 
ace. to Pasquier, because invented 
or perfected by Leon, Leoninus or 
Leonius, a monk of the J 2^ cen- 

leopard, 8. m. leopard; leopardus, 
UoTraQdog,, limVf a lion, nd^dog, a 

lepidoptdre, s. m. lepidopter, butter- 
fly; Unig, Xtnidog^ a scale, ntSQOv^ 
a feather, a wing. 

Idpre, s. f. leprosy; lepra; XixQtt, 
Xenffog, scalv, Xinatf to peel. 
Upreiix,se, adj. leprous; m.L.lepro- 

lequel, laqnelle, lesqnels, les- 
qaellesy pron. who, whom, that, 
which; see le, la, quel. 

les, see le. 

Idse- in Idse-Mi^est^, 8.f. high trea- 
son, leze-miJcBty; laesus, p.p. of 
laedere, to strike. • 

User, V. a. to ii^jure. 
Usion, s. f. ii\]ury, lesion; laesio, 
•on is. 

lesse, s. f. same as laisse, s. t 
lesshe, s. f. lye, wash; It lisciva; 
Sp. lexia; Prov. lissiu; lixivia, 
made into lye, lix. ashes. 
lesiiTer, v. a. to wasn in lye. 

lesty 8. m. ballast; same as last, s.t. 
lester, v. a. to ballast. 

leste, adj. brisk, nimble ^ improper; 
It Port lesto; Sp. listo; Goth, 
listeigs; O.U.G. hstic; Qe, lift- 
tig, sly, cunning. 

l^tharfle, s. 1 lethargy; Xtfia^ut^ 

li}^^ forgetfulness. 
Uthaigiqne, adj. lethargic; Xtfia^yindg, 

lettre. s. f. letter, type, pi. literature ; 

It lettera; Sp. letra; litera, 


Utttif 6, adj. lettered, learned, liter- 
ary; litteratus; comp. illettre. 
lenr, pron. their; Prov. O.F. lor: It 

loro; illorum. Gen. pL of ille; 

see le. 
lenrre, s. m. lure, decoy; O.F. Pr4nr. 

loire; M.H.H. luoder; Ge. luder; 

E. lure, 
learrer, v. a. to lure, to decoy. 
leyala, 8.m. leaven, yeast; 1 e vamen, 

levare, to raise. 

lever, t. a. to raise, to lift, pr. v. to 
rise, to get up; levare, to raise, 
levis, light; comp. enl ever, rele- 

levant, 8. m. East, Levant; It Ge. 
levante; levan8(sol), rising tun, 
comp. orient, from oriri, to rise. 

lerte, 8. f. raising, levying, levr. . 

lever, s. m. rising (from bed), levee. 

levier, s. m. lever, crow-bar. 

levis, in pont-levis, adj. draw- 


Levite, s.m. Levite, one of the tribe, 
of Levi; Levites. 
LMtiqne, s. m. Leviticus. 

levraut, s. m. leveret, younj^ hare; 

leporarius, lepus; see h^vre* 
l<^Tre, s. f. lip; lab rum, labium, 

(Ge. lippe, E. lip). 
levrette, s. f. levrier, s. m. harrier, 

gray -hound; see li^vre. 
levare, s. f. yeast, barm, leaven; tee 


lexieographe, s. m. lexicographer; 
Xeii*6v, a dictionary, yqdtpm, to write. 

lexlque, s. m. lexicon, dictionary; 
l€{ixJy, Xiiig^ a speech, a word; 
Xiyo, to speak. 

lizard, s. m. lizard; Prov. lasert; 
It. lacerta, lucerta, lucertola 

Itearde, 8.f. crack in walls etc., crev- 
Uiardar, v. a. to crack, to chink. 

liaison* s. f. joining, connexion, junc- 
tion, liaison ; li^atio, -onis(comp. 
raison etc.); liearo, see Her. 

liant, e, a4j. supple, pliant, gentle; 
see Her. 

- 1S4 - 

Hard, 8. m. small French coin, far- 
thing; £t. d. prob. from Guigne- 
Liard of Cremieux, who first 
coined this money in 1430. 

liasse, s.f. bundle of papers, file; see 

libation, s. f. libation ; 1 i b a t i o , -o n i s, 

lib are, to taste; Xs^poa, to pour. 
libelle, s. m. libel; libellus, dim. 
of liber, a book. 

libeller, v. a. to draw up legal docu- 

libeUiste, s. m. libeller. 
liberal, e, adj. liberal, generous; li- 
beral is, liber, free, 
lib^ralisme, s. m. liberalism, 
libtoiliti, 8. f. liberality, donation; 

lib^rer, r.a. to liberate, to discharge, 
to release; 1 lb e rare, liber, 

Ub^rateur, s. m. -triee, s. f. liberator, 
deliverer; liberator, 
liberation, s.f. deliverance, discharge; 
liberatio, -onis. 

liberty, s. f. liberty, freedom; It. li- 
berty; Sp. libertad; libertas, 
liber, free. 

libertin, e, adj. libertine, licentious; 
libertinus,afreedman, libertus, 
cont. of liberatus, freed, libera- 
na; see lib^rer. 
libertinage, s. m. debauchery , licen- 

libertiner, v. n. to be dissolute, de- 

libralre, s. m. bookseller; libra ri- 
us, form, a copyist, later a book- 
seller, liber, a book; comp. livre. 
librairie, s. f. book- selling, bookseller's 
shop, (form. library); libraria(ta- 
berna), a booksellers shop. 

libration, s.f. libration (of the mooo) ; 
libratio, -onis, libra, a balance. 

libre, adj. free, at liberty ; liber. 

lice, s.f. list (place enclosed for com- 
bats, contests or races), tilt-yard, 
contest; It. lizza; Sp. liza, .M.L. 
liciae; Et. d. 

licence, s. f. license, licentiousness, 
degree of licentiate ; It. I i c e n z a ; Sp. 
licencia; licentia, licet, it is 
licendi, s.m. licentiate (a university- 
lieenciement, s. m. disbanding of 

Ueencior, ▼. n. to disband. 
Ueencieuz, se, adj. licentious, disso- 
Uchen, s. m. lichen; lichen, Xstxiiv. 
licite, adj. licit, lawful, allowable; li- 
citas, allowed, licet, it is allow- 
ed; comp. illicite. 

Uciter, y.a. to sell by auction; lici- 
tari, to bid for, liceri^ to bid at 
an auction, 
lieitation, s. f. sale bv auction; lici- 
tatio, -onis, a bidding at sales. 

Ucol, lieon, s.m. halter; for lie-col; 
see Her, col, cou. 

licome, s. f. unicorn; O.F. unicor- 
ne;*It. liocorno, alicorno; uni- 
cornis, unus, one, cornu, a horn. 

licou, see licol. 

lie, s.f. lees, dregs, refuse; M.L. Ha; 

Et. d. 
lie, adj. gay, merry; It. lieto; Sp. 

Fort, ledo; laetus. 
liesse, s. f. jollity, merriment; laeti- 

li^ge, s. m. cork, cork-tree; Var. of 

lege; see l^ger, light. 

lien, s.m. band, link, bond; O.F. loy- 
en; Itlegame; ligamen, ligare, 
see Her. 

lier, V. a. to bind, to tie, to join, to 
unite; O.F. loyer; ligare; comp. 

' liaison, lien, liasse. 

lier re, s. m. ivy ; O.F. h i e r r e , yerre ; 
Sp. hiedra; It edera, ellera; 
Prov. edra; bed era. 

liesse; see lie. 

lieu, s.m. place, spot, room, lieu, ex- 
traction; O.F. leu; It. luogo; lo- 
cus, a place. 

lieae,.8.f. league (measure of distan- 
ce); O.F. legue; Sp. leeua; It. 
ftrov. lega; E. league; M.L. leu- 
ca, leuga; 0. Celt, leuca, 

lieur, s.m. binder (of corn, hay etc.); 
see lier. 

lieutenant, s. m. lieutenant; lieu- 
tenant, see lieu, tenir; It. luo- 
gotencnte; locum tenens, hold- 
ing the place (of a superior), 
lientenaaoe, s. f. lieutenancy. 

lidyre, s. m. hare; It. lepore, le- 
pre; lepus, -oris; comp. levrier, 

ligament, s. m. ligament; Hg amen- 
tum, ligare; see Her. 

tigratare, s.f. ligature; ligatura, li- 
gare; see lier. 

— 185 — 

ligr«9 ^4)* liege; M.L. ligins; ligare, 
to bind, ace. to others 6e. ledig, 
free (towards all, except his lord). 
ligne, 8. f. line; linea, linam, X^- 

vov, a flaxen cord, lint, 
lignage, s. m. lineage, 
lignor, V. a. to draw lines; lineare. 
lign^ s. f. lineage, progeny. 
ligneox, se, adj. ligneous, woody; 
lignens, lignum, wood. 

Ugne, 8. f. league, confederacy ; M.L. 

liga; ligare, to bind. 

ligiMT, y. a. to unite in a league, 
ligsenr, s. m. eiue, s. f. leaguer 

(French hist). 
lilasy s m. lilac; It. Sp. lilac; Port. 

lila; said to be Persian. 
liliae^9 e, adj. liliaceous; liliaceus, 

lilium; see lis. 
limaee, s. f. or linias, s. m. slug 

(tool); Umax, -acis. 
limayon, s. m. snail, cochlea of the 

ear, cockle (stairs). 

limaille, s. f. filings; see lime. 

limbe, s. m. limb (border), blade, bor- 
der; limbus. 

lime, s. f. file; lima, 
limer, v. a. to file, to file off; limare. 

limiery s.m. lime-hound, blood-hound; 
O.F. liemier, loiemier; O.F. lo- 
ien; see lien. 

limite, s. f. limit, boundary; limes, 

llmiter, v. a. to limit; limit are, li- 
mes; see prec. 
limitation, s. f. limitation. 
limitrophe, adj. bordering, neighbour- 
ing; limes, -itis, boundary, r^d- 
90ff, T^£g>oi, to keep 
limon, s. m. slime, ooze; limus. 
Umaneuc, se, adj. slimy, oozy, muddy. 
limon, 8. m. shaft (of carriages), thill; 
Sp. limon, leme, shaft. Et. d. 
lioumier, s. m. shaft-horse. 
limonUre, s. f. carriage with shafts. 

limon, s. m. string-board (of stairca- 
ses); limus, sidelong, askance. 

limon, s.m. lemon, lime; It. limone; 

Sp. Proy. limon; Arab, laimun. 
limonade, s. f. lemonade, 
limonadier, s. m. -^re, s. f. dealer in 
lemonade etc. 

limonier, s. m. lemon-tree. 

Jiihpide, a4j. limpid; limpidus, ano- 
ther form of 1 liquid us; comp. li- 
quid e. 

. limpiditi, s. f. limpidity. 

limnre, s. f. filing, filings; see lime, 

lin, 8. m. flax; linum; comp. ligne, 

linceul, s. m. winding-sheet; linteo- 
ium, dim. of linteum, a linen- 
cloth, linum, flax; comp. prec. 

lin^aire^ adj. linear, lineal; linea- 
ris, linea; see ligne. 

lineament, s. m. trace, lineament; li- 
neamentum, linea; see ligne. 

linge, 8. m. linen, cloth; lineum, of 
flax or lint, linum, flax; comp. lin- 

linger, s. m. km, s. f. hosier, seam- 

lingerie, s. f. hosiery, linen-room. 

lingot, 8. m. in^ot, bullion;' lingua, 

a tongue (as if tongue-shaped). 
lingual, e, adj. lingual; It. lingua- 

le; lingua; comp. langue. 
lingaiste, s. m . linguist ; It. 1 i ng u i s- 

ta; linggua; see langue. 
lingvisttqne, s. f. linguistics, philolo- 
lini^re, s. f. flax-field; see lin. 
liniment, s.m. liniment, embrocation; 

linime ntum, linire, toanoint. 
linon, 8. m. lawn; linum; see lin. 
linot, s.m. -te, s. f. linnet; see lin, 
flax, „perhaps so named from its 
feeding on the seeds of flax.*' Comp. 
6e. haenfling, linnet, hanf, flax. 
lion, s. m. lion;^eo, leonis; Ximv, 
lionoeau, s. m. young lion, lion's cub. 
lionne, s. f. s. f. lioness, 
lippe, 8. f. blubber-lip; 6e. lippe, lip. 
lippte, 8. f. mouthful, meal, 
lippn, e, adj. blul)ber-lipped. 

Iiqa6fier, y. a. to liquefy, to make liq- 
uid; liquefacere, liquidus, liq- 
uid, facere, to make. 

liqnAfaetion, s. f. liquefaction; M.L. 
liquefactio, -onis. 

liqaeur, s. f. liquor, liqueur^ cordial; 
liquor, liquere, to be fluid. 

liquidation, s. f. settlement, liquida- 
tion; It. liquidazione; liquida- 
re; see liquider. 

liquide, adj. liquid; liquidus, li- 
quere, to be liquid, 
liquider, y. a. to liquidate, to wind up. 
liquidity s. f. liquidity; liquiditas. 
liquoreax, se, adj. like liqueur; see 

liquoriste, s. m. f. dealer in liqueurs, 
cordials; see liqueur. 

— 136 — 

lire, ▼. a. to read; leg ere. (legible) 

lis. 8. m. lily; Prov. lili, liri, lis; 

Sp. Port, lirio; lilium; Xs^gtov. 

Ils6r6. s. m. cord-trimming ^ narrow 
border (of ribbons); see lisi^re. 

llseur, s. m. -ease, s. f. reader (who 
reads much); see lire. 

llslble, adj. le^ble, readable; legi- 
bilis; see lire. 

llsldre, 8. f. selvage (of cloths), bor- 
der , leading-stnng ; f or 1 i s t i § r e ; 
M.L. lista; see liste. 

Usse, adj. smooth, sleek; Prov. lis; 

It liscio; Sp. Port 11 so; O.H.G. 

lisi, soft; some propose Xi0c6s^ 


lisser, y. a. to smooth, to polish, 
lissoir, s. m. polisher (tool), 
lisinre, s. f. smoothness, gloss. 

llsse, 8. f. (Naut.) cross-pawl, wale; 

same as liste, s. t. 
llsse, s.f. warp (of tapestry); licium, 

a thread of any thing woven. 

Uste, s. f. list, roll; M.L? It. Sp. li- 
sta; O.H.G. lista; 6e. leiste, led- 
ge, border; comp. 11 si ^ re. 
liftely s. m. (arch.) listel. 

lit, 8. m. bed, bedstead; lectus. (lit- 

litanies, s.f. pi. litany, litanies; liTtt- 

vs^a ; Xizavsvcif to pray. 
liteau, 8. m. lair ^f wolves), blue 

stripe (in table-linen); see liste. 
literle, s. f. bedding; see lit 

litliarge, s. f. lithai^e, protoxide of 
lead; Xi^aQyvQog^ Xi^og, a Stone, 
aQyvQog^ silver. 

lithographe, s. m. lithographer; XI- 
9'os, a stone, ygaqKo toVrite. 
Uthographie, s. f. lithography, 
lithographier, v. a. to lithograph. 
Uthographique, adj. lithographic' 

lithotomle, s.f. lithotomy; Xi^oTOfiia^ 
Xi^og, a stone, tifivon^ to cut 

lithotritie, s. f. lithotrity; Xi^og, a 
stone, T^f'jStt), to grind. 

litldre, 8. f. litter; see lit 

litige, 8. m. litigation; litigium, a 

dispute, li tig are to dispute, lis, 

litis, a dispute, agere, to set in 

Utigieuz, 8e» a^j. litigious; litigio- 

8 us. 
Utre, 8. m. litre, a French measure 

of capacity, being a little less than 

a quart; X^^, a measure for li- 

litre, 8. f. band of black cloth with 
the armorial bearings of a person 
deceased; ace. to Scheler prob. iden- 
tical with liste, s. t 

litt^raire, adj . literary ; 1 i 1 1 e r ar i n s, 
littera, a letter. 

littoral, e, adj. literal, verbal; litte- 

ralis, littera, a letter. 
litterateur, s. m. literary man, man 

of letters; litterator, littera, a 

letter. * 

litt^rature, s. f. literature; littera, 

a letter. 

littoral, e, a^i. of the coast, of the 

sea-shore; littoralis, littus, the 


litargie, s. £ liturgy; XeitovQyicc, a 

public service, Xtitogy public, igyov, 


litiirgique, adj. liturgical; XsiT0VQyi%6g, 

litnrgiste, s. m. writer on the litui^. 

liare, s. f. cart-rope, rope, gammoning 

(of bowsprits) ; see her. 
livide, adj. livid; livid us, liverc, 
to be black and blue. 
lividit<^ s. f. lividness. 

livraison, s. f. delivery, part, number 
(of publications); see livrer. 

livre, 8. m. book; liber, -bri, a 

livre, s.f. pound, livre (coin); libra. 

livr^e, s.f. livery; It livrea; Sp. li- 
brea;liberus,free; comp. livrer, 
to deliver; livering or delivering 
food, cloth to servants etc. 

livrer, v. a. to deliver, to give up; 
It liverare, librare; liberare, 
to free, to deliver, liber, free. 

livret, 8. m. small book, multiplica- 
tion-table; see livre. 

lobe, 8. m. lobe of the ear, lobe^ foil; 
M.L. lob us; XoB6gj Xinco^ to peel, 
lobule, 8. m. lobule. 

loeal, e, adj. local; localis, locus, 

a place, 
looaliti, 8. £ locality, place. 
loeataire, s. m. £ tenant, lodger; lo- 

catorius, locare, to let, locns, 

a place. 

location^ s.f. letting, hiring, renting; 
locatio, -onis, locare; see p/ec« 
loeb, 8. m. log, locc-line; E. log. 
loche, 8. £ loach, Toche; £. loche. 
loeomotenr, -trice, a^. of loccmo- 

— 137 — 

tion; locnBy a place , motor, a 
mover, move re. to move. 
loeomollf, TO, adj. locomotive; fo- 
cus, a place, motam, sap. of mo- 
ver e, to move. 

V)oomotive, 8. f. locomotive, steam-en- 
gine of railways. 

loeomotion, s. f. locomotion; locns, 

a place, motio, -onis, a motion. 
loeaiion, s. f. form of spieech; loca- 

tie, -oniSi a speaking, loqui, to 

lol^ s. m. loof, luff; £. loof. 
logaritbrae, s. m. logarithm; Xoyog, 

ratio, dQivn6g, number. 

lege, 8. f. cell, lodge, box in a thea- 
tre; O.F. loige; It. loggia; Port, 
loja; M.L. Taubia; Ue. laube, 

logemeat, 8. m. lodging, lodgement. 

kger, V. a. n. to lodge, to dwell; 
comp. d^loger. 

logeoTi 8. m. WBf 8. f. lodging house 

li^gis, s.m. habitation, dwelling, lodg- 
loglqae, a^. logical ; 1 o g i c u s ; loyixog, 

belonging to the reason, ^oyo^, the 


logioien, s. m. lo|ncian. 
legiquo, s. f. logic. 
logogriphe, s. m. logogriph; X6yog, a 

word, yQifpog, a riddle. 

lot, 8. f. law; O.F. lei; lex, legis. 
loin, adv. far, far off, distant; O.F. 

loing; longe. 
Idntato, e, adj. remote, distant; It. 

lontano; longitanus. 
loir, 8. m. dormouse; Prov. glire; 

glis, gliris. 
loisible, adij. lawful, allowable; see 

next w. 
loifiir, 8. m. leisure, leisure-time; 0. 

F. verb loisir, leisir; licere; comp. 


lombard, s. m. Lombard, pawn-brok- 
ing establishment; Longobards or 
Lombards, a company of Italian 
merchants, the great money-chang- 
ers of the 18^ century. 

lombes, s.m. pi. lumbal region, loins; 

long, ue, a4j. long; longps. 

longanimity, s.f. lonc;animity,'forbear- 
alnce; It longanimit^; longus, 
long, animus, mind. 

longe, 8. f, tether; see long. 

longe, 8. t loin; see lombes. 
longer, v. a. to go along (a place), 

to run along (a place); see long, 

and allonger. 
long^vit^, s. f. longevity; longaevi- 

tas, longus, long, aevitas, the 

old form of aetas, age, aevum, 

a space of time. 

longitude, s. f. longitude ; longitude, 

length, longus, long, 
longitudinal, e» longitudinal 
longtemps, adv. a long time, long; 

see long and temps. 
longnet, te. a^. longish, somewhat 

long; see long, 
longueur, s. f. length, slowness; see 


lopin, s. m. piece (of meat etc.) Et.d. 
loquaee, adj. loquacious, talkative; 

loquax, -acis, loqui, to speak. 
loqnaoitA, s. f. loquacity, talkativeness; 

loque, 8. i. rag,. tatter; O.H.G. locch; 

O.N. I ok r, something hanging; comp. 

loquet, s. m. latch; It lucchetto; 

OF. loc; A.S. loc; E. lock; O.N. 

loka;, to lockup. 

lorgner, v. a. to look side-wise at, to 
cast a glance at, to eye, to ogle; 
6e. lauern, to lurk (E. lurk), 
lorgnade, s.f. side-look, glance, ogle, 
lorgnette, s. f. eye-glass, opera-glass, 
lorgneur, s. m. -euse, s. f. ogler. 
lorgnon, s. m. eje-glass. 
loriot, s. m. lonot, oriole, goldfinch; 
O.F. I'oriol, orious; Sp. oriol; 
anreolus, golden, aurum, gold; 
comp. E. gold-hammer, gold-finch, 
lors, adv. then; O.F. lores, I'ores, 
ore; ilia bora, at that hour; 
comp. alors and d^sormais. 
lor6qae,conj.when; ilia bora quod; 
see lors and que. 

log, s.m. praise, laud, eulogy; la us. 
" sange, 
Et d. 

losange, s. f. lozenge; It lozanga;. 

; It 1 

lot, s. m. lot, prize (of lotteries), fate ; 
It lotto; Sp. Port, lote; Goth, 
hlauts; A.S. blot, hlyt; E. lot; 
O.H.G. hl6z; Ge. los. 
loterie, s. f. lottery, raffle ; It lotte- 
ria; Sp. loteria. 

lotion, 8. f. lotion, washing, wash; 
lotio, -onis, lotum, p. p. of la- 
va re, to wash. 

lotir,v. a, to lot, to portion; see lot 

loto, B. m. loto ^oDie); see lot 

IoUb, Iotas, B. m. lote, lote-tree; lo- 
tos, lotus; }Mt6t. 

loiutble,a^. praise -fforthy, landable; 
laudabilis; aee louer. 

louag'e, B. m, letting; hiring, see loner 

lonftnfe, a. i. praise, laud, eulogjr; 
see louer, 

louebe, ailj. squint, equivocal, ambi- 
guous; luscus, oae-e;ed. 
loneher, r, n. to squint. 

loner, t. a. to praise, to laud; lau- 

loser, y. a. to let, to hire, to rent; 
locare; see locataire, comp, lo- 
lownT, s. m. -«iue, a. f. hirer, person 
that lets out. 

Itmgrfiy B.m. lu^er-, D. loger. 

lonls, B. m. louis, old French gold 
coin, firBt struck in the reign of 
Louis XIII. 

lonp, 8. m. wolf; Inpus. 
loap-Mrrler, s. m. I;nz; lupiia cer- 
TariuB, an animal of the shape of 
a wolf (lupus) and as swift as a 

. stag (cerTos). 

-lonp^aron, B. m. were-woli, bugbear; 
see garou. • 

lOBpe, s. f. wen, magnifying glass, 
lens; Sp. lupia; hipus, wolf; comp. 
Ge. wolf, wolf and wen. 

loHrd,e, adj. heavy, weighty, dull; In- 
rid us, Ballow, lurid, 
lonzdand, a. m. «, a.f. blockhead, dul- 
lOBideni, B. f. heatlness, dullness. 

lontre, s. f. otter ; Intro. 

10B»e,a.£8he-wolf, sling; lupa;comp. 

loAvei) T. a. to aling. 
l«iiTet«aa, a. m. young wolf, whelp. 
ImiTetM', y. to whelp. 
louTover, v, n. lo tack, to layeer; 

O.F. lof; E. loof, luif. 
Louire, a.m. Louvre, a public edifice 
in Paria ; formerly amenagery; see 

-loyal, e, u^. honest, fair, Ihithful; 
O.F. Ue,1; legalis, lex, legis, 

loyanti.s.f honesty, probity, fidelity. 
lover, a. n. hire, rent; locarium, 

lo care, to let; comp. louer. 
lozang'e, see losange. 
luMe. a. f wbim, crotchet; Inbido, 

labrique, adj. lustfiil, lewd; luhri- 

cus. Slippery. 
Abiieitt, s. f. lubricity, lewdenesg: 

Incarne, a. f. dormer-window, garret- 
window; lucerna, alamp,lucer,B, 

to shine, (luthera). 
lucide, adj. lucid; lucidua, bright, 

lux, lucis, light 
loeiditi, a. f. lucidity. 
luelfer, s. m. Lucifer, phosphor; lu- 

cifer, light bringing, lux, lucis, 

light, ferre, to bring. 
lucre, s. m. lucre; lucrum. 
Inoniti^ ve, adj. lucraUve; lacrati- 

lucubration, a. f. see gin cubration. 
luette, B.f. uvula; for I'uette, M.L. 

uvetta, like E. uvula dim. of L. 

ova, a cluster of grapes. 
Incur, s. f. glimmer, glimpse; lucere, 

to ahine. 
InKnbre. aiij. mournful, dreary; lu- 

gubria, lugere, to mourn. 
In^ pr. he, to him, to her; ill-bu> 

Inire, v. a. to shine, to glitter; O.F. 

luisir; lucere. 
lniMnt,e, adj. shining, glittering; pr. 

p. of luire. 
Inmbafo, b. m. lumbago; M.L. lum- 
bago; lumbi, the loins; comp. 

Inmi^re, a. f. Eight, englighteDment, 
inaight, vent (of a gun); M.L. In- 

Inml^on, a. m. snuff of a candle, 
candle-end; M.L. luminium; la- 
men, light 

InmlDMre, s. m. luminary, lights (for 
churchBervice);luminare, lumen, 

Inminenx, sc, adj- Inminons; luini-< 

Innalte, attj. lunar: lunaria, lana; 
see Inne. 

Innalson, s, f. lunation; It lunazi- 
one; luna; see lune. 

lanatiqne, adj. aomnambuUst, whim- 
sical; lun.aticus, tana; Beelnne. 

landi, a.m.mondav ; It. lunedi; In- 
nae diea, the day of the moon ; ace 
lune. . 

lane, s. f. moon; luna. 

lunette, s. £ teleacooe, lunette, pi. 
spectacles; dim. of lune, see this, 
Inurttier, 8. m. Bpectacle-maker. 

— 189 — 

lupiii) 8. m. lapioe; lupin a 8. 

luron, 8. m. jolly hearty fellow, lu- 
ronne, s. 1 buxom woman ; £t. d. 

lustre, s. m. lustre, gloss, brilliancy; 
see lustrer. 

lustre, s. m. lustrum, sf^ace of five 
years; lustrum, a purificatory sa- 
crifice, a lustration ; lu e r e , to atone 
for. • 

lii8trag«, 8. m. s. m. lustring. 
lustral, e, adj. lustral; lustralis. 

lustrer, v. a. to give a lustre to, to 
glaze; lustrare, to illumine, lu- 
cere, Uf shine. 

lui, 8. m. lute, luting; lutum, mud. 
Inter, y. a. to lute. 

luth,. 8. m. lute; O.F. lent; It. liu- 
to; Sp. land; Port alaud; Ge. 
laute; Arab. al'CLd, lit. from 

luthier, 8. m. lyte-maker, musical in- 

luttn. 8. m. goblin, hobgoblin, wild 
child; O.F. luicton, luiton, lu- 
thon; Et d. Grimm proposes L. 
luctns, a mournful spirit, others 
suggest A.S. lytel, £. little. 

lutnn, 8. m. reading-desk; O.F. le- 
trin; M.L. luitrin, lectrinum; 
lee t rum, reading-desk. 

lutte, s. f. wrestling, scufBe, contest. 

strife; O.F. luite, loite; lucta 

for luctamen. 
lutter, V. n. to wrestle, to fight, to 

lutteor, s. m. wrestler. 

luxation, s. f. dislocation, luxation; 
luxatio, -oniSy luxus; see luxe. 

luxe, 8. m. luxury; luxus, a dislo- 
cation, luxury. 

luxer, V. a. to luxate, to dislocate; 
luxari, luxus; see luxe. 

luxure, s.f. lust, lewdeness: luxuria, 
luxuriance, luxus; see luxe. 

Inxnrianee, s. f. luxuriance. 

luxuriant, e, a^. luxuriant. 

luxorieuz, 86, adj. lustful, lewd; luxu- 
riosus, luxuriant 

luzerne, s. f. luzem, lucem-grass; 
Et d. 

Ittieniiire, s. f. lucern-field. 
Iyc6e, 8. m. kceum, college; Aihisiov, 
lymphe, s. f. lymph, sap; lymph a, 
water, same word as Nympha. 
lymphatique, a^. lymphatic; lym- * 

lynx, 8. m. lynx; lynx; AvyJ. 
lyre, s. f. lyre, lyra (constellation); 

lyra; Ivqcc, 
lyrique, adj. lyrical, lyric; lyricus; 



ma, a4j. poss. my; me a; comp. mon. 
maeadam, s. m. macadam; so named 
from the projector Macadam, 
maeadamisar, v. a. to macadamize. 
maearon, s. m. macaroon^ It mac- 

cheroni, macaroni; Et d. . 
macaroni, s. m. macaroni; same as 
maearonte, s. f. macaronic (poetry); 
Et d. 

maearonique, adj. macaronic. 
mae6doine, s. f. medley dish of diffe- 
rent vegetables or fruit, medley. Etd. 
^mae^rer, v. a. to macerate; mace- 
ra re. * 

maetoition, s. f. maceration; mace- 
ratio, -onis. 
mftebe, s. f. lamb's lettuce, corn-salad ; 

prob. mftcher, s. t. 
maebeeoulis^ or mftehlcouUs, s. m. 
machicolation, an opening or aper- 
ture fox the purpose of defense in 
fortifications, the act of pouring 

down, in old castles, heavy or bur- 
ning masses, through apertures, on 
assaillants; Et d. perh. masse, 
and couler, s. t 

mftchefer, s. m. hammerslag, pud- 
dlers offal; see macquer, andfer. 

mftchelidre, adj. and s. f. of the jaw, 
jaw-tooth, grinder; O.F. maissel- 
le, massel, macel, jaw; maxil- 
la; comp. m&choire. 

mfteher, v. a. to masticate, to chew, 
to munch; O.F. mascher; Proy. 
mastegar, maschar; Sp. Port 
masticar, mastigar, mascar; 
M.L. masticare; fta^ra^co, fidata^, 
that wich one chewsi, the jaws, 
m&chenr, s. m. m&ehense, s. f. chewer, 
muncher, eater. 

machiay^lique, adj. Machiav.elian ; 
Nicholo Machiavelli, a Flo- 
rentine of the 16tb century, who 
sanctioned in his writings on govern- 

— 140 — 

ment bad &ith on the part of a 

maehiay^liame, 8. m. machiavelism. 
maoliiay^liste, s xn. machiavelian. 

maehinal, e, a^j. mechanical; machi- 
nalis, machina; see machine. 

machinateur, s. m. machinator, plot- 
ter; see machiner. 

maehination, s. f. machination, plot, 
tampering; machinatio, -onis; 
see machiner. 

machine, s. f. machine, engine, ma- 
chinery, piece of mechanism; ma- 
china; MX^^^' 

machiner, y. a. to machinate, to plot ; . 
maehinifte, s. m. machinist, engineer, 

mftehoire, s. £ jaw, jaw-bone; see 

mAchonner, v. a. to mumble (chew), 
to mumble (speak indistinctly); see 
mftehnrer^ v. a. to blacken, to ma- 
cule (print); O.H.G. m^ssl, spot 
mads, 8. m. mace (spice); macis. 
ma^on, s. m. mason; M.L. machio, 
macio; marcus, a hammer, 
mafonnage, s. m. masonry, mason's 

ma^onner, v. a. to do mason's work, 
to wall. 

ma^onnerie, s. f. masonry, walling, 
ma^onniqne, adj. masonic. 

maequer, y. a. to break (hemp) ; D i e z 
connects it with It maccare 
(smaccarc), Sp. Proy. macar, 
to crush, root mac, to strike. 

maenlatare, s. f. waste-paper, macu- 
lature; see maculer. 

macule, s. f. spot, stain, macule ; m a- 

macvler, y. a. to macule, to stain; 

madame, s.f. Mrs; mistress, madam; 
see m a and dame. 

mademoiselle, s. f. Mias; see ma 
and demoiselle. 

madone* s. f. the picture of the Vir- 
gin Mary, •madonna; It madon- 
na, ma, mine, donna, lady; do- 
mina; see dame. 

madras, s. m, madras (material) ; ma- 
terial from Madras. 

madr^, e, adj. spotted, cunning; O.F. 
roadre, mazre; M.L. mazer, a 
Idnd of wood; O.H.G. masa, soar; 

O.H.G. masar, a knot in wood; in 
the Ge. masern; E. measle. 
madrier, s. m. a yery thidc plank, 
madrier; Sp. mad era; materia, 

madrigaL s.m. madrigal; It madri- 

Sale; O.It mandriale; It man- 
ria;mandra, a herd of cattle, the 
word meaning ori^ a pastoral song, 
magasin^ s. m. warehouse, storehouse, 
magazine; It magazzino; Bp. na- 
gacen, almagacen; Arab. mach- 
san, al-machsan, a bam. 
magasinage, s. m. warehod^ing, ware- 
magaiinier, s. m. warehouseman. 

mage, s. m. magian, pi. magi, wise, 
men of the East; magus; ftcfyop. 

magioien, s. m. ne, s. f. magician. 

magie, a. f. magic; {laye^, 

magique, s. f. magic, magical. 
maglster, s. m. schoolmaster; ma- 

magiftral, e, adj. magistral, principal. 

magistrat, s. m. magistrate; magi- 

magistratnre, s. f. magistracy. 

magnankne, adj. magnanimous, high- 
minded; magnanimus, magnus, 
great, animus, the souL. 

magnanimity, s. f. magnanimity, mag- 

magn^sle, s. £ magnesia ; magnesi- 
um, ace. to some from fiay^ff) ft 
kind of soapotone found in magnesia. 
magn^tlque, adj. magnetic; m agues, 
-etis; Mdyvi]g, '^tog, a Magncsian, 
Xid^og Mayvrftrig, the magnet, stone 
from Magnesia in Asia. 

magn^tiser, y. a. to magnetize. 

ma^^tiseiir, s. m. magnetizer. 

magnetiime, s. m. magnetism. 

magnificence, 's.f. magnificence, gxan- 
deur; magnificentia, magnifi- 
cus; see magnifique. 

magnifier, y. a. to glorifjr , to praise ; 
magnificare, magnificus; see 

-magnm^ue, adj. magnificent, grand f 
magnificus, magnus, great) fa- 
cere, to make. 

magrnolier, s. m. magnolia; named 
after Pierre Magnol, professor of 
Botany at Montpellier, who died in 

magot, s. m. magot, grotesque 4gnre, 
£t. d. 

— 14! — 

mair^t, s. m. hoard, hoard of money; 
O.F. macaot, magaut, pocket, 
purse; Et d. 

mat, 8. m. May; may-pole; majus, 
ace. to Landais fromL. majores, 
ancestors y — because this month, 
among the ancient Romans, was con- 
secrated to old men, — or so na- 
med in honour of the goddess M ai'a, 
mother of Mercury. 

matgrre, adj. lean, meagre, thin; ma- 
cer, macra, macrum. 
maigrelet, te, aciy. thin, spare, 
maigrevr, s. f. leanness, meagreneas. 
maigzir, v. n. to become, to get lean. 
mail, s. m. mall (game), mall (place); 
It Sp. Port maglio; malleus, a 
maille, s. f. stitch, mesh, ring of mail ; 
It Sp. Prov. maglia; macula, a 
spot, a mesh. 

mailleu s. f. ;,maille** old French coin 
wortn half a farthing ; for m 6 a i 1 1 e, 
shortened from m^daille, s. t 

mailler, ▼. a. to make meshes, rings 
of mail, V. n. (of patridges) to grow, 
to get speckled; see maille. 

mailletf s. m. mallet, wooden hammer ; 
see mail. 

maUlot, 8. m. swaddling clothes, sw&d- 
dling band; see maiUe, comp. 

mail, 8. f. hand, handle, hand-writing, 
a quire of paper; manus, (main- 

maia-d'oeavre, s. manship, man- 
ual labour; see oeuvre. 
nuda-forte, s. f. assistance (rendered 
to officers of justice); see fort 
nuda-levte, s. t (law) withdrawal of 
* a distraint, replevin; see lever, 
uainmorto, s. f. mort-roain; see mort 
maint, e, adj. many, many a; Goth, 
manigs; O.H.G. manac; A.S. ma- 
nig; E. many; 6e. manch, man- 
nig-falt, many-fold. 

maintenant, adv. now ; in manu te- 
nons, holding in the hand : see next 

maiBtenir, V. a. to sustain, to uphold, 
to maintain; manu ten ere, to 
hold with the hand; see main and 

malntien, s. m. maintenance, keeping 
up, deportment. 

mafre, s. m. mayor ; O.F. m ai e u r, m a- 
yenr; major, greater; comp. ma- 
jear and major. 

maifie, s. f. mayoralty , mayoralty- 

mai8,'coig..bat; Itmai, ma; Sp. 
mas; mag is, inore, rather. 

maYs, 8. m. maize, Indian corn; Sp. 
m ai z ; an American word from Hayti. 

maiso]^, s. f. house, honsel^old, firm; 

O.F. mancion; It mansione; 

Prov. Sp. mansion; mansio, 

-o n i s, a dwelling, m a n e r e, to stay, 
maisonnette, 8. f. small house. 
mattre, s. m. master ; O.F. m a i s t r e ; 

ItSp. maestro; Ge. meister; E. 

master; magister. 
maitreiss, s. f. mistress, 
maitrise, s. f. freedom (of a trade 


naitriser, v. a. to master. 
m^Jest^,' s. f. migesty; majestas, 

mAg-nus, great 
migestaenzi se, adj. migestic. 

m^Jeur, e, adj. greater (part), migor; 
major, comp. of ma gnus, great 

major, s. m. major (field officer); ma- 
jor; see prec. 

majorat, s. m. migorat; M.L. majo- 
ratus; major; see prec. 

raajordome, s. m. major-domo; ma- 
jor, greater, domus, house. 

majority, s. f. majority; see ma- 

mi^useole, a^'. (of letters) capital, 
large; majusculus, somewhat 
greater, major; see maieur. 

-mal, B. m. evil, ill, pain, illness; ma- 

mal, adv. ill, badly, bad; male. 

malade, adj. ill , sick, diseased ; O.F. 
malabde; Prov. malapte, m|i- 
laut; male aptus, in-valid, 
maladie, s. £ illness, malady, diseases 
maladif, ve, adj. sickly, ailing. 

maiadresse, s. f. awkwardness, nn- 
skilfulness, clumsiness; seemaluid 

maladroit, e, ady. awkward, unskil- 
ful, clumsy; see mal and adroit. 

malaise, s. m. discomfort, uneasiness ; 
see mal and aise. 

maleontent, e, adj. dissatisfied, dis- 
contented; see mal and aise. 

malcontent, e, adj. dissatisfied, discon- 
tented; see mal and content 

mftle, adj. male, manly, masculine; 
O.F. masle, mascle; mascnlns, 
mas; comp. m^ler, 

nml^dietion, s. f. curse, malediction; 

— 142 

maledictiOj-onis, malejicere; 
Bee maudire. 

malMee, s.m. witchkraft; malefici- 
um, a doing illy i^ale, ill, facere, 
to make. 
malAfleii, e, adj. bewitched. 

malencQutre, s. f. mischance, mishap; 
see mat and encontre. 
malancontrenx, m, a^j. untoward, un- 

malentendu, s. m. misunderstanding, 
misconception ; see m a 1 and enten- 

mal-^tre, s. m. uncomfortableness, 
uneasiness; see mal and ^tre 

malliaire, v. n. to do evil; see mal 
and faire; malefacere. 
malfaisaiice, s. f. evil-doing, wrong- 
doing, maleficence; see next. 
mallBiiant, e, adj. malevolent, mis- 
chievous; faisant pr. p. of faire. 
malfaitenr, s.m. malefactor, criminal; 

malfam^, e, adj. ill-famed; see mal 
and fam^. 

malgrr^^ prep, in spite of, notwith- 
standing; O.F. maugre; It. mal- 
grado; Prov. malgrat; malo gra- 
to; see mal and gr6. 

malheur, s. m. misfortune, unhappi- 
ness, ill-luck; see mal and heui:. 
malhanreoz, se, a^)* unfortunate, un- 
happy, unlucky. 

malhonn^te, adj. dishonest, uncivil; 

see mal and honn^te. 
malhonnttetA, s. f. impoliteness, rude- 

mallee, s. f. malice, malignity, trick; 
malitia, badness, malus, bad. 

inalicieuz, m, adlj. malicious, malig- 
nant, sly. 

malignite, s f. malignancy, malignity, 
malice; malignttas, malignus; 
see next. 

malin, raaligne, adj. malicious, sly, 
malign, sharp; O.F. maling; ma- 
lignus, cent, for maligenus, of 
an evil nature, male ill, gen root 
of gignere; comp. benin, genre, 
genital etc. 

malines, s.f. pi. Mechlin-lace; F. Ma- 
line, Mechlin, a town in Belgium. 

mlalliigre. adj. ailing, poorly; for 
mal hamgre; O.F. heingre; ae- 
ger, sick. 

malintentionii^, e, adj. evil-disposed, 

evil-minded ; see m al and i n t e nti o n. 

.lie, 8.1 trunk, portmanteau, mail; 

O.F. mal; Sp. Port. Prov. mala; 
M.L. mala; O.H.G. malaha, m al- 
ba, wallet; E. mail; Sc.m alia, bag, 
wallet; Ir. mala. 
malleable, adj. malleable; malleus, 
a hammer. 

mall^ole, s. f. malleolus, ankle; mal- 
leolus, dim. of malleus, a ham- 

mallier, s. m. wheeler (horse) ; * see 

malinener, y. a. to maltreat, to abuse ; 
see mal and mener. 

malotru, e, adj. rude, uncouth; O.F. 
malautru, malastru; Prov. ma- 
lastruc; see maland astre, „bom 
under a bad constellation.'' 

malpeign6, s. m. dirty, unwashed fel- 
low: see mal and peigner. 

malpropre, adj. dirty, unclean; see 
mal and pr opr e. 
malpropret^, s. f. dirtiness, unclean- 

malsaiu, e, adj. unhealt^, unwhole- 
some; see mal and sain. 

mals^ant, e, adj. unbecoming, inde- 
corous, improper; see mal and sc- 

malt, s. m. malt; A.S. me alt, malt; 
£. malt 

maltdte, exaction, illegal tax-gather- 
ing; O.F. male tolte, tax-gather- 
ing; O.F. toUir, to gather; male, 
wrongly, tolta, tollere, to raise. 

maltrait^r, v. a. to maltreat, to ill- 
treat; see mal and trait er. 

malyeillant, e, adj. malevolent, ill- 
disposed; see mal and vouloir. 
mallyeiUanee, s. f malevolence, ill- 

malyerser, v. n. to commit malver- 
sation, malpractices; male, wrong- 
ly versari freq. of vertere, to 

malversation, s. f malversation, mal- 

malToisie, s. f. malmesy; „a white 
wine, prepared in various places, 
particularly in the island of Madei- 
ra, but originally from Malvasia 
in the Morea. (Shak.) 

maman, s. f. mamma, mother; It. 
mamma; mamma, abreast, fio^ 

mamelle, s. f.* breast, udder ; m am i 1- 
la, dim. of mamma, breast 

mamelen, s. m. teat, nipple, hillock. 

— 143 — 

mammtfSre, adj. mammiferons ; mam* 
ma, the breast, ferre, to bear. 

manaiit, 8. m. peasant, rustic, coarse; 
Pro?, manent; Sp. manente; 
man ens; -entis, prp. of mane- 
re, to stay; manant meant for- 
merly inhabitant; comp. manoir. 

manehe, s. m. handle, stick, neck (of 
musical instruments); It. manico; 
Sp. Port, mango; ma nica, the long 
sleeve of a tunic, man us, hand. 

manehe, s. f. sleeve, channel, British 
Channel; Sp. manga; It. manic a; 
ma nica; see prec. 
maaehette, s. f. ruffle, cuff, 
manehon, s. m. muff. 

manehot^ adj. and s. nn one-handed, 
one-armed, pingnin ;O.F.Prov.m a n c ; 
It. Sp. manco; maacus, maimed; 
comp. manquer and moignon. 

mandat, s. m. mandate, commission, 
warrant, order; mandatum, man- 
dare; see mander. 
ma&dataiie, s. m. mandatory, proxy; 

mander^ v. a. to inform, to send word, 
to sena for;'mandare, to put into 
one's hand, to order, man us, hand, 
dare, to give; comp. demander, 
commander, contremander. 

m andwne nt , s. m. mandate, order, 

mandibiile, s.f. mandible, jaw; man- 
dibnla, mandere, to chew; comp. 

mandille, s. f. mandil, a sort of foot- 
man's mantle; same as mantille, 
s. t. 

mandoline, s. f. mandolin; It. man- 

dola; Dim. of m and ore; see next. 
mandore, s. f a kind of luth, man- 

dore ; corr. of p a n d u r a, navdovga. 

Itpandura; Fr. pandore, a sort 

of luth. 

mandrin, s. m. mandrel; Et. d. 
manducation, s.f. manducation; man- 

ducatio, -onis, manducare, to 


man^g'e, s. m. manege, riding-school, 
horsemanship, cunning; It. maneg- 
ffio, mano, hand; manus. 

numes, s. m. pi. manes, shade; ma- 
nes, the good infernal deities in the 
Roman Mythology. 

msatger^ t. a. n. to eat, to consume; 

dueare, to chew, comp. mandua- 

tion (manger), 
mangeabk, a^j. eatable. 
maageaiUe, s. f. food. 
mangeoixe, s. f. manger, crib, 
manger, s. m. eating, food, victuals, 
mangenr, s. m. se, s. f. eater, great 

mangenre, s. f. place eaten (by mice, 

worms etc.). 
maniable, ady. easy to be handled; 

see manier. 

maniaqne, s. m. f. person that has 
a mania, maniac; (Mvmog, mad, fitt- 
Wa; see manie. 

manieh^en, s. m. ne, s. 1 Manichean, 
Manichee; a follower of Manes, 
a Persian of the 8^ century, who 
taught that there were two deities 
and two principles of all things, 
coetemal and coeanal, the one good, 
and the other evil. (Bp. hau.) 

manie, s.f. mania, madness, passion; 
It. Sp. L. mania; ftixvAx, (m£po(uu 
to rage. 

manier, v. a. to handle, to govern; 
manuari, manus, hand, 
maniement, s. m. handling,* manage* 
manier e, s. £ manner, manners « af- 
fectation; It. manier a; Sp. ma- 
nera; manus, hand. 
manlM, e, a^j. affected. 

manifesto, aci^j. maniftst; manifest 
tns, manus hand and root fas, to 

manifestation, s. f. manifestation ; m a- 
nifestatio, -onis. 
maniftster, v. a. to manifest, to show 
forth; manifestare. 

manigance, artful stratagem, ma- 
noeuvre; manica, see manche. 

manipulation, s. f. manipulation; see 

manipole, s. m. handful, manipule; 
manipulus, a handful, manus, 
hand, pie, root of pi en us, full. 

manipuler, v. a. to manipulate; ma- 
nipulus; see prec. 

maniveaii, s. m. osier-stand; manus, 

manlTellej s. f. crank, winch; It 
mano vello; manus, hand;O.H.G. 
wellan; M.H.G. wellen, to roll; 
6e. we lie, roller. 

manne, s. f. manna; manna; ftaWo, 
Heb. man. 

— 144 — 

nuume, s. f. hamper; A.S. mand; 
6e. mande; E. maund. 
maimeqiiiii, s. m. small hamper. 

mannequin, s. m. manikin; D. man- 
neken, Dim. of man, man. 

manoenyre, 8. f. manoeuvre,, s. m. 
workman; It manovra Sp. ma- 
niobra; M.L. manopera; manus 
opera; see main and oeuvre. 

manoeuTrer, y. a to manoeuvre, to 

work; It. manovrare; Sp. manio- 

bar; manu operari, to work by 

■laiioeiivxiery s.#m. person skilled in 

manoeuvre, able bodied seaman. 
nMUioir, s. m. manor, manor-house; 

O.F. manoir, to inhabit; manere; 

see manant 
nuinoairrier, s.m. day-labourer; same 

as manoeuvrier , s. t. 

manquer, v. n. to err, to fail, to miss, 
to want, to be wanting in respect; 
It mancare; Sp. mancar; man- 
c u B, maimed, defective ; comp. m a n- 
maaque, s. m. want, failure, fail. 
maaqiiemMit, s. m. omission, fault. 

mABMurde, s.f. garret-window, garret; 
so called after Mans art, a fa- 
mous French architect of the 17^^ 

mansu^tade, mansuetude; mansue- 

mante, s. f. 4nantle (lady's); M.L. 
mantum; see next w. 

manteau, s. m. cloak, mantle; O.F. 
mantel; It mantello;Sp.manto; 
m ant ellum, mantum ;'A.S.maen- 
tel; O.H.G. mantul; 6e.m1intel; 
£. mantle, 
mantelet, s. m. short cloak, mantelet 
mantille, s. L mantilla; Sp. mantil- 

mannel, le, adj. manual, s. m. ma- 
nual, hand-book; manualis, ma- 
nus, hand. 

manufaetore. s. f. manufacture, ma- 
king, manufactory, factory, mill; ma- 
nu factum, made by hand, ma- 
nus, hand, facere, to make, 
manufacturer, v. a. to manufacture, 
manufaetnrier, s. m. manufacturer. 

manuscrit, s. m. and adj. manuscript, 
copy; It manuscritto; M.L. ma- 
nuscriptum; manu scriptum, 
written by hand, .manus, hand, 
scribere , to write. 

maniatentioaf s. f . management, bake- 
house for the army; manu te- 
nere, to hold in hand, man us hand, 
ten ere, to hold. 

mappemonde, s. f. map of the world; 
mappa mundi, mappa, a napkin, 
a cloth; comp. nappe, mundns, 
the world; comp. monde. 

maquereau, s. m. mackerel, marks of 
scalding on the legs; O.F. maque- 
rel;D. macker eel; £. mackerel; 
macula, a spot 

maquereau, s. m. maequerelle, s. f. 
pander; D. makelaar; Ge. maek- 
ler, an agen£^ a go-between. 

maquignon, s. m. horse-deider, job- 
ber; £t d. prob. same as prec. 
maqnignonnage, s. m. horse dealing, 

maqnignooiner, v. a. to disguise for 
sale the defects of a horse, to Jobb. 

maraicher, s. m. kitchen-gardener; 
O.F. maresq; M.L. marescum, 
D. maerasch, maersche; £. 
marsh; M.L. mara; see mare 

niarais, s. m. marsh, bog, low ground 
planted with vegetables; M.L. ma- 
ra; see mare. 

raarasme, s. m. marasmus , atrophy ; 
(iccQccaftog, (laQutpm, to quench, to 
pine away ; fiapa^/ofuxf, to waste away. 

marasqnin, s. m. nlaraschino; liqueur 
made from the cherry called ma- 
rasca, for amarasca; amarns, 

marfttre, s. f. step-mother, a cruel 
mother; M.L. matraster; mater, 
mother; comp. par&tre. 
maraud, s. n. knave, raskal; £t d. 
Diez compares with it Sp. malro- 
to, Port, mfroto, worthless, L. 
male run t us , ruined. 
maraade,s.f. a base woman, maraud- 

marauder, v. a. to maraud, 
maraudeur, s. m. marauder, freeboot- 

marbre, s. m. marble; It marmo; 
Sp. marmol; 6e. marmor; mar- 
mor; pui^fioQogt (ucQiuc^gm, tofladi, 
to gleam. 

marbrer, v. a. to marble. 

marbrerie, s. f. marble-cutting, mar- 
ble-works, marble-yard. 

marbreur, s. m. marbler. 

marlNEier, s m. marble-cutter, iMvble- 

— 145 — 

mMThrlkaff 8. f. marble-qaarr^: 
nuurbrare, s. f. marbKng. 
mare, 8.m. a weight of eight onnces, 
mark (coin); Ge. mark; comp. 

mare, 8. m. re8idoum (of mpes, ap- 
ples, olives etc.)t dregs; £t. d. Sche- 
ler proposes the Ge. m ark, £. m ar- 

mareassiB, a. m. young wild boar; 
£t. d. 

marehand, s. m. e, s. f. tradesman, 
dealer, merchant ; O.F. marcheant, 
marchedant;It.imercante; mer- 
cans, -antis, a buyer, pr. p. of 
mercari, to trade. 

marehander, t. a. to bargain for, to 

marehandise, 8. f. merchandise, com- 
modity, goods. 
marehe, s. f. walk, gait, march, course, 
step; see marcher. 

marehe, s. f. marches; It marca; 

Goth, mark a; O.H.G. marcha; Ge. 

mark; comp. marquis. 
nareli6, s. m. market, mart, bargain; 

mercatus, p. p. of mercari; see 


marehepied, s.m. step, stepping-stone, 
foot-board; see marche and pied. 

raareher, v. n. to walk, to go, to pro- 
ceed, to march; Et. d. Diez con- 
nects it with marche, marches, 

naroheiir, s. m. le, s. f. pedestrian, 

mareotte, s. f. layer of a plant; It. 

margotta; mergus, mergere, 

to dip. 
marootter, y. a. to layer. 

mardi, s. m. Tuesday; It. martedi, 

marti; dies Martis, the day of 

Mars; Mars, -tis. 
mare, s. f. pond, pool; D. maer, 

maar; M.L. mara; mare, the sea; 

comp. maraicher and marais* 

mar6eage, s. m. marsh, moor, swamp ; 

see prec. 

marAeagevz, le, adj. marshy, swampy. 
mar^ehal, s. m. farrier, marshal; It. 


O.H.G.marah; O.N.mar; E.mare; 

G>e. maehre, horse, O.H.G. scale; 

Ge. schalk, orig. servant, i. e. an 

attendant upon horses. „ihe word 

appears to have been extended from 

ike prinitiTe nsage, cnratoreq tto- 

rum, he that had charge of nor - 

ses**. (Richardsoo.) 
mart ehato r ie, s. t farriery. 
mar^ekauss^e, 8.f marshalsea; M.L. 

marescalcia; see prec. 
mar^e, s. f. tide, saltwater-fish; mare, 

the sea. 

marge, s. f. margin; margo, -inis; 
comp. ^marger. 

aiMgelto, 8. f. kirb (of wells), curb, 
marger, v. a. to gauge the furniture 
of (print). 

marginal, e, adj. marginal; It mar- 
gin ale. 

margiaer, v. a. to margin. 
margot, s. f magpie; cont of Mar- 
guerite, name given to the magpie; 
comp. jacasser. 
margot, s. m. diver (sea-bird); mer- 

margraye, s. m. f. margrave, mar- 
gravine; Ge. markgraf, mark, a 
bound, gr af, a count,gr a e fin, coun- 
tess ; L e. count or keeper of the 
margrayiat, s. m. margraviate. 

marguerite, s. f. daisy, pesdhl (in the 
Bible); margarita, a pearl, the 
daisy having the colour of a pearl. 

margoillier, 8.m. church-warden; O.F. 
marreglier; M.L. matricula- 
rius; matricula, a register, 
marguillerie, s.f. church-wardenship ; 
O.F. marlerie. 

marl, s. m. husband, spouse; O.F. 
marit, marid; maritus, matri- 
monial, mas, maris, a male. 

mariable, adj. marriageable. 
mariage, s. m. marriage, matrimony, 


marier, v. a. to marry, to espouse. 

marieur, s. m. le, s. f. match-maker. 

marin, e, adj. marine, sea, sea-£aring; 

marinus, mare, the sea. 
marinA, s.f. navy, sea-service, marine, 
mariner, v. a. to cure, to pickle, 
marinier, s. m. bargeman. 

marionnette, s. f. puppet ; F. M ar i o n 

Dim. of Marie, Mary. 
marital, e, adj. marital; maritalis 

maritus; see mari. 
maritime, adj. maritime, naval; ma- 

ritimus, mare; see marine. 
mariyaadage, s. m. pretentions style 

of writiug, exaggerated ideas ; after 


— 146 — 

Marivaax, a French author of the 
18th century. 

marjolaiiie, s. f. sweet maijoram; It. 
majorana; Sp. mayorana; E. 
marjoram; Gfe. majoran; M.L. 
majoraca; amaracus. 

marmaille, s. f. a lot of little chil- 
dren; It. marmaglia; see mar- 

marmelade, s. f. marmalade, jelly; 
Sp. Port, m armellada; Port, mar- 
melo, quince; melimelum, fwf/- 
^;iov, honey-apple, (i^Uy honey, ^^- 
Xov, an apple. 

marmite, s. f. kitchen-pot, saucepan; 
It. Sp. marmita; It. marmo, mar- 
ble, ace. to Roquefort, 
marmiton, s. m. kitchen-boy. 

marmot, s. m. marmoset, grotesque 
figure, little boy; Et. d. 

marmotte, s. f. marmot; It mar- 
motta; Sp. mar mot a; O.H.G. 
murmenti, muremunto; (Ge. 
murmelthier); It. mure mon- 
tano; mus montanus, mouse of 
the mountain. 

marmotter, v. n. to mutter, to mumble ; 
Scheler^says, it is probably an onom. 

marmouset, s. m. grotesque figure, 
andiron ; prob. m a r m o u s, Celt, for 
marmot, s. t. 

marne. s. f. marl; O.F. marie, mer- 
le; 6.H.G. mergil; Ge. mergel; 
E. marl; M.L. marila, marla*). 
mamer, v. a. to marl, 
mameiiz, le, adj. marly, 
mmmi^, s. f. marl-pit. 
maroqnin, s. m. morocco-ltather; so 
called from its being first prepared 
in Morocco, F. Maroc. 
maroqninar, v. a. to manufacture mo- 
maroquinerie, s. f. morocco-leather ma- 

maroquinier, s. m. morocco-tanner. 

marotte, s.f. foolscap, hobby; Et d. 
Some connect it with mar ionn ett e, 

maroufle, s. m. ragamuffin, clodhop- 
per; Et d. 

marque, s. f. mark, token, mdicaUon, 
sign.; It. Sp. Port Prov. marca: 
Ge. marke; comp. marc and 

marquer, v. a. to mark, to note down, 
to stamp, to brand; Ge. merken; 
comp. remarquer. 
marqueter, v. a. to checker, to in- 
lay; freq. of marquer, s. t 
marqaeterie, s. f. checker-work, mar- 
quetry, inlaid work. 
marqueor, s. m. marker, scorer; see 

marquis, 8.m. marquis, marquess; It. 
marquBe, s. f. marchioness, marquee 

marraine, s. f. god -mother; Pro v. 
mairina; It Sp. madrina; M.L. 
matrina; mater, mother; comp. 

marron, s. m. chestnut, curl of nair; 
It. marrone; (tocQaog, fidQaov^ the 
fruit of the dogwood-tree, 
marronier, s. m. chestnut -tree. 

marron, s. m. ne, s.f maroon, run- 
away-slave, work printed clandes- 
tinly; OJ". simarron; Sp. ci- 
marron, savage; "Supposed to be 
derived from a word, used in Spanish 
America, signifying hog-hunters**. 


mars, s.m. Mars, March; Mars, the 
god of war. 

marseillaise, s. f. Marseillaise, French 
revolutionuj hymn; composed by 
Rouget de Lisle in 1792, so called 
because it was first publicly sung 
in Paris by the Marseilles confed- 

marsovin, s. m. porpoise, sea • hog; 
Ge. ueerschwein, meer, sea^ 
(marine), schwein hog, (swine). 

marte, s. f see mart re. 

marteau, s. m. hammer; O.F. m ar- 
tel; It martello; martellns, 

martel, s. m. hammer, care, uneasi- 
ness; see prec 
martelar, v. a. to hammer, 
martelet, s. m. small hanmier. 

martial, e,a4j. warlike, martial; mar- 
tiialis, pertaining to Mars, the 
god of war. 

mjirtiiiet, 8.m. tilt-hammer, cat o'nine 

tails; see marteau. 
martiiiet, a. m. martin, a kind of 

•) aoc. 10 Die. from L.m«rg», wWck howew U not Latin, aaPlinina (lMokXYII.4) 
ay* thai the Britaina and Ganto caU It nB»rf a*\ 

— 147 — 

swallow, flat candlestick; dim. of 
Martin,proprename; comp. pier- 
rot, sansoiinet, etc. 

martingrale, s. f. martiDgal; It. Sp. 
martin gal a; in the i6^* century 
it meant a sort of shoes, worn by 
the „Martigaux^ inhabitants of 

martre, also marte, s.f. marten; Sp. 
Port marta; martes; comp. A. S. 
mearth; £.marten; Qe.marder. 

martyr^ s. m. e, s. f. martyr; pui^tv^^ 

Aeol. for (MQtvg, a witness, 
martyre, s. m. martyrdom; marty- 
rium; iiaQzvQiov^ a testimony. 

martyriier, y. a. to martyrize, 
martyrologe, s. m. martyrology; M.L. 
martyrologium; Xoyog, a dis- 

masearade, s. t masauerade; It. 

mascherata, maschera; see 

masearon, s. m. mask; It. masche* 

rone; see masque. 

mascnlin, e, adj. masculine, male; 

masculinus, masculus; see 

mafonlinit^, 8. f. masculinity. 

masque, s. m. mask; M.L. masca, 
witch, m a s c u 8, mask ; £t d. Grimm 
proposes L. masticare, to chew, 
a witch or a gaping mouth (mask) 
swallowing children, others ftdduce 
O.H.6. masca (E. mesh), a net 
masquer, ¥• a. to mask, to conceal, 
to hide. 

massaerer, y. a. to massacre, to 
slaughter, to butcher; L.Ge. mats- 
ken; Ge. metzeln. 

maaiaere, s. m. massacre, slaughter. 

mafsaoreur, s. m. slayer, slaughterer, 

masse, s. f. mace, sledge- hammer; 
It mazza; Sp. Port, maza; E. 
mace; ma tea, lost primitive of 
mateola, a little wooden mallet 

masse, s. f. mass, heap, capital-stock, 
stake (play); massa, f^cc, barley- 
bread, fidaam, to knead. 

massepain, s.m. marchpane; It ma r- 
zapane; (Ge. marzipan): marci 
panis, panis martins, ace. to 
Frisch irom Marzo, an Italian 
who invented this cake, ace. to 
others, L. maza, (it^cc, barley-bread, 
comp. masse, mass. 

masser, y. a. to group masses (in 
painting), to shampoo, to stake; see 
masse, mass. 

massif, ye, adj. massive, massy, heavy; 
see masse, mass. 

massue, s. f. club; see masse, mace. 

mastie, s. m. mastic ; fiaat^xVy fwatdtm, 
to chew, because used for chewing 
in the East 

mastieation, s. f. mastication, mandu- 
cation; masticatio, -onis, masti- 
care, to chew. 

mastiquer, v. a. to cement; see ma- 

masturber, v. a. to practise onanism; 
masturbari, manus, hand, stu- 
prare, to ravish, 
maftarbation, s. f. onanism. 

masure, s. f. house in ruins, hovel; 
M.L. mansura; mansio; seemai- 

mat, te, adj. (of colours) dead, pale ; 
dull, heavy; Ge. matt. 

mat, te, adj. (chess) mate; It mat to; 
Sp. mate, shortened from It' sea c- 
comatto, check mate, Pers. 
schach mat, the king is dead; 
comp. 6chec. 

mftt, s. m. mast; O.F. Prov. mast; 
O.U.G. Ge. E. mast 

matador, s.. m. matadore, rich man; 
Sp. matador, killer, matar, to 
kill; muctare, to sacrifice. 

matamore, s. m. noisy fellow, brag- 
gart; Sp. matamoros, lit. killer 
of the Moors ; see prec. 

matelas, s. m. matress; O.F. mate- 
ras; It materasso; Ge. ma- 
tratze; E. matress; Arab, al 

matelasier, y. a. to trim (carriages), 
to stuff. 

matelasiier, s. m. ^re, s. f. matrass- 
matelot, s. m. sailor; ace. to Diez 
• from L. matta a maty mattaritrs, 
who sleeps on a mat, (Ge. matrose), 
others derive it fr om D. m a a t, m a e t, 
E. mate, a companion. 

matelote, s. £ matelote, a dish of food 
consisting of several varieties of fish. 
mater, v. a. to checkmate, to mor- 
tify; see mat 
mftter. y. a. to mast; sec m&t 
matmel, le, adj. material, substan- 
tial; materialis, materia; see 


— 148 — 

matAriallier, y. a. to materials. 
maUriaUnu, s. m. materialiam. 
maUrialifte, s. m. materialist. 
matiriaiuL, s. m. pi. materials, 
materiel, s. m. material, stodc. 

maternel, le, adj. maternal, matber- 
Ijr; It. materaale; maternus, 
mater; see m^re. 
maternity, s.f. maternity; It. mater- 

math^matiqae 9 a^j- mathematical ; 
mathematicus; (ta^fiarindg, fid- 
di}fitt, that which is learnt, science, 
fiad'Siv. inf. aor. 2. of iiav^dvm, to 
mathtaiatiqiiei, s. m. pi. mathematics. 

matidre, s. f. matter, material; ma- 

mfttin^ s. m. mastiff, dog, cur; It. 
mastino; Sp. ProY. mastin; mas- 
satin us, mansio, a house; comp. 

matin, s. m. morning; It. mattino; 
ProY. mati; matutinum (t em- 
pus) morning-time. 
ntflti*««^i, e, adj. early, morning, 
mating, s. f. morning, fomoon. 

matj^i, 8. f. pi., matins. 

matineux, se, adj. early. 
matolB) e, adj. cunning, sly; ace. to 
Diez from F. matou, s. t; ace. to 
Scheler from O.F. mate, formerly 
the name of a place in Paris, where 
had people used to meet. 

matoa, s. m. tom cat; OJ". mitou; 

It. micio, muci; Sp. mizo; 6e. 

miez; supposed to be an onom. 
matrice, s. f. matrix, womb, matrice; 

matrix, -icis, mater, mother. 

matrieule, s. f. matriculation; ma- 
tricula, a register, dim. of ma- 
trix; see prec. 

matrimonial, e, adj. matrimonial, con- 
jugal; matrimonialis, matri- 
monium, marriage. 

matrone, s. f. matron; matrona, 
mater, mother. 

mfttnre, s. f. masts, masting; see 

matarer, y. a. n. to ripen, to make 
ripe, to bring to maturity ; matu- 
rare, maturus, ripe, 
maturation, s.f. ripening, matu?atioa; 
maturatio, -onis. 
matiuriti» s. f. maturity, ripeness; ma- 

matotinal, 69 acy. of the morning, 
mornlBg; matutinus; see matin. 

maadire, y. a. to curse ;maledicere; 
comp. malediction. 

mftogrr^ev, Y. B. to curso; Q.F. mau- 
gre, F. malgre, s. t. 

fliaure; see more. 

mausol^e, s. m. mausoleum ; mango- 
leum; Mavea>X$iov, the tomb •£ 
Mausolus, king of Gfuia. 

maassade, adj. sullen, cross; male 
sapidus; comp. insipide. 
mauisadiiit, a. f. suHeaiiess, crossness, 

mauYais, e, adj. bad, oyII, wrong; 
O.F.ProY. maWais; ItmalYasio; 
Die? compares with it Goth. balYa- 
Y^sei, malice, mau-L. male, bad. 

maaYe, s.f. mallow; maWa, fMtXdxfi, 

ftaXMi6g^ soft. 
mauYiette, s. f. (fat) lark; dim. of 

mauYis, s. t. 

mauYis, s. m. fig -pecker (bird); O.F. 
malYis; M.L. malYitius, £t d.- 
Plez proposes malum Yitis, this 
bird being injurious to the Yine. 

maxillaire, adj. maxillary; m axil- 
laris, maxilla, the jaw. 

maxime, s. f. maxim; M.L. maxi- 
ma; maximus, greatest, i. e. of 
the greatest authority. 

maxiiHUMt, s. m. maximum; maxi- 
mum, sup. of magnum, great 

mazette, s. £ nag, uAskilful player 
(in chess etc.); Ge. matz. 

me, pron. me, tome; me, comp. moi. 

m^-, pref. the Engl, pref mis- dis-; 
see mes. 

m^andre, s. m. winding course, mean- 
der; Meander, a river in Pbrygia, 
noted tor its windings^ 

m^at, s. m. meatus; meatus, a 

f;oing^ me are, to go. 
camque, a<^. mechanic, m;echani- 
cal; ^xavinog^ mZf^^Vi a machine, 
MZ^St a means. 

mioaaioien, s. m. machinist, mechaniok 
a^oaniqits, s. f. machinery, mechamcs, 
mi6oaai«n6, s. m. mechanism. 

m^edae^ s. m. patron; Maecenas. 

m^ehamment, adv. malidousl-y, mis- 
QhieYOosly; see m 6 chant. 

m^ehant, evft^j* ^^« mischioYous, 
YKioas^;, Q.F. mes-ob^ant, mes- 
choYir, to fait^ we,«ieA aa4^^ir 

— 149 - 

aMmiMtftf, 8. t widkedbess, badness, 
maliciousness, knalic^. 
m^che, 8. £ wick, matcb^ tinder, lock 
of hair; myxa; fitiga, mucus. 

m^ehef, s. m. mischief, misfortune; 
O.F. meschef; E. mischief; see 
m6 and chef. 

m^eher, v. a. to smoke with brim- 
stone; see m^che. 

m^eompte, s. m. miscalculation, dis- 
appointment; see m6 and comp- 

m^eompter, (se), pr. ▼. to miscalculate, 
to be disappointed. 

m^eonnaissable, a^j* unknowable, in- 
discernible; see m^connaitre. 

m^connaissanee, s. f. unthankfulness, 
disregard; see mk and connais- 

m^eonnaissant 9 e, adj. unthankful, 
regardless; see next w. 

m^eonnattre, y. a. not to recognize, 
not to know again, to disown, to 
disregard; see m6 and conn ait re. 

m6content, e, adj. discontented, dis- 
pleased, malcontent; see m6 and 

mteontentcmeiit, s. m. discontent, dis- 

m^ntenter, v. a. to discontent, to 
displease, to dissatisfy. 

m6ertent, s. m. unbeliever, infidel; 

see me and cr6ance. 
m^daille, s. f. medal, medaillon; It 
medaglia; Sp. medalla^ M.L. 
medalia; metalleum, from me- 
tal, metalluro, ^sraAAov, a metal. 

mMaiUiar, s. m. cabinet of medals. 

mMaiUiste, s. m. medalist 

mMaillon, s. m. medallion, locket (jew- 

m^deein , s. m. physician , medical 
practitioner; for medecien; me- 
dicinus, medicus, mederi, to 

mMjBeine, s. f. medicine, physic; me- 

m^diat^ e^ adv. mediate; mediatus, 
meditis, middle. 

mMiatemant, adv. mediately. 

mMiatenr, s. m. -trioe, s. f. mediator; 
mediatrix; M.L. mediator. 

mMiatiiatioii, s. f. mediatization, an- 
nexation of smaller sovereignties 
to larger states. 

uMiatiMr, v. a. to mediatise; seeprec. 

niMleal, «, a^J. medical; medicus, 
see m^decin. 

m^dieament, s. m. medicine, medi- 
cament; medicamentum, medi- 
cari, to heal. 
medieEmenter, v. a. to doctor, to physic. 

medicinal, e, adj. medicinal; medi- 
cinalis, medicina; see mede- 

m^dioere, adj. middling;, indifferent, 
mediocre; mediocris, medius, 
mMioorit^, s. f. mediocrity; medio - 

m^dire, v. n. to speak ill, to slander; 
see m6 and dire. 
mMisanoe, s. f. slander. 
mMifant, e, adj. slanderous. 

m^diter^ v. a. n. to meditate, to con- 
template: meditari. 
mMitatif, ▼•, a^j. meditative; medi- 

mMitattoB, 8. f. meditation; medi- 
tatio, -onis. 
m^diterran^, e, adj. Mediterranean; 
medi-terraneus, mid*land, me- 
dius, middle, terra land. 
mMiterran^e, s. f. Mediterranean. 
medium, s. m. medium, middle; me- 

m^dullaire, a4j. medullary; medul- 
laris, medulla, marrow; comp. 
m^faire^ v. n. to do evil, harm; see 
m6-and fa ire. 

mMait, s. m. misdeed; see fait 
m^fier, (86)9 pr. v. to mistrust, to 
distrust; see mk and fier. 
mManoe, s. f. mistrust, distrust 
miflan.t,e, acy. mistrustful, distrustful. 
m^garde^ 8. f. inadvertence; see me 
and garde. 

m^gdre, s. f vixen; mega era, one 
of the Furies. 

m^gle, s. f. leather-dressing, tawing; 

O.F. mesgis; Et d. 
migisier, v. a. to taw. 
m^gisierie, s.f. leather- dressing, taw- 
messier, B.m. leather-dresser, tawer. 

meilleur, e. ady . better, best ; m e li r 
comp. of bonus, see bon. 

m61aneolie, s.f melancholy; melan- 
cholia; iMlayxoX^a, (i^lag, fiiXcev^ 
black, %oXi}^ bile. 

mtianooliqoe, adj. melancholy, dull; 
melancholicus; (ulayxoXL%6g, 

— 150 — 

m^lansre. b, m. mixture, mash, med- 
ley, alloy, miscellany; O.F. mes- 
lange; see meler. 
m^Umger, v. a. to mix, to blend, to 

m^lasse, s. f. melasses, molasses, 
treacle; like mellacea from mel, 
m el lis, honey; comp. mi el. 

mMer, v. a. to mix, to minsle, to 

blend; O.F.mesler; Itmiscniare; 

Sp. Port Prov. mesclar; M.L. 

misculare, dim. of L. miscere, 

to mix (meddle), 
melange; see this, 
infill, s. f. melee, fight, conflict, 

m^lisse, s.f. balm, balm-mint; (i^sXiaaa, 

a bee, honey. 

m^lodie, s. f. melod]^; It. Sp. melo- 
dia; yi^ltodia, a singing, juaAog, a 
strain, mdr^, a song, 
m^lodienx, se, adj. melodious. 

m^lodrame, s. m. melodrama, melo- 
drame; ii>^Xog^ a song, Hqaiut^ a 

m^lomane, adj. melomaniac, music- 
mad; ykhoq^ a song, fia£vo(iaL; see 
mdlomanie, s. f. melomania. 

melon 9 s. m. melon; It. mellonc; 

melo, -onis, shortened from me- 

lope p on, ,firiXonijiov , fi^Xov, an 

apple, nsncovj ripe, soft, 
melonni&re, s. f. melon-bed. 
m61ophone,^8. m. melophone; fJ^sXog, 

a strain, (pcovrj, a tone. 
membrane, s. f. membrane, film ; m em- 

brana, membrum, a limb, 
membraneoz, se, adj. membranous, 


membre, s. m. limb, member; mem- 

membra, e, adj. large limbed, mem- 

membrure, s. f. measure for fire-wood, 
ribs of a ship. 

m§me, adj. same, self; O.F. mesme, 
meisme; It. medesimo; me- 
met ipsimus, metipsimus. 

m^molre, s. f. memory, remembrance, 
recollection; memoria. 
xn^oire, s. m. memorandum, memo- 
rial, essay, memoii's. 

memorable, adj. memorable; memo- 
rabilis, memorare, to call to re- 

memorandum, s. m. memorandum, 

memorial; memorandum, part, of 

memorare; see prec. 
memorial, s.m. memorial, diary; me- 

morialis, pertaining to memory, 

memoria, memory. 
menace, s. f. threat, menace; It. mi- 

naccia; Sp. amenaza; Prov. me- 

nassa; minaciae, minax, -acis, 

lit. jutting out, then: threatening, 
menaoer, y. a. to threaten, to menace. 

manage, s. m. house-keeping, house- 
hold, husband and wife; for mai- 
sonnage, maison, s. t. 

management, s. m. consideration, re- 
gard, caution. 

manager, v. a. to husband, to spare, 
to manage. 

manager, Sre, adj. economical, saving, 

menagerie, s. f. menagery. 

mendlant, e, adj. begging, mendicant; 
see mendier. 

mendicity, s. f. begging, beggary, men- 
dicity; mendicitas, mendicus, 
a beggar. 

mendier, v. n. to beg, to go begging; 
mendicare, mendicus, a beggar, 
comp. ami and fourmi. 

mener, v. a. to lead, to conduct, to 
drive (animals or carriages); 
nare; Prov. menar; M.L. mi- 
nare, for impellere, to push, to 
drive on; mi n are, to threaten, 
men^, s. f. intrigue, trick, 
meneur, s. t. 

m^nestrel, s. m. minstrel; M.L. mi- 
nisterialist artist; minister, a 

m^n^trier, s.m. fiddler; O.F. mene- 
strier, same as prec. 

meneur, s. m. leader, driver; see me- 

menotte, s. f. little hand, pi. hand- 
cuffs, manacles; dim. of main, s. t. 

mense, s. f. dining-table, revenue of 
abbeys; mensa. 

mensonge, s. m. untruth , falsehood, 
lie; It. menzogna; Prov. men- 
zonga; mentitio,mentiri, to lie. 
Like O.F. calonge, from L. ca- 
lumnia, comp. also songe, singe, 
vendange, etc. 
mensonger, ire, adj. untrue, false, 

mensuel, le, adj. monthly; men- 

sualis, mensis, a month. 
ment, a suffix, the termination of 

— 161 — 

adrerbs; It Sp. Port men te; men- 

te, abl. of mens, -tig, the mind, 
mental, e, adj. mental; It men tale; 

mens, -tis, the mind. 
menterie, s.f. antrath, falsehood, fib; 

see mentir. 
menteur, se, adj. lying, deceitful; see 


menthe, s. £ mint (plant); me nth a, 

mention y s. f. mention; mentio, 
meatioimer, v. a. to mention. 

mentir, t. n. to lie, to tell an un- 
truth; mentiri. 

mentoB, s. m. chin; mentum; comp. 

mentor, s. m. Mentor, guide; Men- 
tor, Mivxmg^ „a faithful friend of 
Ulysses, whose form Minerva assu- 
med to give instruction to Tele- 
machus.*' (W. Smith). 

menu, e, adj. slender, thin, small; 
minutus, minuere, to lessen 

menu, s. m. detail, bill of fare, 
menuet, s. m. minuet. 

memiisier, s. m. joiner, carpenter; 
O.F. menuiser, to lessen, to cut; 
It. minuzzare; Prov. menozar; 
minutiare, minutus; see menu, 
menuiserie, s. f carpentry, carpen- 
ters work. 

m^phitiqae, adj. mephitic; mephi- 
ticus, mephitis, a noxious ex- 

m^prendre (se), pr. v. to be mis- 
taken, to mistake; see me and 

m^piris, s. m. contempt, scorn; see 
me and pris. 

miprisable, adj. contemptible, despi- 
m^prise, s.£ mistake, misapprehension. 

m^priser, v. a. to despise, to scorn; 
see m^ and p riser. 

mer, s. f. sea; mare. 

mercaytil, e, adj. mercantile, com- 
mercial; mercans, -tis, pr. p. of 
mercare, to trade; comp. mar- 
chan t 

mereenaire, adj. mercenary, hire- 
ling; mercenarius, mer ces, hire. 

mercerie, s. f. mercery, haberdashery; 
merx, -cis; see mercier. 

mere!, s. f. mercy, s. m. thanks ; O.F. 
mercit; It merc6; Sp. merced; 

M.L. merces, compasaion; mer- 
ces, -edis, salary, reward. 

mereier, s. m. -dre, s. f. mercer, hab- 
erdasher; merx, -cis, goods, mer- 

mereredi, s. m. Wednesday; Itmer- 
coledi, mercordi; Mercurii 
dies, the day of Mercurius. 

mereare. s. m. Mercury, mercury, 
quicksilver; Mercurius, the mes- 
senger of the gods, and the god of 
commerce, etc. 
merenriale, s. f formerly meeting of 
parliament in Paris and the speak- 
ers address y later, reprimande; 
prob. so called because the meetings 
took place on Wednesdays; see mer- 

mereuriale, s.f prices of grain, mar- 
ket prices of grain, 
meronriel, le, adj. mercurial; mer- 
merde, s. f. dirt, excrement; mer da. 
merdeuz, se, adj. dirty. 
mdre, s. f. mother; Prov. maire; It 

Sp. Port, madre; mater, -tris. 
mdre, a^j- mother, primitive, princi- 
pal; prob. L. merus, pure, una- 

m^ridien, s. m. meridian; meridia- 

n u s , pertaining to mid-day , m e r i - 

dies, mid-day, morus dies, lit 

pure, unmixed day. 
miridienne, noon's nap, meridian line. 
meridional, e, adj. meridional, south- 
ern; meridionalis, meridies; 

see m^ridien. 
meringue, s. f. „ meringue" (cake); 

Et d. 
merinos* s. m. merino-sheep, merino, 

Spanisn wool; Sp. merino, moving 

from pasture to pasture. 
merise, s. f. wild cherry, Et. d. 
merisier, s. m. wild cherry-tree. 
m6rite, s. m. merit, desert; meri- 

tum, merere, to earn, 
miriter, v. a. to deserve, to merit; 

merit are, freq. oi merere. 
mMtoire, adj. meritorious; meri- 

merlan, s. m. whiting (fish); O.F. 

merlenc; M.L. merluus; Et d. 

merle, s. m. blackbird, ousel; me- 

rula; comp. emerillon. 
merlin, s. m. marline; E. marline; 

Goth, m a r e i ; O.H.G. and A.S. m eri ; 

— 161 — 

6e. meer, sea; E. line; Ge. leine; 

comp. ligne. 
merlin 9 & m. felling -axe, clearer; 

marculas, a little hammer. 
merluclie, s. i hake, salt -cod; It. 

merluzzo; merlucius, maris 

lucius, pike of the sea. 

meryeille, s. f. wonder, marvel; It. 
Sp. Port, maraviglia; ProY. me- 
raviglia; mirabilia, mirari, to 

merveOleuement, adv. wonderfully, 

meryeiUeoz, le, adj. wonderful, mar* 

m^8-, pref. same as m6 (see this); 

Ptov. mes; It. mis; cont. of L. 

minus, less. 
mes, pi. of mo n, ma (s. t.), my; meos, 

ace. pi. of me us, my, mine. 

m^sallier, v. a. to marry to another 

of inferior condition; see allier. 
mteaUiance, s. f. misalliance; comp. 

m^sansre, s. m. titmouse; O.F. ma- 
sange; M.L. meisa; A.S. mkse; 
O.H.G. meisa; Ge. meise; E tit- 

m^sayentare, s. f. misadventure, 

mishap; see aventure. 
mesdames, pi. of mad a me, s. t. 
m^sent^re, s. m. mesentery; lisasv- 

tsQioVf fiiaogy middle, ivtsqov, an 


m^sestimer, v. a. to undervalue , to 
underrate; see m6s and es timer. 

m^sintelligence, s. f. misunderstand- 
ing; see mes and intelligence. 

mesmerisme, s. m. mesmerism; so 
called from Anthony Mesmer, who 
first brought it into notice. 

mesquin, e, adj. mean, shabby, little; 
O.F. meschin; It. mes chin o; Sp. 
mezquino, slave, poor, miserable; 
Arab, me skin, slave, poor, mise- 

meBquxnerie, s. f. meanness, shabbi- 

message, s. m. message, errand ; O.F. 

mes; It. messo; missus, p.p. of 

mittere, to send, 
messager, s. m. -^re, s. f. messenger. 
messagerie, s.f. stage-coach, coach- office. 

messe, s. f. mass; miss a, from the 
phrase, ite, missa est concio, 
(Go, the assembly is dissolved), with 

which the congregation used to be 
dismissed; mittere to send away. 

mess^ant, e, adj. indecorous, unbe- 
coming; see mis and s§ant. 
messiaaM, s. f. impropriety. 

Messidor, s. m. the tenth month ot 
the calender of the first French re- 
public; messi 8, the harvest, dm^im^ 
to give. 

messie, s.m. Messiah; Heb. mashiach, 

messier, s. m. keeper of a standing 
crop; M.L. messarius; messis, 
harvest, crop. 

messiears, pi. of monsieur, s. t. 

messire, a m. a title of honour. Mis- 
ter, Master, squire ; O.F. m e s, miDe ; 
mens, and sire, s. t. 

mestre-de-eamp, s. m. colonel of 
cavalry, first company (of a regi- 
ment); It maestro di campo; 
see maitre, de, camp. 

mesure, s. f. measure, measurement; 
mensura, metiri, (mensus), to 

meiurahle, adj. measurable, 
mesurage, s. m. measuring, measur- 



metarer, v. a. to measure, 
mesarear, s. m. measurer. 
misuser, v. n. to misuse, to abuse; 

see mes and user. 
m6tairie, s. f . farm ; O.F. m e t a y e r i e ; 
M.L. medietaria, see metayer. 
m^tal, s. m. metal; metallum, fM- 

mitalliqae, adj. metallic, 
metallisation, s. f. metallization. 
mitaUiser, v. a. to metallize. 

m^tallnrgie, s. f. metallurgy; iihak- 
Xov^ a metal, iqyov^ work. 

mitaUnrgiqae, adj. metallurgic. 

mdtallurgiste, s. m. metallurgist. 
metamorphose, s. f. metamorphosis, 
transformation; metamorphosis; 
|Ei8rafA09qpa)atg,fieva-fi099o'cD,to trans- 
form, ^era, noting change, fto^qprj, 
shape. g 

mitamorphoser, v. a. to metamo^hose, 
to transform. 

m^taphore, s. f. metaphor; meta- 
phor a; ^sra^o^a, fista, over, fpiqm^ 
to carry, 
mitaphoriqae, adj. metaphoric. 

metaphysiqae, s.f. metaphysics; fiera 
xoL (pvaiiux, after those thmgs, which 
relate to external nature, or after 

— 158 — 

j^yrics; — an expresrion ased by 
Aristotle in the cnapter of ooe of 
his works which follows that rela- 
ting to matters of natural philo- 
mitaphyiioien, s. m. metaphysician. 

metaplasme, s. m. metaplasm; futee- 
sZft<ffM>(, fMTix, noting change,«iLa(r0ai, 
to form. 

m^tathdse, s. f. metathesis; (laxd^s- 
ciSj (iBtat^iu, to place differently. 

metayer, s. m. -dre, s. f. metayer, 
a farmer holding land on condition 
of yielding half the produce to the 
proprietor; M.L. medietarius; 
medietas, the middle (half), mo- 
di as. 

m^teil, s. m. meslin, a mixture of 
wheat and rye; O.F. mesteil; 
MX. mestellum^ miztellum; 
mixtum, mixed, miscere, to mix; 
comp. mouture. 

n^tempsyeose, s. f. metempsychosis, 
transmigration of sonls; iMtc^^- 
Xmaig^ fifiroe, noting change, ifvifyoxdcay 
to animate, h, in, ^z^^ soul. 

m^t^ore^ s. m. meteor; fi^r^co^a, things 
in the air, iistd, noting direction, 
almQoc, a hovering in the air, ds^oa, 
to lift. 

mMoriqwtf adj. meteoric. 

m^ttoologiey s. f. meteorology; l6yog, 
a discourse. 

mAtiorologique, adj. meteorological. 

n^thode, s. f. method; method us; 
fki^odog, (i^td, after, odog, a way. 
XBAthodique, adj. methodical, 
m^odiste, s. m. methodist. 

m^tiealenx, se, adj. fastidious, over^ 
scrupulous; meticulosus, full of 
fear, met us, fear. 

mMer, s. m. trade, profession, busi- 
ness, loom; O.F. mestier; It. me- 
ministerium, an employment, mi- 

, nister; comp. ministre. 

m^tis, se, a^j- of a mixed breed, 

halfbred, mule; O.F. mestice; Sp. 

mestizo; mixtitius, mixtus, 

mixed, miscere. 
m^tonymie. s. f. metonymy; luzmw- 

fk^tCy pknoy noting change, Svofuc, 

mdtre, s. m. metre (the unity of the 

French measure of length), metre 

(▼ers.) met rum; (litQov. 
mtoique, adj. metrical. 

n^tropol6f 8. f. metropolis, capital; 
l^riTQonoXig, ftifrij^, mother, ndJUgy 
a city. 

mtoropoIitaiB, e, a^. metropolitan. 
ntoopelitaiB, s. m. metropolitan. 
luets, s, m. dish, viand; O.F. mas, 
mes; £. mess; It. messo; mis- 
sum, sent, (which is sent to the 
table), mitt ere; see mettre. 

mettre, v. a. to put, to place, to put 
on; Itmettere; Sp. meter; Port 
metter; mittere, toletgo, tosend, 
to emit. 

mettable, adj. wearable, fit to be worn, 
mettenr, s. m. putter, setter. 
meuble, adj. movable ; m o b i 1 i s ; comp. 

meuble, s. m. piece of fhmitnre, fur- 
niture, personal pro]}rety ; see prec. 
meubler, v. a. to furnish. 

meugler, v. n. same as beugler, 
s.t.; O.F. mugler; It. muggliare; 
M.L. mugulare; mugire; comp. 

meule, s.f. stack, rick; M.L. mullo; 
metula, dim. of meta, the coni- 
cal stone for measuring the distance 
in the race- course, (metiri, to 

meule, s. f. mill-stone, grind -stone; 
mola, amill, molere;8eemoudre. 
meulier, s. m. mill-stone maker, 
meuli^re, s. f. mill-stone, mill-stone- 

meanier, s.m. -dre, s. f. miller; O.F. 
molinier, molnier; It. mulina- 
ro; Sp. molinero;, molinarius, 
mola; see moulin. 
meartre. s. m. murder, manslaugh- 
ter; O.F. meurdre,mordre; Goth, 
ma^rthr; A.S. morther, morth; 
E. murder; Ge. mdrder. 

menrtrier, tee, acy. morderous. 

meurtrier, s. m. murderer. 

meurtri^re, s.f. embrasure, loop-hole 
(in the walls of fortifications). 

menrtrir, v. a. to bruise (form, to 

meurtrissure, s. f. bruise. 

meute, s. f. pack of hounds; form. 

mutiny, comp. emeute; motus, 

mota, p. p. of movere, to move, 
mi, pref. half O.F. mei, meie, moie; 

medius, middle. 
mi, s. m. e in music; see ut. 
miasme, s. m. miasma; (liacfia^ a 

staining, fuuivmy to stain. 

— 154 — 

mianler, y. n. (of cats) to mew ; ono- 
miavlement, s. m. mewing (of cats). 

miea, s. m. mica, glimmer; mica, a 
morsel, or micare, to glitter, to 

miehe, s. f. small loaf; M.L. mica; 
mica, a morsel; comp. mie. 

micmae^ s. m. intrigue; Dan. misk- 
mak; Ge.mischmasch; (E. mish- 
mash;) mischen, to mix. 

mlerocosme, s. m. microcosm: fu- 
HQOxoofiog^ (u%q6sj little, xoa^dff, the 

microscope, s. m. microscope, magni- 
fying glass; iiiY^Qog little, <rxo?rfia>, 
to see. 
microsoopiquA, adj. microscopical. 

midi, 8. m. noon, mid-day, twelve o' 
clock in the day, South ; m i - di, m e- 
dius dies, mid-day. 

mie 9 s. £ crum (solt part of bread) ; 
ProY. mica, miga; Sp. miga; mi- 
ca, a morsel; comp. miche. 
mie, 8. f. love, dear; shortened from 

amie, s. t. 
miel, s. m. honey; mel, mellis. 
mitfat, s. m. honey-dew. 
miell^ e, adj. honey-coloured, 
mielleax, se, adj. honeyed. 

mien, ne, a^. mine; O.F. mi, and 

the suffix en = L — anus; comp. 

tien, sien. 
mien, s. m. mine, my own. 
miette, s. f crum of bread, morsel; 

see mie. 
mieax, adv. better, best; comp. of 

bien; O.F. mels, miels, miex, 

mix; Prov. meilhs;meliu3, comp. 

of bene; comp. bien. 
mi^Yre, adj. lively, petulant (child); 

Et. d. 

mignard, e, adj. neat, affected ; same 
as mignon, s. t. 
mignarder, y. a. to spoil (children) 
to coddle. 

mignaztUfle, s. f. neatness, affectation. 
mignon, ne, adj. neat, nice, charm- 
ing; 6e. minncn, to love. 
mignon, s. m. favorite, darling, inin- 

mignonnette, s. f mignonette, lace, 

ground pepper. 
mignoter, y. a. to spoil children ; O.F. 

mignot, same as mignard, s. t. 
migraine, s. f. megrim, violent head- 
ache; Sp. migrana; It. emigra- 

nia, magrana; ^fux^oy^a, i^fti, half 

nQocv^ov^ the skull, (pain affecting 

one side of the head). 
migration, s. Emigration; migratio, 

-onis, migrare, to migrate; comp. 

n^janr^e, s. f. affected lady; Et d. 
mijoter, y. n. to let simmer; Et d. 
mil, mille, adj. thousand; mille. 
mil, millet, s. m. millet; milium. 

milan, s. m. glede-kite; Sp. milano; 
Port milhuano; miluanns, mi- 
luus and milvus. 

miliee, s. f. militia; militia, war- 
fare, miles, -itis, a solcGer. 
milioien, s. m. militia-man. 

milieo, s. m. middle, midst, mediam; 
see mi and lieu. 

militaire, adj. military, soldier-like; 

militaris, miles, -itis, a soldier. 

militaire, s. m. soldier, military man. 

militant, e, adj. militant; mill tans, 
-antis, pr. p. of militare, to be 
a soldier, to serve, miles, -itis, 
a soldier. 

militer, v. n. to militate; militare, 
see prec. 

mille, adj. thousand; see mil. 

mille, s.f mile; Ge. meile; millia, 
thousand, because the Roman mile 
was 1000 paces (mille passuum). 

mille-feuille, s. f. milfoil; (Achil- 
lea) millefolium, mille,athoa- 
sand, folium, a leaf. 

mllle-fleurs, s. f. all -flowers; see 
mille and fleur. 

mill^naire, adj. millenary; mille - 

narius, mille, a thousand. 
miU^aire, s. m. millennium. 

mill6sime, s. m. (of coins, medals, 
monuments and books) date; mil- 
lesimus, the thousandth, mille, 

millet^ s. m. see mil. 

milliaire, adj. milliary, s. m. mile- 
stone; milliarium, a mile- stone; 
see mille, mile. 

milliard, s. m. thousand million ; see 

milliasse, s. f. thousands, swarms; 
see mille. 

millidme, adj. thousandth; see mille. 

millier, s. m. thousand; see mille. 

milligramme, s. m. milligramme 
(French measure); milli- cont of 
mil li^ me and gramme (s.t),gramy 
the thousandth part of a gram. 

— 155 — 

mllliiii^^e, s. m. millimttre, (French 
measure) the thousandth part of a 
metre; see prec. and m^tre. 

million, 8. m. million; see mille, 

millioniteei adj. millionth, 
millionnaire, s. m. f. millionnaire, per- 
son worth a million. 
milord, s. m. lord, my lord; £. my 

mime, s. m. mime, mimic; mimus, 
l^liog, an actor, mime, 
mimer, t. u. to mime, to mimic, 
mimiqiio, adj mimic; mimicus, fit- 

mimoia, s. f. mimosa, sensitive plant. 

minaret, s. m. minaret; Turk, mi- 
nar; Arab, menarah, a lantern. 
minaader, v. n. to be lackadaisical, 
affected; see mine, 
minauderie, s. f. affectation, 
minaadier, ^, a^j. lackadaisical, af- 

mlnee, adj. slender, slight, thin, small ; 
Et. d. Diez proposes O.H.G. min- 
nisto, sup. of min, small; (mince). 

mine, s. f. countenance, mien, appear- 
ance, air; see mener (minare); 
comp. L. gestusand gerere, ha- 
bitus, from habere. 

mine, s. f. mine, source, ore; It. Sp. 
mina; Ge. mine; minare; see 
miner, v. a. to mine, to undermine, 
mineral, s. m. ore. 

mineral, s. m. mineral. 
miniraliBation, s. f. mineralization, 
miniraliser, y. a. mineralize, 
min^ralcgie, s. f. mineralogy, Xoyog, 
a discourse, 
miniralogiqne, adj. mineralogical. 
min^ralogiflte, s. m. mineralogist. 

minet, s. m. te, s. f. Fuss (cat); ace. 

to Diez from Gael, min, small, 

mlnenr, s. m. miner, pitman: see 

mlnenr, e, adj. and s. minor, under 

age; minor, comp. of parvus, 

little, small; comp. moindre. 

miniature, s. f. miniature; It. minia- 
tura, mini a re, to paint with ver- 
milion, as small pictures ; minium, 
vermilion, orig. a Spanish word. 

mlni^re, s. f. ore; see mine. 

mlnlme, adj. extremely small, tri- 

fling, 8. m. minim; minimus, snp. 
of parvus, small. 

minimum, s. m. minimum; mini- 
mum, sup. of parvus; comp. prec. 

minlstre, s. m. minister, clergyman; 
minister, a servant, minus, less 
(like magi s ter from ma^is, more), 
minist^re, s. m. ministry, mmistration. 
ministiriel, la, adj. of a minister, mi- 

minolg, s. m. pretty face; see mine, 

minority, s. f. minority; see mineur, 

minuit^ s. m. midnight, twelve o'clock 
at night; see mi and nuit. 

minuscule, a^j. small (not capital 
letter); minusculus, somewhat 
less, dim. of minus; comp. ma- 

minute, s. f. minute, moment, rough 
draught of a writing; minutus, 
p. p. of min u ere, to make smal- 
ler, minus, less, 
minutie, s. f. trifle, minutiae, 
minutieiiz, se, adj. minute, particular, 

mlrabelle, s. f. mirabelle, a small 
yellow plum, so called from Mire- 
beau, L. Mirabel la, the locality 
where it groes. 

miracle, s. m. miracle, wonder; mi- 
raculum, mirari, to wonder, 
miraonleox, se, adj. miraculous, won- 

mlrer, v. a. to aim, to aim at, to 
loom; pr. v. to mirror one's self; 
mirari, to wonder at. 
mirage, s. m. mirage, looming, 
mire, s. f. aim, sight (on a gun). 

mirllAore, s. m. coxcomb, fop ; Et. d. 

mlrllton, s. m. reed-pipe; Et. d. 

mirmidon, s. m. pygmy; Myrmidon, 
MvQiiidiSv , a son of Zeus and Eu- 
rinedusa, whom Zeus deceived in 
the disguise of an ant. Her son 
was for this reason called Myrmi- 
don from fivQfiri^, an ant (w. Smith.) 

miroir, s. m. mirror,' looking-glass, 
speculum; see mirer. 
miroiter, v. n. to reflect, to shine, 
miroiterie, s. f. looking-glass trade, 
miroitier, s. m. looking-glass maker. 

mis, e, adj. dressed, put; p. p. of 
mettre, (s. t.) mittere, misi, 
mise, s. f putting, dress, stake ^play). 

mlsalne, s. £ fore-sail, fore-mast; It. 

— 156 — 

nexEana, meeKO, half, i. e. be- 
tween the bow Bprit and the main 
mast. £. mizzen. 
ndsantkropCL s.m. misanthropist, hat- 
er of mankind; fuaavd'Qaitog , lu^ 
9im to hate, cM^mnog, a man. 
miianthroiiie , s. f. misanthropy, fua- 

adiaathropiqiie, adj. misanthropical. 

miscellanies, s.f. pi. miscellany ; m i s- 
cellaneus, miscellus, mixed, 
miscere, to mix. 

miseibie, adj. miscib!e, that can be 
mixed: miscere, to mix. 
miieihilit^,s. f. miscibility, the capacity 
of being mixed. 

mise, s. i; see mis. 

miserable, ac^. wretched, miserable; 
miseraoilis, miserari, to la- 
ment, miser, wretched. 

ndsdre, s. f. wretchedness, misery, 
trifle; miseria, miser, wretched. 

mis^rieode, s. f. mercy, clemency; 
misericordia, misericors, ten- 
der-hearted, miserere, to pity, 
cor, the heart. 

misMoordienx, le, adj. merciful, for- 

mlBsei, s. m. missal, mass -book; It. 
messale; M.L. missale, missa, 
mass; comp. messe. 

mission, s. f . mission ; m 1 s s i o, -o ni s, 
a sending, mitt ere, missam, to 
send, comp. mettre. 
miBtionaire, s. m. missionary. 

missive, s. f. missive; It. missiva; 
missum, mittere; see prec. 

mistral, s. m. maestral, North-west- 
wind in the South of Europe; It. 
maestrale; Sp. maestral; Prov. 
maestro; It. maestro, master, 
the master-wind. 

mitalne, s. £ mitten; 6e. mitte; E. 
middle; glove divided in two parts, 
or perhaps glove, covering half the 
arm, or half die hand. 

mite, s. f. mitej tick; A.S. mite; E. 

mite; 6e. miete; O.H.6. mei- 

zan, to cut. 
mitisrer, v. a. to mitigate, to temper ; 

mitigare, mitis, mild, agere, 

to act. 

mitigatioii, s. f. mitigation. 
mitOB, s. m. mitten; same as mi- 

taine, s. t. 
jnitonnsr, v. n. and pr. to simmer, 

*o coddle one's self. 

mltoy^eii) ii6« adj. middle, Iiiumm* 

diate; meaian«s; 6e. mi tie; 

comp. mitaine. 
Bitoyenneti, s. f. jolnt-proprety, jokit 

mitraille, s. f. old iron, gre^^fibat, 

small coin; ace. to Soheler 0»F. 

mite, small copper-coin, D.mijte, 

mij; minutia; mitraille w«lild 

then be for mitaille. 

mitraiUer, v. a. to fire grape, caniaCmr 

mitre, s. f. mitre; mitra; f^^«f«) a 

head-band^ turban, 
mitr^, e, adj. mitred. 
nitron, 8. m. baker's man, who «Med 

to wear caps of paper. 
mixte, adj. mixed; mixtus, p. p. of 

miscere, to mix. 
mixtion, s. f. mixture, 
mixtionner, v. a. to mix. ^ 
miztare, s. f. mixture; mixtura. 

mn^monique, adj. mnemonic; (uit^fM- 
vtxdg, belonging to memory, fiVTjfuwv, 
mn^moteehnie, s.f. mnemonics; funj- 
ficot', mindful, remembering, ri^flqjart 
mobile, adj. movable, unsteady; mo- 
bilis, cont. of movibilis, mo- 
ve re, to move; comp. meuble. 

mobile, s. m. motive. 

xnobiliaire, adj. personal (proprety). 

mobilier, ^re, adj. personal (proprety). 

mohilier, s. m. furniture. 

mohillBer, v. a. to mobilize. 

mobilisation, s. f. mobilization, 

mobility, s. f. mobility, unsteadiftMS ; 

modality, s. f modality; modal! 8, 

modus, a mode. 
mode, s. m. mode (form, metihod), 

mood; modus. 
mode, s. f. mode, fashion, mantiei^; 

pi. millinery; same as prec. 

module, s. m. model, pattern ; It. m o- 
dello; 6e. modell; modulus, 
dim. of modus, a standard, 
modeler, v. a. to model, to shape, 
modeleur, s. m. modeller. 
mod6rer, v. a. to moderate, to initi- 
eate, to restrain; moderari,' mo- 

modiratear, s. m. triee, s. f. modera- 
tor, governor. 

moderation, s. f. moderation. 
modArif e, adj. moderate. 
moderne, a^j. modem; It. Sp. mO* 

— ta7 — 

demo; M.L. modernus; modo, 
jast now, lit. by measure, modus, a 
modemiser, v. a. to modernize. 

m«ik«8te, adj. modest, unpretending; 
m od e 8 tu s, moderate, m o d u s, s^ 
modMtie, s. f. modesty; modestia. 

modieit^. s. £ smallness, moderate- 
ness; M.L. modicitas; modice, 
moderate, modus; see prec. 

modifieation, s. f. modification, va- 
riance*, modification -onis, mo- 
dific.are; see next w. 

modifier, v. a. to modify; modiH- 
care, modus, a measure, face re, 
to make. 

modiqae, adj. moderate; modicus, 
modus, a measure. 

modiste, s. m.f. milliner; see mode, 

modulation, 8.f, modulation; modn- 
latio, -onis, modulari; seemo- 

module, s. m. measure, module; mo- 
dulus, a small measure, dim. of 
modus, a measure; comp. module. 

modnler, v. a. to modulate, to warble; 
modulari, to measure, modulus; 
see prec. 

moelle, s.f. marrow, pith; Prov. me- 
zolai, mezolla, meola; Sp.Port. 
medula; medulla, medius, 
neeltovx, se, adj. marrowy, mellow. 

moellon, s. m. ashlar, shiver; Et d. 
Diez proposes L. mutilus, muti- 
lated (broken). 

moevTS, s. f. pi. manners, morals; 
mores,pl.of m<^, moris, manner. 

moi, pron. J, me, to me; O.F. mei; me. 

molgrnon, s. m. stump; £t. d. comp. 

moiadre, a^j. less, least; O.F. men re, 
mendre; minor; comp. moins, 
minenr, pondre, tendre. 

moine, s. m. monk, friar; Sp. Port. 

Prov. monge; It. monaco; mo- 

nachus, fiovaxog^ alone, (itdvogj 

sioimeau, s. m. sparrow; O.IT. mois- 

son, moisnel, cont. of moisso- 

ne^l; 6e. musche; O.E.G. mez; 

musca, a fly. 
moinerle, s. f. monkhood; see oioine. 
m^if^OA,, a. m. petty » sorry ^or, 

monk; see moine. 

moins, adv. less, least, unless; O.F. 

Prov. mens; Sp. Port, menos; It. 

meno; minus. 
moire, s. f. watered, waved (silk), 

mohair; Ge. mohr; E. mohair; 

Et d. 

Bolxi» e, adj. watering, watered, 
moirer, v. a. to water C^xtile fabrics). 
mois, s. m. month; O.F. meis; Prov. 

Sp. mes; It mese; mensis. 

moisir, v. a. to mould, to render mouldy, 
musty; Prov. mozir; mncere, to 
be dreggy, mucus. 

melaissure, s. f. mouldiness, mustinesa 
moisson, s.f harvest; Prov. meissO; 
messio, messis. 

moisonnAT, v. a. to reap, to harvest, 
to mow down. 

moiMsneiur, 8. m. m, 8. f. harvest- 
man, reaper. 

molte, a^'. moist, damp; J*, moi ate; 
E. moist; ace. to Menage, ma- 
didus; ace. to Scheler humectus 
(for humidnsX moist, 
moiteur, s. f. sli^t moisture, damp- 

moiti^, s f. hal^ moiety; O.F. mei* 
ted, moitiet; Prov. mei tad; me- 
dietas, mediuSy middle. 

mol, molle, adj. soft; mollis; Gomp. 

molaire, ady. molar; molaria, mei- 
la, a mill. 

mdle, s. f. mole, mooncalf; mol a. 

mdle, s. m. mole, jetty-head; molea^ 
a heavy mass. 

mol^onle, s. f. molecule, particle; 
dim. of moles; see prec. 
moUeiUAire, adj. molecular. 

molester, v. a. to molest^ to annoy; 
M.L. molestare; molestus, an- 
noying, moles, a heavy mass. 

molette, s. f. rowel (of spurs), pestel; 
mola, a mill. 

mollasse, aclj. flabby, flimsy; see moL 

molle; see mol. 

mollesse, s. f. softness, weakness; 

see mol. 
mollet,te«adj. soft; dim. of mol, 8.t 
mollet, s. m. calf of the leg, 
moUeton, s. m. swanskin. 
molliiier, v. a. to mollify, to soften; 

mollis, soft, facere, to make. 
molUr, V, n. to soften, to yield; see 

mollusqBe, s. m. moUnski shell-flah; 

mieUnQOtta, moUia,, soft 

— 158 — 

moment, s. m. moment, momentum; 

momentum cont of movimen- 

tum, movere, to move, 
momentani, e, adj. momentary; mo- 

momerie, s. f. mummery; O.F. mo- 

mer, E. mumm, Go. mummen, 

to mask; Et d. 
momie, s. f. mummy; ace. to some 

Arab, mumia, from miUm, wax, 

ace. to others am o mum, a shrub, 

^because the ointment made of it 

was used in embalming**. 

mon, adj. my, mine; meum; comp. 

monacal, e, a^j. monachal; iiovccxog, 

solitary; comp. moine. 
monachisme, s. m. monachism; seeprec. 
monade, s. f. monad ; iiovag, fiovddos^ 

a unit, fidvog, alone. 
monarchie, s. f. monarchy; (lovuQxia, 

liovog, alone, agxrl, sovereignty; 

comp. monarque. 
monarohique, adj. monarchical. 

monarqae, s. m.. monarch; (lovaQxog, 

fidvog, alone, apzoo, to rule. 
monastdre, s. m. monastery, convent ; 

monasterium; ^ovaatjjgLov , ^o- 

vatm^ to live alone, {idvog, alone, 
monastiqiie , a^j. monastic; monasti- 

cus; (Mvaatinog. 
moneeau, s. m. heap; O.F. m on eel; 

monticulus, dim. of monSi -tis, 

a mount, a heap. 
monde, aqj. clean, pure; mundus, 

clean, neat; comp. immonde. 

monde, s.m. world, mankind, people, 
society, company; O.F. mond, 
m u n t ; m u n d u s, mankind, the world ; 
see prec. 
mondain, e, a^j. worldly, 
mondaniti, s. f. worldliness. 

monder, y. a. to husk (seeds); see 
monde, clean. 

mon^taire, adj. monetary ; M.L. m o ne - 
taris; moneta; see monnaie. 

monitenr, s. m. monitor, „Moniteur^ 
the official gazette of France; mo- 
nitor, m on ere, to remind. 

monition, s. f. monition; monitio, 
-onis, monere; seeprec. 

monitoire, adj. monitory; mo nit o- 
rius, monitorj see monitenr. 

monnaie, s. f. com, money, change 
(small coin), mint ; O.F. m o n n o i e ; 
Sp. moneda; It moneta; mo- 
neta, Moneta, a surname of Juno, 

in whose temple at Eome money 

was coined. 

monnayage, s. m. coinage, coining, 
monnayer, v. a. to coin, 
monnayeur, s. m. coiner, mint-man. 

monochrome, adj. monochromatic, of 

one . single colour; fidvog^ single, 

XQ^P''Oiy colour. 
monogamie, s. f. monogamy; (lovog, 

single; ya^^co, to marry; comp. bi- 


monogramme, s. m. monogram; mo- 
nogramnta; (tovoyQafifia , p^ovog^ 
single, ygdififuCf a writing. 

monographic, s. f. monography; ^td' 
voff, single, ygaqtoi^ to write. 

monolithe, s. m. monolith; an obe- 
lisk or monument formed of a single 
stone; fiovoili^og, fiovog^ single, Xi' 
^og, a stone. 

monologue, s. m. monologue, soli- ' 
loquy; fioVog, alone , Xoyog, a dis- 

monomanie, s. f. monomania; fiovog} 
single, iiavia, madness; see manie- 
monomane, adj. monomaniac. 

monopole, s. m. monopoly; mono- 
polium; iiovotccoIloVj [lovog, alone, 
noaXim, to sell. 

menopolfiur, s. m. monopolist, mo- 

monopollBer, v. a. to monopolize. 
monosyllabe, adj. monosyllabic; fio- 
voavXXa§og, iiovog^ single, avXXcc§r}, 
a syllable; see syllabe. 

monoth^isme, s. m. monotheism; (id- 

vog, single, ^sog^ God. 
monotone, a^j. monotonous; liovog, 

single, roVog, a tone, 
monotonie, s. f. monotony. 

monseigneor, s. m. monseigneur, a 
title given in France, before the 
revolution, to the Dauphin, now a 
title of courtesy; see mon and 

monsieur, s. m. M' (mister). Sir, 
gentleman, ^Monsieur**, the title of 
the French king's eldest brother; 
see mon and sieur. 

monstre, 8.m. monster; monstrum, 

monere, to admonish, to warn. 

monstraeux, se, adj. monstruous ; m on- 

monstmotit^ , 8. f. monstruosity. 
mont, 8. m. mountain, mount; mons, 

— 159 — 

montasre, s. m. moantmg, setting; 
see monter. 

montainie, s. £ mountain, mount; 
likemontanea, m on tan us, moun- 
tainous, mons; see roont. 

montagnard, e, adj. inhabitiug the 
montagneiuc, le, mountainous, hilly. 

montant, s. m. amount, doorpost; 
see monter. 

monter 9 v. n. to ascend, to mount, 
to rise, to amount, y. a. to bring 
up 9 to set (gems etc.), to wind 
up (clocks etc), to mount; mons,- 
-tis; seemont. 

monte, s. f. covering (of animals). 

mont^, s. f. ascent, acclivity, mount- 

Bumtonr, s. m. setter, mounter. 

montgolfl^re, s. f. fire -balloon; so 
named from its inventor, Mont- 
golfier, a Frenchman, who died 

montieiilef b. £ hillock; monti cu- 
ius; see monceau and mont. 

montoir. s. m. horse-block, the near 
side of a horse; see monter. 

montre. s f. watch (time-piece), sam- 
ple, show-case, show-window; see 
next w. 

montrer, v. a. to show, to point out ; 
O.F. monstrer; It. mostrare; 
monstrare, to show. 

montueux, 869 adj hilly, mountain- 
ous; see mont 

montnre, s.£ animal for ridiug,8tock of 
firearms, setting, mounting; seeprec. 

monament 9 s. m. monument, tomb; 
monumentum, monere, to re- 
momunental, e, adj. monumental. 

iDoquer9 (se). pr. v. to mock, to de- 
ride, to laugh at ; iioDndofiuL; Scheler 
thills it me same as m one her, 
s. t. 

moqaerie, s. £ mockery, derision. 

moqaenr, se, adj. and s. mocking, de- 
morale 69 adj. moral; mo ralis; mos, 
moris, manner, custom; comp. 

moral, s. m. mind, moral, mental fa- 
culties. . 

morale, 8. £ ethics, morality, morals, 

moraliier, y. n. to moralize. 

moraliMor, s. m. moralizer. 

moralifte], s. m. moralist, a moral 
morality, s. £ morality. 
morbide9 adj. morbid; morbid us, 
diseased, morbus, disease. 

morbIeii9 int. zounds; O.F. mo rbieu, 
for m r t di e u (s. t.) like E. z und s 
for God's wounds; comp. par- 

moreeaa9 s. m. piece, bit, morcel; 
O.F. morcel, morsel; It. mor- 
sello; morsum, ablt, mordere, 
to bite. 

moroeler, v. a. to parcel out, to par- 
moroeUement, s. m. parcelling out, 

mordacity 9 s. £ mordacity, corrosiye- 
ness, sarcasm; mordacitas, mor- 
dere; see mordre. 

mordant 9 69 a4i. biting , sarcastic, 
keen; see mordre. 

mordieant, 69 adj. mordicant, corro- 
sive, sarcastic; mordicans, -tis, 
pr. p. of M.L. mordicare; mor- 
dicus, mordere, to bite. 

mordiller9 v. a. to nibble ; see m rd r e. 
mordor^9 e, reddish brown; O.F. 

mor. black (see more), dor 6, gilt; 

see aorer. 

mordre 9 v. a. to bite; mordere. 
(morsel, morsure). 

more9 s. m. Moor, blackamoor; O.F. 
mor, black; Maurus, a native of 
Mauritania, so called by the Ro- 
mans as being the land of dark- 
skinned people; ftavgds dark, 
moroique, adj. Moorish, moresque. 

morfil. s. m. wire-edge (of knives, ra* 
zors); mordens filnm; see mor- 
dre and fil. 

morfondre9 v. a. to chill; pr. v. to 
be chilled, to wait in vain; see 
morve, and fondre. 
morfondnre, s. £ catarrh of horses. 

morganatiqae9 adj. morganatic, left- 
handed (marriage); M.L. morga- 
naticus,morgen-geba; Ge.mor- 
gengabe, morning- gift, a kind of 
dowry paid on the morning before 
or after marriage. 

morgeline9 s. £ chickweed; mor- 
sns ^allinae, bite of the hen, like 
E. chick-weed. 

morgrae9 s. £ haughtiness, arrogance, 
ante-room of a prison, morgae (place 

— 160 — 

where bodies found dead, are ex- 
posed in order to be identified; 
£t. d. 
morgner, v. a. to brave, to defy. 

moriOond, e, adj. dying, in a dying 
state; moribundas, mori, to 
die; comp. mourir. 

morieaad, e, adij. black , s. blacka- 
moor; see more. 

morig^ner, v. a. to form the morals, 
to reprimand ; ace. to Scheler prob. 
formorig6rer; morigerus, obe- 
dient, mos, moris, morals, gerere, 
to manage. 

morille, s. f. morel, moril; O.H.G. 
morhila,morhel; E. morel; Ge. 
morchel;rootmor« mork, black; 
comp. more. 

m^rillOD, s. m. black grape; more, 

black; s. t. 
merion, s. m. morion, helmet; It. 

morione, Sp. morion; Et. d. 

prob. „Moorish^ helmet. 
morne^ a4j* depressed, gloomy, dull; 

Goth, maur nan; O.H.G. morn an; 

E. to mourn. 
mornifle, s. f. slap in the face ; Et d. 
morose, adj. morose, surly, crusty; 

morosuSy mos, moris, manner, 
merosit^ s. f. moroseness, surliness. 

morphine 9 s. f. morphia; MoQtpBvgf 

the god of dreams. 
morpion, s. m. crab-louse ; m o r d e n s 

pedis, bitinglouse;comp. mordre 

and pou. 
mors, s. m. bit (of bridles); mor- 

sus, p.p. of m order e;see mordre. 
morsore, s. f. bite; morsus; see 

mort, e,acy- dead, inanimate; mor- 

tuus, p. p. of mori; see mou- 
rir (mortal). 

mort, s. f. death; mors, -tis, mo- 

riri; see mourir. 
mortality, s. f. mortality, death-rate; 
mortaiitas, mortalis; see next 
w., comp. immortalite. 
mortel, le, adj. mortal, deadly; mor- 

mortaise, s. f. mortise ; see m o r d r e. 

mortel; see mort, comp. immortel. 

mortier, s. m. mortar; Sp. mor- 
tero; Port morteiro; It mor- 
tajo ; mortarium. 

mortifier, v. a. to mortify, to make 
(meat) tender; mors, death, fa- 
ce re, to make. 

mortifloation, 8.1 mortification; mor- 
tificatio, -onis. 
mortiiaire, adj. mortuary; mortua- 
rius, mors, -tis; see mort 

morue, s. f. cod, cod-fish ; Et. d. Diez 
thinks it a syncope of morn da, 
which he connects with the Sp. 
m r r 8 , meaning prop, small pieces. 

morTe, s.f. glanders, snot; morbus, 
a disease. 

morvenz, se, adj. glandered, snotty. 
mosaYque, adj. Mosaic; relating to 

mosaYqne, s. f. mosaic, tesselated pa- 
vement; Prov. mozaic; Sp. mo- 
saico; It musaico; (lovaoti^v, 
liovastov , the temple of the Muses. 

mosqu^e, s. f. mosque ; It. m o s c h e a ; 
Sp. mezquita; mesgid, a Se- 
mitic word meaning a place of 

mot, s. m. word, saying; Sp. Port, 
mote; Jt motto; M.L. muttum; 
mutttre, mutire to mutter, to 
speak in an under -tone, 
motet, s. m. motet; It mottetto. 

moteor, s. m. mover, motive power, 

impeller; motor, movere; see 


moteur-trice, adj. moving, motive. 
motif, s. m. motive, reason; moti- 

vum, motum, p. p. of movere, 

to move. 

motion, s. f motion; motio, -onis, 

movere, to move. 
motiver, v. a. to allege reasons ; see 

motte, s. f clod, turf (for burning); 

O.F. mote; Sp. Port mota; It 

motta; Et d. 

motus, intj. Silence! hushl prob. for 

mutus, mute. 
moo, mol, moUe, adj. soft; see mol. 
moo, s. m. soft, lights (of animals). 
mouehard, s. m. police-spy, spy; see 

next w. 

monehe, s.f. fly, patch (on the face); 

musca (midge). 
moucher« v. a. to wipe the nose of, 

to snuff (candles), v. n. to blow one's 

nose; M.L. muccare, mucinre; 

moucheron, s.m. small fly, gnait; see 

moueheter, v. a. to spot, to apedde; 

see mouche. 

— 161 — 

moHChettes, s. £ pi. snuffers; see 

meuehetnre, s. f. spot, speckle; see 

moHChoir, s. m. handkerchief; see 

mouchnre, s. f. candle-snuff; see mon- 
moneon, s. t see monsson. 
mondre, v. a. to grind, to mill; O.F. 

moldre, moire; molere. (mill, 

moue, s. f. pouting, wry &ce; O.F. 

moe; D.mouwe; M.H.G. mul; Ge. 

maul, mouth, (mow) 
mouette, s. f. gull, sea»mew; dim. of 

O.F. moue, jgnll; O.H.G. muwo; 

A.S. maev; Ge. moewe, mewe; 

E. mew. 
moufle, s. f. muffler (glove), pulley, 

8. m. muffle; M.L. muffula; Ge. 

muff; E. muff. 
mouflony s. m. mufflon; see mufle. 
mouiUer, v. a. to wet, to make wet, 

to gi?e a liquid sound to the letter 

1, to let go the anchor; Pro?. Port 

molhar; mollire, to soften, mol- 
lis, soft, 
movillage, s. m. anchorage, anchor- 

BuraiUette, s.f. long and thin piece of 

bread to dip in e^s boiled soft. 
nuraiUoir, s. m. basin to wet the fin- 
^ gers in spinning, 
monilliire, s. f. wetting, watering, 
moole, s.f. mussel, muscle; muscu- 

lus, a sea-muscle, dim. of mus, a 

mouse; comp. muscle. 
monle98.m. mould, cast; O.F. mo lie; 

Sp. Port, molde; E. mould; mo- 

duluSy dim. ofmodus, a measure; 

comp. module. 
mmiHaLg^f s. m. moulding. 

movler, v. a. to moulds 

nuralenr, s. m. moulder. 
moalin, s. m. mill; It mulino; Sp. 

molino; molinum, mola; comp. 


mouliaer, v. a. to throw (silk). 

mouUiiBt, s. m. small mill, drum, 
moult, ad?, much, many, ?ery; mnl- 

tum. (multitude.) 
moala, e, p. p. -of moudre, s. t 
Moulore, s.f. (Arch.) moulding, screed, 
moorir, .?. n. to die; moriri for 

monron, s. m. pimpernel, chick-weed; 

Et d. 

mousquet, s. m. musket; O.F. mo- 
schete; Sp. mosquete; It mo- 
schetto; Ge. muskete; before 
the in?ention of fire-arms a sort of 
ja?elin was called in O.F. mouschet- 
te; M.L. muscheta, from OX 
monchet; Itmoscardo; E. mus- 
ket, sparrow-hawk; musca, a fly, 
weapons being often named after 
animals ; comp. be.lier, E. ram, fow- 
ling-piece, etc. 

mousqnetaire, s. m. musketeer. 

monsqveteria, s. f. musketry, ?olley of 

mouiqiietoii, s. m. musketoon. 

mousse, a4j. blunt; It mozzo; Pro?, 
mos; Gemutz; D. mots, mot sen, 
mutsen, to mutilate. 

mousse, s. m. ship-boy, cabin-boy ; It 
mozzo; Sp. mozo, boy; mustus, 
fresh, new. 

mousse, s. f moss, froth, foam, lather ; 

Pro?, mo 88 a; Ge. mos, moos; M. 

L. mussa; muse us. 
mousser, ?. n. to froth, to foam, to 


mooiieron, s. m. mushroom, 
mouieux, le, a4j. frothy, foamy, 
moniioir, s. m. twirling^tick. 

mousseline, s. f muslin; from the 
town M s s ul , in Asia, where it was 
originally manufactured. 

mousson, s. f. monsoon , time of the 
monsoons; Arab, monsom, a sea- 
son; Hind, muosim. 

moustache, s. f. mustache: It mos- 
taccio; Sp. mostacho; (tvata^, 

moustique, s. m. mosquito ; Sp. Port, 
mosquito, mosca,afly; musca, 
see mouche. 

moftt, s. m. must (unfermented wine) ; 

O.F. monst; Ge. most; mnstum. 
moutard, s. m. little boy; mustus, 

fresh, new; comp. mousse. 

moutarde, s.f. mustard; It mo star- 
da; Ge. mostrich; see modt, 
Ge. most; prop, grain of mustard- 
seed mixed with must, 
aovtardler, s. m. mustard-pot, dealer 
in mustard. 

mouton, s. m. sheep, mutton, spy; 
O.F. molton; Itmontone;muti- 
lus, maimed. 

Bumtonner, ?. a. to render fleecy, 
movtonnier, im, acy> fleecy, wooly. 
mouture, s. f. grinding (of com), price 


— 162 — 

of gri&diag, mixture of ditftfreat 
kinos of grain; nee moudre. 

vi4HiYemeHt, s. m. motion, movement, 
commotion; see next w. 

moiiToir, ▼. a. to move; move re. 

moyeit, ne, a^j. middle, mean, mid- 
dling; Prov. meian; Sp. mediano; 
mediannm, medium. 

moyen, a, m. means, parts. 

mojemie, s. f. average, mean. 

moyennant, prep, by means of, in 
consideration of; pr. p. of 

moyenner, v. a. to neffociate. 
mo^eu, s. m. nave of a wheel; mo- 
diolus, modius, a measure. 

moveu, 8. m. yolk (of eggs), preserved 

pram; see mo yen. 
muable, a^j. mutable; see muer. 
macilage, s. m. mucilage; Sp. muci- 

lago; M.L. mucilago; mucus, 

mneilAginevz, ee, a^j. mucilaginous. 

mueosit^^ s. £ mucus ; see m u q u e u x. 
muer, v. n. to mouH, to mew, to change 

feathers, hair, skin, voice ; Prov. m u- 

dar; It mudare; mutare, to 

mue, s. f. moulting, BMuhiag-tiiBe, 

mew (large cage), cast off mkam. 

mvet^te, a^i- dumb, mute, silent; 0. 

F. mnt; It. muto; mutus. 
mufle, s« m. muzzle, snout; Et d. 
niiigir, V. n. to low, to bettow, to 

roar; mugire. 
mugisMmen^ s. m. lowing , bellowing, 


muguet^ s.m. Hlyof the valley, May- 
lily, ladies' man; O.F. musguet; 
(lilium) muscatum, muscus; see 
mngnetez, v. n. to play the beau. 

muid, 8. m. ancient measure, hogs- 
head; Itmoggio; Sp. moyo; mo- 
dius, a measure; comp. mo yen. 

molfttre, a4j. mulatto; Sp. Port mu* 
lato; mulus, a mule, prop, an 
offspring of two dictiact species like 
the mule. 

muleter, v. a. (law) to fHinisb, to mmkt ; 

mulctare, mulcta, a fine. 
mule, s. f. she-mule; mula. 

mmle<, s.f. slipper; It mula; Sp. mu- 
lilla; mulleus, a kind of red, or 
purple shoe, ace. to Plia «m «t 
first by the kings «f iUha, «ll8nrsMte 
by the fieMtors aad great penonti 

iiMiles, s.f. pi. kibes, chaps; Ge. maul, 

mulet, 8. m. muUet; mull us. 
mulet, 8. m. mule: see mule, 
muletier, s. ra. muleteer. 

mulot, 8. m. field , wood-mouse ; 6e. 
mule, mold(O.H.G.molta), crush- 
ed earth; £. mole; Ge. maul 
(wurf), mole. 

ntQltiple, adj. multiple; multiplex, 
multus, many; plicare, to fold. 

multlplleit^) 8. t. multiplicity; It mul- 
tiplicita; multiplex, manifoM. 

multiplier, v. a. to multiply; multi- 
pi ic are, multiplex, manifold. 

moltipliable, ady. multipliable ; mul- 

mnltiplieande, s. m. multiplicand ; m u 1- 

moltipUoatear, s. m. multiplier. 

mnltiplioation , s. f. multiplication; 
multiplicatio, -onis. 

multitude, s. f. multitude; multitu- 
de, multus, much, many. 

OMiiileipal, e, a^j' municipal; mumi- 
«ipaii8, municipium, a town, 
municepsj an inhabitant of a free 
town, munia, duties, cap«xe, to 

mnnidi^altt^, 8. L municipality » town- 

nnnlieenoey s. f. munificenoe; mu- 
nificentia, munifieus, munifi- 
cent, muBua, a gift, facere, to / 

munir, v. a. to provide, to supply; 
muni re, to raise a wall, to secure. 

mnnitloB, s. f. ammunition, provisions ; 
munitio, -onis, a defending, pro- 
tecting, muni re, see prec. 
munitioiiTiaire, s. m. purveyor of pro- 

muquenx, se', adj. mucous; muco- 
sus, mucus, slime. 

mfir, e, adj. ripe, mature; OJ". ma- 
tt r,mettr;Prov.madur; mat ur us; 
comp. maturer. 

mar, s. », wall; murus. 
awraiUe, s. f. wall; muralia. 
mural, e, adj. muial; muralis. 

mtre, s. f. mulberry; O.F. meure; 

itmoro; morum,^^oy,tbeblaek 

mulberry; comp. mtirier. 
mflrement, adv. maturely; see mtr. 
nmrdDOy Ail sea-^el; «i«raena, p^ 

— 168 — 

murer, v. a. to wall, to wall up, to 

immure; see mur. 
m#ii«r, s. m. mulberry-tree; nor us, 

mflrir, t. a. n. to ripen, to mature; 
see miir. 

nmrmiure, s. m. murmur, mutter, 
grumbling; murmur, 
muxmum, v. n. to murmur, to nut- 
tar, to gmnble; murmurare. 

musaraigne) 8. f. gbrew-mouBe; 6p. 

Port musarana; mus araneus, 

lit. spider-mouse, 
muse, 8. m. musk; muscns, t*6&zog\ 

comp. 6e. moschus. 

nmseade, s. £ nutmeg; see muscat 
musoadiar^ s. ul nutmeg-tree. 
museadin, s. m. musk -lozenge; see 

museat , a4j> & s. m. muscadel, mus- 
catel, muscadine, muscat; It mus- 
cato; see muse. 
]ii]i8ele9 8.m. m. muscle; musculus, 
dim. of mus, mouse. 
mnsciUaixe, a^j. muscular. 
masonleBZ, se, a^J. musculons. 
]IIii8e9S.f.MttBe; musa; fiotfiroe. 

museau, a. m. muzzle (of animal^, 
snout; O.F. musel; Prov. mursel, 
mus; It muso; morsus, that 
wUeb bites, mordere, to bite. 

mus^t 8. M. auMeom; mnsenm; 
MowesHov^ a seal of the Muses; aae 

OHiselery v. a. to muzzle, to gag; 0. 
F. musel; see museau. 
muMli&ra, 8. f. muzzle (a BuKtening 
for the mouth to prevent biting ate.). 

muser, v.n. to loiter, to dawdle^ Pre?. 
mus, see museau. (muse.) 

musette, s. f. bagpipe, musette; O.F. 
muse (in corne-muse, s. t), M. 
L. musa, a musical instrument; 
£t. d. 

museum, s. m. museum; same as mu- 

■mslque, & f. music, muaical band; 
music a; fMvtftxij. 
muaiealif, adi' lauaical. 
musioien, s. m. -ne, s. f. musician. 

musquer, ▼. a. to mnak; see muse. 
niifiiDauni, e, a4j. Sf s« muiiihaMii; 

Arab. mo8lem» who profeases Is- 

sraMMUt^y B.f. mutability; nniabi- 

litas, mutabilis, mutare, to 
mutation, s. £ change, mntatioii; m'»- 
tatio, -onis, malare, t0 4mnga. 

mutiler, ▼. a^ to mutilate, to maim; 
mutilare, mutilus, maimed. 
mutilBtion, s. f. mndlation, maiming. 

mutln, e, tdj, obstinate, mutinous; 
motus, p.p. ofmovere, tomo?e; 
see meute. 

mutiiidr, (ie), pr. ▼. to mutiny, 
mutinerio, s. f. mutiny, riot; comp. 
nnttlsme, 8.m. dumbness; O.F. mut; 
see muet 

mntnel^ le, a4j. mutual, reciprocal;; It mutuo; mutuus. 
myojpe, adj. myopic, short-sighted, 

fwm^, fi-dionog, |»vio, to close, (Sitf. 

the eye. 
myopie,s.f. myopy, shortness of sight, 

myosotis, s. m. myosotis, foi|;et-me- 

not; myosotis. 

myrlade, s. f. myriad; iwQidsy the 
number of 10000, fn^^ff, number- 

myiiaiiidtre, s. m. myriameter, a 
French measure equivalent to 10000 
meters; see prec. and m^tre. 

myrmidon, see mirmidoa. 
myrobolaiit s, m. nyrobalan; myro- 

perfume, §diavog, a date. 
myrobolant, e, a^j. wunderful, pro- 
digious; mirari« to wundsr. 

myrrlie,'8.f. myrrh; myrrha; (i^^^j 

the juice of Arabian myrtla 
myrte, s. m. myrtle ; m y r t u s ; fiv^tog. 
myrtille, s. f. bilberry. 

mysldre, s. m. mystery ; my sterium, 
(watiiQiop, the secret worship of a 
deity, a mistery. 

a^rittileus, ae, a^j. mysterious. 

myitioiame, s. m. mysticism. 

miitiaoatittr, s. m. lu)axer. 

miftificatioii, s. f. mistification , hoax. 

miitiflar, v. a. to hoax, to mistify. 

mi8ti^ae,a4j. mystic; JBystien8,|»«a- 

mytho. 8. m. myth ; i»vf^og, a fable, 
mythologie, s. £ mvthoiogy; fu^^aXo- 
yia, pMog, a fable, X&^oq, a dis- 

mythologiqiie, a^j. mythological. 
mgrthtflefae, s. m. mythologist 

— 164 — 


n% contraction of ne, s. t 

nabab, s. dl nabob; Hind.) naw&b, 

naiby a baron, a prince, 
nabot, s. m. e, s. f. dwarf; O.F. nim- 

bot; O.N. nabbi, boss, knob. 
naearat, s. m. nacarat ;Sp. nacarado, 

nacar; see nacre. 
nacelle, s. f. boat, wherry, car (of ba- 

loons); M.L. nacella; na?icella, 

dim. of navis, ship. 

naere, s. m. mother of pearl; nacre; 
Sp. nacara, nacar; Arab, nakar, 
naeri, e, a^j* nacreous. 
nadir, s. m. nadir, the point of the 
heavens which is diametrically opo- 
site to the zenith; Arab, naair. 
nagrer, v. n. to swim, to row; navigare, 
to navigate; comp. navigner. 
nage, s. f. swimming, 
nagoioire, 8. f fin. 
nageur, s. m. le; s. f swimmer, rower. 

nagadre, nagni^res, adv. lately, not 
long ago; F. il n'a (for 11 n*y-a) 
guere, it is scarcely; see guere. 

naYade, s. f. ^ naiad,' water-nymph; 
Na'idg, Pfa'Cadog, vdm, to flow. 

naYf, ye, acy. artless, unaffected; na- 
tivns, produced by nature, natural. 

nfdn, s. m. e, s. £ dwarf; Prov. nan; 
It. nano; nanus, vdwog. 

naissance, s. f. birth, nativity, extrac- 
tion; nascentia, nasci;seenextw. 

naltre, v. n. to be bom, to spring up ; 
O.F. naistre; nascL 

naYvet^, 8. f naivete, artlessness, in- 
nocence; see naif. 
nankin, s. m. nankin ; originally manu- 
factured at Nankin. 
uantir, v. a. to give a pledge to, to 
provide; O.F. namp, nam, nan, 
pledge; M.H.6. n4m, booty; M.L. 
namium; 6e. nehmen, to take, 
£. nim. 
nantiiieinent, s. m. pledge, security. 

naphte, s. m. naphta ; n a p h t a ; vdtfd'a ; 

Arab, nifth; Ghal. Syr. naphta. 
napolitain, e, adj. Neapohtan; It. 

Napoli, Naples. 
nappe, s. f. table-cloth, cloth, sheet; 

mappa; comp. natte, n^fle. 
napperon, s. m. napkin, (apron.) 
naqnis, p.p. of naltre, s.t O.F. nas- 

nareisse, s. m. narcissus; narcissus. 

vaQmaaog^ vteQ^da^io numb; because 

of its narcotic properties. 
nareotiqiie, adj, narcotic, opiate; vccq- 

ii<oti%6g vaQuri, numbness. 
nargner, v. a. to scuff, to def^; like 

naricare, nares, the nostrils, the 

narine, s. f. nostril; narinus , nares. 
narquois, e, adj. cunning, sly; see 

narrer, v. a. to narrate, to relate; 

narrateor, s. m. -triee, s. f. narrator, 


narratif, ve, adj. narrative, narratory. 
narration, 8. f. narration; nar ratio, 

nasal, e, a^j. nasal; Itnasale; na- 

sus, a nose; comp. nez. 
nasarde, s. f. fillip on the nose; nasus, 

Uie nose. 

naiarder, v. a. to fillip on the nose. 
nasean, s. m. nostril; nasus, a nose, 
nasiller. v. n. to snuffle, to speak 

througn the nose; nasus, a nose. 
nasiUard, e, adj. snuffling. 
nasse, s. f. bow-net; nassa. 
natal, e, ady. native, natal; natalis, 

natus, p. p. of nasci, to be bom. 
natation, s. f. swimming, natation; na- 
tatio, -onis, natare, to swim. 
natatoire, adj. natatory; natato- 

rius.natator, a swimmer ;seepree. 

natif, ye, adi. native; nativus, nas- 
ci, to be bom. 

national, e, a^j. national. 

nationaliser, v. a. to nationalize. 

nationality, s. f. nationality. 
nativity, s. f. nativity; see natif. ^ 
natte, s. £ mat, matting, plat (of hair); 
natta'for matta. 

natter, v. a. to mat, to plat. 

nattier, s. m. mat-maker, straw-platter. 

natoraliser, v. a. to naturalize; na- 
turalis, see naturel. 
nataralifation, s. £ naturalization. 

naturaliste, s. m. naturalist; see na- 

natoralit^, s.£ right of a native; see 

natare, s. £ nature; natura.^ 
naturel, le, a^j. natural, native, ge- 
nuine; naturalis. , 

naufrage, s. m. shipwreck, wreck; 
naufragium, for navifragium, 

— 165 — 

navis, ship, frag, stem of fran- 

gere, to break, 
navfragi, e, adj. shipwrecked, wrecked, 
nanlage, s. m. passage-money; nau- 

lum; vavloVf vocvg, a ship. 
naiis^e^ s. f. naasea, disgust; nausea, 

vav6£a, sea-sickness, veevg, a ship, 
naastehond, e, a^. naaseoas. 
nautique, a4j. nanticid; nauticus, 

vavtiTioSj vavtfis, a sailor, vavg a 


nantonnier, s. m. mariner, ferry-man; 

naata, for navita, navis, a ship. 
nayal, e, adj. naval; na?alis, navis, 

a ship. 
iiaT^e, 8. f. boat-load; It navata; 

navis, a ship. 

navet, s. m. turnip, navew; O.F. na- 

veau; E. navew; napns. 
navette, s. f. rape-seed, cole-seed. 
navette, s. £ shuttle (for weaving); 

dim. of L. navis, ship. 
naYiguer, v. n. to navigate, to sail; 

navigare, navis, a ship, agere, 

to lead. 

navigable, adj. navigable; naviga- 

navigateiur, s. m. navigator jnavigator. 

navigatioB, s. f. navigation, voyage; 
navigatio, -onis. 
navire, s.m. ship, vessel; O.F. navile; 
It. naviglio, navilis, navile; na- 
vis. (navy.) 

navrer, v. a. to rend, to break the 
heart, to wound; O.F. nafrer; It 
inaverare; O.H.G. nabeg^r; A.S. 
nafe-gar; E. auger; O.N. nafar; 
6e. naeber, an auger. 

ne, part, not; non; comp. non. 

n^^ e, p. p. of naitre, s. t bom. 

n6anmoins, adv. nevertheless, notwith- 
standing, however; see n6ant and 

n^ant, s. m. nothingness, nothing; 
naught; O.F. noSant; noi-ent; It 
niente; nec-ens, nee, not, ens, 
entis, being, esse, to be. 

n^buleux, se, adj. misty, foggy, nebu- 
lous; nebulosus, nebula, mist, 

n^eessaire, a4j- necessary, needful, 
requisite; necessarius, necesse. 
nioMsaire, s. m. dressing-case, work- 

nieesfitA, s. f. necessity ; necessitas. 
nieesiiter, v. a. to compel, to necessi- 

mioasslteax, ae, a^j. needy, necessitous 
n^erologe^ s. m. obituary; vsngog, a 
corpse, X&fog a discourse, 
nierologie, s. f. necrology. 
niorologiqve,adj. necrological, obituary. 
n^eromaneie, s. t necromancy ; vbtiqo- 
lucvtelccj vinQog, a corpse, ftavteia, 

nAeromanoien, s. m. ne, s. f. necro- 
neeropole, s. f. necropolis, cemetry; 

venQog, a corpse, ndXig^ a city. 
neetar. s. m. nectar; nectar; viiiTaQ. 
net, B. I. nave, O.F. ship; navis; comp. 

n^faste, a^. (day of) rest, inauspi- 
cious, ill-omened; ne-fastns, in- 
ndfle, s. f. medlar; O.H.G. nespil, 
nesple; Ge.mispel; Itnespolo; 
mespilnm, (lianilov, the medlar- 
tree; comp. nappe and natte. 
aeflier, s. m. medlar-tree. 
n^gatif, ve, a^. negative; negatio 

-onis, negare,.to deny, 
n^gliger, v. a. to neglect, to be ne- 
ffligent; negligere^ nee legere, 
fit not to sweep up, i. e. not to heed, 
nigligi, s. m. undress, negligee, 
n^ligenunent, adv. negligently, 
negligence, s. f. neglect, negligence; 

n^ligMLt, e, adj. negligent, neglectful; 
negligens, -tis. 
n^goee^ s. m. trade, business; nego- 
tium, nee otinm, no leisure, 
xi^goeiable, a4j. negotiable, transfer- 
n^ciant, s. m. merchant 
n^oeiatenr, s. m. -triee, 8. f. nego- 
tiator, go-between; negotiator, 
negotiari; see negocier. 
ii6g<Miation, s. f. negotiation, trans- 
action; negociatio, -onis, nego- 
tiari; see next w. 
nigoeier, v* a. to negotiate, to trade; 
ndgre, s. m. negro; Port negro; 
niger, black, 
nigx^ase, s. f negc^ss. 
n^grier, s. m. slave-ship, slaves, 
n^grillon, s. m. ne^o- boy. 
neige, s. f. snow; nivea, snowy, nix 
nivis, snow; comp. cierge and 
neiger, v. n. to snow, 
neigeux, se, adj. snowy. 
nenni, a4v. no; O.F. nenil; Prov. no- 

~ 1«6 ~ 

nil;F«nonil; non illadeti, that 

is not; comp. ne and oul 
n^ologrle, b. f. neology; viog^ new, 

Xoyoff, a word. 
BtologiqMt a4J- neologicaL 
aMogimOf s m. neologism. 
nMogmbf •. m. neologist, 
neophyte, s.m. neophyte; vsomvtog, 

newly planted, viog^ new, 9vcd, to 

nepoUsflie) s. m . nepotism ; nepo8,ne* 

potis, a nephew. 
nerf , s. m. nerve, sinew, slip of tape 

(bookbind.); nervus. 
nerveiix, se, adj. nervous; nervosus. 
nervin, e, acij. nervine, 
nenmrti 8. f. nerve, slips of tape 

Nestor^ s. m. Nestorian, exoerienoed 

old man; Nestor, the agea warrior 

in the Iliad. 

nastoriaiiy ne, adj. Nestorian. 
net, te, a^j* dean, pnre, neat, clear; 

It. netto; Sp. neto; nitidus, bright 

clear, nitere, to shine, 
net, s. m. fair copy, 
nettenent, adv. clearly, freely, frankly, 
nettet^ s. £ cleanliness, purity, clear- 
ness. . 
nettover, ▼. a. to clean; to cleanse; 

0J\ nettier; see net 
nettoyage, s. m. cleaning, cleansing. 
neuf, My. nine, ninth; O.F. noef; 

neuf, ve» adj. new; O.F. noef; no- 

vus; comp. nouveau. 
nemtre, adj. neutral, neuter; neuter, 

ne uter, n-either. 
nentraliser, v. a. to neutralise. 
neutraUsatioB, s. f. neutralization. 
aeatraUti, s. f. neutrality. 
neuvaine^ s. f. neuvaines, in the Rom. 

Oath, caurch prayers offered for nine 

successive days; see neuf, nine. 
neuvii^me, a^. ninth, see neuf, nine. 
neven, s. m. nephew; O.F. aevod; 

Prov. nebod; nepos, -otis, a 

n^vralgie, s. f. neuralgia, face-ache; 

vsvQov, a nerve,^<lyog, pain, 
n^vrose, s. f. neurosis, nervous disease ; 

vsvQov, a nerve. 
nea, s. m. nose; Prov. nas; nasns; 

comp. rez and chez. 
ni, cox^. neither, nor; nee, 
niais, e, adj. nias, simple, silly, foolish; 

It. nidi ace; M.L. nidasius; ni- 
dus, a nest, prop, a bird not oU 

•noughto leave the nest; (El nias, 


aiaiser, v. m. to trifle, 
niaiserie^ s. t simplicity, silliness, iwA" 


nieheu s.f. niche; It nichia, niehio, 

shellj which Ferrari derives from L. 

mytiltts, a shell. 
nieher, v. a. to nest, to nestle; O.F. 

niger, nigier, ccmt of L. nidiH* 

care, to build anest, nidus, nest, 

facere, to make. 
iMf s. m. nest; nidus. 
nidee, s. f. niece; Prov. netsa; neptia 

for nep tis ; a granddaughter, nepos; 

see neveu. 

nielle« s. f. blight (of com) ; M.L. ni- 

gellus, dim. of niger, black. 
nielle, s. f. rose campion; nigella, 

niger, black. 
nielle, s. m. inlaid enamel-work; O.F. 

neel; It niello; M.L. nigellum; 

niger, black. 

nialler, v. a. to inlay with enamel- work, 
nler, v. a. to oeny; O.F. noyer, 

nayer; negare. 

nigand, e, ady. silly, foolish; £t d. 
nigaacter, v. n. to tnfle, to tooL 
niganderie, s. £ silliness, foolishness. 

nimbe, s. m. nimbus; nimbus. 

nimie, s. f. apparel, clothes, furniture; 

nipper, v. a. to fit out, to stock. 

nlqne, s. f. sign of mockery or con- 
temt; Ge. nicken, to nod(£. nick- 

nitoaehe, s. f . hypocrite ; F. n' y t o u c h e, 
does not touch it; see ne, y, and 

nitre, s. m. nitre; nit rum; virgov, 
nitrenz, se, a^j. nitrous, 
altri^rt, s. f. nitre-bed. 
nitriqae, ad|j. nitric. 
nitrogdne, s. m. nitrogen; vCtQOp, na- 
tron, yBwdm^ to produce. 
niveau, s. m. level; O.F. nivel for 
livel; It libello; libella, a le- 
vel, dim. of libra, a balance. 
Biveler, v. a. to level, 
nivellement, s. m. levelling. 
Niv(^Be, s. m. the fourth month of the 
calender of the first French repub- 
lic; nix-nivis, snow. 
noble, a^. noble; nobilis. 
aobiliaire, adj. noble, aristocratic. 
adUesBo, s. £ nobility, nobleness, 
noee, s.£ marriage, wedding, nuptials; 

— 167 — 

O.F. nopc68; napiiae, niib«rey 
to veil, to be named to. 

noeher, s, m. pilot, boat-naa; O.F. 
naucher; It. nocchiere; Sp. 
nauclero; na uclerus; vttMij^s, 
a ship-owner, vctvg^ a ship, fti^^off, 

noetume, a4j. nocturnal, nighUy; 
noctnrnus, nox, noctis, aig^t 
noetaiae, s. f. noctaro, serenade. 

Nodi, 8. m. Christmas, Gbristauuhca* 
rol; It. natale; Sp. nadal; nata- 
lis (dies), birtii-day. 

noeu^ s.ntknot, bow (of ribbon ele.); 
O.F. nod; nodus. 

noir, e, adj. black, dark; O.F. neir, 
ner; Frov. negro; It negro, ne- 
ro; niger. 
noir&tre, aclj. blackish, 
aoiroenr, s. f. blackness, 
aeireir, ▼. a. to blacken; nigres- 
noirdssiue, s. f. black spot 

noise, s. f. quarrel; O.F. nose; Frov. 
nansa; nausea. (B. noise) 

noisette, %.t hazel-nut ; dim. of n o i x, s.t 
aoiMtiar, s. m. hazel-nut-tree. 

noix, s. f. walnut, nut; Prov. notz; 
Itnoce; nux, nucis;comp. croix. 

nolis, s. m. freight (of a ship); It 
noleggio, nolo, naulo; nau- 
lum; yavXofr; see naulage. 
neliser, ▼. a. to charter. 

nom, s. m. name; no men. 

nomade, ady. & s. m. nomadic,^ no- 
mad; nomas, -adis, yo|»a9, -ado;, 
wandering, voiidg, a pasture. 

nombre, s. m. number, quantity; nu- 
merus, from the same root as nu- 
mus, money, vofiogy anything ap- 
portioned, yiff»», to deal out; eomp. 
encorabre, concombre, ete. 
nombrer, v. a. to number. 
Bomlneu, le, a^j. numerous. 

nombril, s. m. navel, umbilicus; um- 
bilicus, akin to 6pktpaX'6s'^ com- 
paring these two words with 6e. 
nab el, £. navel, it is prob. that 
the L. & 6r. words have an initial 
vowel prefixed, and that the orig. 
forms were o-yv^oiloV, o-nubil- 
us. But these words come ftom 
the root nub, which appears in 
Saas. n&bbi ^umbilicus'' ; L. umb* 

(= O-nub-oX (W. Smith.) 

nomenelateiir, s. m. nomenclator; 
nomenclator, nomen, name, 
calo, to call. 

iiMieii^tiire, s.£ nomenclature; no- 
menclatara; see prec. 

noHdnal, e, a^. nomimd; nomina- 
lis, nomen, -inis; see nom. 

nominatif, ve, adj. nominative; no- 
minativus, nomen, -inis; see 
nominatif, s. m. nominative case. 

nomination, 8.f. nomination, appoint- 
ment; nominatio, -onis, nomi- 
nare, to name; see nommer. 

nonua^ment, adv. namely; see next w. 

nommer, v. a. to name, to call, to 
nominate, to appoint; Prov. nom- 
mar; nominare, nomen; see 

non, adv. no, notj a on. 

nonag6naire, ac^. of ninety years of 
age; nonagenarius, the ninetieth, 
nonaginta, ninety. 

nonante, adij. O.F. ninety; nonagin- 

nonee, s. m. nuncio ; n un t i a 8 , a mes- 
senger, coat of novi-ventius, 
Ut newly arrived. 

nonehalantf e, a4j. careless, heed- 
less; non (s. t), chalant, pr. p. of 
O.F. chaloir; It calere; calere, 
to glow, to be roused. 
Bonehalammeat, adv. carelessly, heed- 

aoaehalaaee, s. f. carelessneBS , heed- 

noneiatore, s. f. nunciature; see 

nonidi, s.m. ninth day of the decade 
in the calendar of the first French 
republic; nonus (for novenus) 
dies, the ninth day. 

nonnain, nonne, s. 1 nun; M.L. non- 
na; £. nun; Ge. nonne; £t d. 

nonobstant, prep, notwithstanding, 
in spite of; non (s. t) obstans. 
-tis, pr. p. of obstare, to stana 

nonpareil, le, adj. unequalled, non- 
pareil; see non and pareil. 

non-sens, 8. m. nonsense; see non 
and sens. 

nord,s.m. north; A.S. and £. north; 
O.H.6. and Ge. nord. 

normal, e, a^j- normal, regular, or- 
dinary; normalis, norma, a rule. 

yormand, e, adj. Norman; Ge.nord- 
mann, north-man. 
Honaaadie, 8. f. Normandy. 

nos, pr. a^j. pi. our; pi. of notre 
O.F. nostre; see notre. 

— 168 — 

nosologlCL 8. f. nosology; v66og, dis- 
ease, loyog, a discourse. 

nostalgrle. s. 1 nostalgy; home-sick- 
ness, voatos, a return home (vio- 
jkaiy to go), iSfXyoff, pain. 

notable, my notable, remarkable; no- 
tahilis, nota, amark; see note, 
notability, s. f. notability. 

notaire. s. m. notary; notarius, a 
short-nand writer, nota, a mark; 
see note. 

niitariat, s. m. profession of a notary, 
netarii, e, adj. notarial (done or ta- 
ken by a notary). 

notation 9 s. f. notation; notatio, 
-onis; see next w. 

note, 8. f. mark, note, memorandum, 
bill: nota, (g)no, rootofnoscere, 
to know. 

noter,y. a to mark, to note, to ob- 

notiee, s. f. notice, account, newspa- 
per-paragraph ;notitia,a note, n o- 
tus, p. p. 01 no see re, to know. 

nottfler, v. a. to notify; notificare, 
n o t u s , known (see prec), f a c e r e, 
to make, 
notifleatimi, s. f. notification, notice. 

notion, s.£ notion, information, Imow- 
ledge; notio, -onis, noscere, to 

notoire, a4j- notorious; M.L. no to- 
ri us, making known; nota re, to 
notoriety, s. f. notoriety. 

notre, adiJ. our; O.F. nostre; n es- 

ndtre, pron. ours; same as pree. 

noue, 8. f. gutter-lead, pantile , past- 
ure-land ; Ace. to Frisch : 6e. n o o c h, 
nachen, boat, (formed like a boat) 
M.L. noa. 

nouer, v. a. to tie, to knot; nod are, 
nodus; see noeud. 
noiieiiz,i6, a^, knotty, nodated; no- 

nongat, s. m. nougat, a kind of al- 
mond-cake; nux, nucis; seenoix. 

nooHles, s. f. pi. yermicelli; 6e. nu- 

noorrain, s. m. fry; Prov. noirim; 
nutrimen, nounshment, nutrire, 
to nourish. 

nonrriee, s. f. nurse, wetnurse; nu- 
trix, -icis, nutrire, to nourish.^ 
noarrider, to, a^j- nutritious, nutri- 


BouTider, s. m. foster-father. 

nonrrlr, ▼. a. to feed , to nourish, to 
suckle, to foster; nutrire. 
novrrissevr, s. m. cow-keeper, 
nonrrisson, s. m. nursling, foster-child, 
nourritnre, s. f. food, nourishment, 

nous, pron. we, us, to us; O.F. nos; 

nouTeau, nonyel, le, a^j. new, novel ; 
novellus, dim. of novus,new. 
nouToauti, s.f. novelty, newness, fan- 
cy goods; OJ". novelte. 

aouYdla, s. f news, novel, tale. 

nouTeUifte, s. m. news-monger, noveW 

noTateur, s. m. innovator; novator, 
novare, to renew, novus, new. 

novation, s. f. innovation; novatio, 
-onis, novare; see prec. 

novembre, s. m. November; no v em- 
ber, the ninth month of the old 
Roman year, n o v e m , nine. 

noviee, s. m. f. novice; novitius, 
novus, new. 
novitiat, s. m. novitiate. 

noyade, s. f. drowning; see noyer. 

noyau, s. m. kernel, stone (of fruit), 
nucleus, noyau ; It. n o c c h i o ; nuc- 
leus, nux; see noix. 

noyer, s. m. walnut-tree, nut-tree; li- 
ke nucarius, nux; see noix, comp. 

noyer, v. a. to drown; Prov. uegar; 
Sp. Port, e-negar; necare, to 
kill ; root n ec, in n ex, n e ci s, death, 

nu, e. acy* naked, nude; O.F. nud; 

nnage, s m. cloud, clouds; nubes, 

. see nue. 
naagraz, le, a^j. cloudy, clouded. 

nuanoe, s. f shade (of colours), tint; 

see nue. 
nuanoer, v. a. to shade colours, to 
variegate, to tint 

nubile, a^j* marriageable, nubile; nu- 
bilis, nubere; see noce. 
nabilitA, s. f. nubility, the state of 
being marriageable. 

nudite, s. f nakedness, nudity; nu- 
ditas, nudus; see nu. 

nue, s. f. cloud, clouds; nubes. 
n«age, s. t. 

nnte, s. f. large heavy cloud , cloud, 
shower of arrows etc. 

nuire, v. n. to injure, to harm; O.F. 
nuisir, noisir; nocere; comp. 
luire. (noxious.) 

— 169 — 

Bvliililt, a4J. injorions, hannfoly nox- 

nnit, 8. f. niffht; O.F. nuict; nox, 
n c t i 8 , v6i, wntdg, 
nnitamnMiit, adv. by night. 
Bvit^ 8. f. nights work. 

nnl, le, adj. no, not any, none, null, 
void; null us. 
nvmti, 6. f. nullity. 

ndment, adv. nakedly, openly; see 

niim^rftire, adj. legal value of coins, 
8.1IL specie, cash, coin; numerus, 

numeral) e, adj. numeral; n urn ora- 
lis, numerus; see prec. 

nomeratenr, s. m. numerator; nu- 
merator, numerare; see prec. 

nuniMque^ a^j. numerical, numeral; 
It..8p. numerico; numerus, num- 

nnm^ro, 8. m. number, numero; It 
numero; numerus, number ; comp. 
n ombre. 

nvmiirotKf ▼• a. to number. 
nmnArotage, s. m. numbering. 

numir^matlque, adj. & s. £ numisma- 
tic, numismatics; numisma, -atis, 
voiiiaiMc, a coin, 
nuniimate, s. m. numismatist. 

nuptial, e, ad|j. nuptial; nuptialiSi 
nuptiae; see no ce. 

nnque, s. f. nape, neck ; It. Sp. Port. 
Frov. nuca; D.nocke, (E. notch 
nock,) meaning notch and spine 
(6e. nacken, ge-nick, £. neck.) 

nutritify ve, ady. nutritious, nutritive ; 
Itnutritivo; nutrire, to nourish. 

nutrition 9 s. f. nutrition; M.L. nu- 
tritio, -onis, nutrire, to nourish. 

nymphe, s. f. nymph ; n y m p h a, Wfi- 
tpri, a bride. 


oasis, s. £ oasis; oasis; Saaig. 
ob^dienee, s.£ obedience; obedien- 

tia, obediens; see next w.; comp. 


ob^ir, V. n. to obey, to yield; obedi- 
re, ob-audire, to hear, 
obiisiant, e, ad^. obediant, pliant. 
oWauoM, s. £ obedience. 
oh^lisque, s. m. obelise; obeliscus; 
6§8l^iios lit. a small spit, dim. of 
6§BX6g, a spit, an obelislL 

ob^rer,v.a. to involve in debt; obae- 
ratus, involved in debt, ob aes, 
for money. 

oh^sit^, s.i. obesity; obesitas, obe- 
sus, fat, stout, edere, to eat. 

obit, s. m. obit; obitus, ob-ire, to 

oMtiiaire, s. m. obituary. 
ohjeeter. v. a. to object; objectare, 
nreq. ot o b j i c e r e, j a c e r e, to throw, 
ol^eotif, Ye, adj. objective; objecti- 

olqeetion, s. £ objection; objectio, 

objet, 8. m. object, subject, purpose; 

obJectus, objicere; see prec. 
ohlanaB, s. £ oblation, offering; ob- 

Ifiktio, -onis, offere, oblatum, 

to offer. 
obliger, v. a. to obliffe, to com^jel; 

ob-ligare, to bind-to, to oblige. 

obligation, s. £ obligation, bond; ob- 
ligatio, -onis. 

obligatoire, adj. obligatory, compul- 

obligeanmient, adv. obligingly. 

obligeant, e, adj. odliging, kind. 

oblique, a<y. oblique; obliquus. 
obUquiti^ s. £ obliquity. 
oblit^rer, v. a. to obliterate; ob-li- 

terare; to cover anything written, 

litera, letter. 

oblong, ne, adj. oblong; ob -long us, 

rather long. 
ohole, s. £ obolus; o bolus, 6poX6g. 
obreptiee, adtj. obreptitious; obrep- 

titius, ob-reperOj to creep up to. 
obraption, s. £ obreption; obreptio, 


ohscdne, adj. obscene; obscenus. 
obso^niti, 8. £ obscenity; obsceni- 
obscur, e, a^j. dark, obscure; ob- 

obsenroir, v. a. to darken, to obscure, 
obscurcissement, s. m. darkening. 
ob8curit<ft, 8. £ darkness, obscurity; 

ob^eeration, s. £ obsecration; obse- 
cratio,-onis, abeseeching, ob-se- 
crare, to beseech, sacer, sacra, 
sacrum , sacred. 

ohs^der, v. a. to beset, (of evil spi- 

— 170 — 

rits) topoflsets; ob-sedere, Co ait 
on; sea ere, to sit. 

obsdques, s. f. pi. obseqaies; M.L. 
obseauiae for L. exseqniae, a 
fnnerai procession, ex-sequi, to 

obs^nleiix, se, adj. obseqnions; ob- 
seqniosus, obseqaium, compli- 
ance, obsequi, to yield to. 

obseryer, v. a. to observe, to notice; 

•btenrance, s. f. observance; obser- 

obseryatenr, s. m. -trioe, s. f observer; 

obeervatioB, s. f. observation; obser- 
vatio, -onis. 

obienratoire, s. m. observatory. 
obsession, s. f. besetting, being pos- 
sessed of evil spirits; obsessio, 
-onis, obsidere; see obs6der. 

obsolete, adj. obsolete; obsoletns, 

old; obsolescere, to grow out of 

obstacle, s. m. obstacle, obstmcUon, 

impediment; obstaculum, ob- 

stare, to stand against. 

obst^triqne, s. f. obstetrics, midwife- 
ry; obstetrix, a midwife. 
obstiner. (s'), pr. v. to be obstinate, 
to bolo out; obstinare. 
obftination, s. f. obstinacy. 
obftin^ e, a^j. obstinate. 
obftiiiiiiieAt, adv. obstinately. 

obstmetif, ve, adj. obstructive; It. 

obstructivo; see next w. 
obstruction, s. f. obstruction; ob- 

structio, -onis, obstruere; see 

next w. 

obstraer, v. a. to obstruct, to stop 
ap; ob-struere, to stop up. 

obtemp6rer, v. n. to obey, to com- 
ply with; ob-temperare; see tem- 
per or. 

obtenir, v. a. to obtain, to get; ob- 
tinere, tenere, to bold, 
obtention, s. f. obtainment; ob ten- 
turn, sup. of obtinere, 

obtnrer, v. a. to stop up; obturare. 
obtaratevr, s. m. obturator, 
obturation, s. f. obturation. 

obtns, e, a4]. obtuse, blunt, dull; ob- 
tusus, p. p. of obtundere, to 
strike at, to blunt 

obns, 8. m. shell; Et. d. 
•bute, B. m. howitzer. 

obvler, ▼. lu to obninte; oh«vl&re, 

ob, against, via, the way. 
oeeasion, a. f. opportunity, occasioii; 

occasio, -onis, occidere, oc- 

casum, cadere, to fall, 
oeoasionnel, le, ady. occasionaL 
oooasionner, v. a. to occasion, to 


Occident, s. m. West; occid^av, 
-entis, the quarter of the setting 
sun; occidere, to fall down, ca- 
dere, to fall, 
ooeidental, e, adj. west, westerly, oc- 

occiput, s. m. occiput, hind heftd; 
occip ut, caput, the head. 

oeeire, v. a to kill, to slay; oeei* 
dere, cadere, to fall. 

oceolte, adj. occult; occultns, p. 
p. of occulere, to cover up, to 

occuper, v. a. to occupy, to emploj, 
to busy; occupare, capere, ht, 
to take hold of. 
oecnpaat, s. m. occupier, 
oecnpation, s. f. occupation, employ- 
ment, business. 
oocnrrent, e, adj. occurring, that oc- 
curs; occurrens, -entis, pr. p. 
of occurrere, ob-currere, £> 
nm towards, 
occurrence, s. f. occurrence, emergency. 

oe^an, s. m. ocean; oceanus, 'Stu- 
avog^ uiuvs^ quick, v<i(o, to now. 

ochlocratie, s. f. ochlocracy, mob- 
rule; dxXoTiQav^a, dxXog, the mob, 
xQcnimy to govern. 

oere, s. f. ochre ; lox^og, pale, sallow, 
ocreux, se, adj. ochry, ocnreous. 

octaddre, s. m. octahedron; owco, 
eight, ioQaj a base. 

octant, 8. m. octant, quadrant; oc* 
tans, -tantis, octo, eight 

oetante, adj. eigthy; octoginta. 
octave, s. i. octave; octavus, tho 

eight, octo, eight 
octioi. s. m. eight day of the decade 

in tne calendar of the first IVench 

republic; octavus dies. 
octobre, s.m. October; October, the 

eighth month of the old Roman year; 

octo, eight 
octog^naire, a^j. octogenary, octofO* 

narian; octogenarins, octogeai, 

eighty each. 
oetosrone, s.m. octagon; oierfli; ei|^ 

ymviuy an angle. 

— t71 — 

•etrojer. ▼. a. to grant; Sp. otor* 
gare; Fort outorgar; Prov. au- 
torgar; auctoriare for aucto- 
risare; anetoritas; see next w* 
octroi I s. m. coneosBioD, town-doe; 
auctorium for aactoritas, aa- 
thority, auctor, author. 

oetnple, a4j; octuple , eight-fold; oc- 

tnplns, 6%tctnXov£^ int»y eight, 

amXovg, onefold. 
oenllste, s. m. oculist; oca las, the 

owiaquje^ s. f. odalisk, female slave 

of Turkish women; Turk, oda, a 


•ie, g. f. «de: ode, a>^, a song. 
odeur, s. f. odour, smell, scent, per- 

fame; odor. 
odieux^ se, ac|j. odioos, obnoxious; 

odioBJis, odium, hatred. 

eiontalgief s. f. odontalgy, tooth-ache; 

6dty6g, Sddvzog, a toou, clfXyoff, pain. 
odentalgitiuL ad|j. odontaldc. 
odontine, s. todonto, denmnce\6dovs, 

ddawzogy a tooth, 

odoranty e, a^j* odoriferous, sweet- 
smellii^; odorans, -antis, pr. 
p. of odorare, to perfume, odor, 
a smell. 

ddorat, 8.m. smell, the sense of smel- 
ling; odoratus, odorari; see 

odorif^rant, e, a^. odoriferous, sweet- 
smelling; odori*fer, odor, a smell, 
ferre, to bear. 

oeil, s. m. eye; O.F. oil, oel; Sp. 
ejo; pDrt olho; It. occhio; ocu- 

oeiUade, s. f. glance, oeillad, ogle. 
oelUitt, 8.m. eyelet, eyelet-hole, pink 
oeillette, s. f seed of popy; dim. of 
O.F. oeille; P. huile, oil. 

oesophage) s. m. oesophagus, gnllet; 
oicotpdyog; o£b, to carry, qxiyoa, to 


oeiif,«.m. egg, roe (offish); O.F. oef 
ouef; ovum, 
eenv^f e, adj. hard-roed. (fish). 

oeaTre,s.f work, act, fabric (of chur- 
ches), 8. m. engravings, music of 
the same author; opera, opus, 

offenser^ v. a. to offend, to shock} to 

*> ««f P* on langnage p^ (fS. 

give offBnse; offansare, freq. ^ 
offendere, to strike against 
offnit, 8. t offense, 
dflbmeur, s. m. offender. 
offeniif, e, adj. offensive. 
oflQBniive^ s. £ offensive. 
offert, e^ p. p. of offrir , s. t 
offlee, 8. m. ofiQce, employment, ser- 
vice (of churches); s.f. pantiy, lar^ 
der; officium, service, 
ofaciant, adj. & s.m. officiating (cler- 
gyman); see officier. 
offleidl, le, adj. official; official! a. 
otteier, v. a. to officiate, 
oflleier, s. m. officer. 
efaoiaiiz,ie,a^. officious, semi-official; 
officio sus. 
offlelne, s f. apothecary's shop, labo- 
ratory; officina, cont of^ opifi- 
cina, op ifex, a maker, opus, work, 
face re, to make, 
offieinal, e, a^. officinal. 
offirande, s. f offering; offerenda, 

offerre; see next w. 
offrir, V. a. to offer ; o f f e rr e, o b • f • r- 
re, to bring before, to oner. 
ofEVo, 8. f. offer, tender, 
ofhisqaer, v. a. to obcscure, to dasvlo, 
to offend; of-fu scare, to darken, 
fuse us, dark, 
ogive, s,f. ogive, pointed arch; £t. d. 
6e. auge, D. oog; eye, (like the 
corner of the eye.) is suggested, 
ogival, e, adj. pointed. 
ognon, s. m. see oignon. 
ogre. s.m. ogre; It orco; Sp. ogro, 
A.S. ore; Otcus, the lower world. 
oie, s. f. goose; O.F. oe, oue; Prov. 
auca; Sp. Port. It oca; M.L. au- 
ca, cont of avica; avis, bird. 
oignon, s. m. onion, bulb, bunion ; Prov. 
ugnion; unio, -onis, a single 
large pearl, an onion, unus, one, 
oignoni&re, s. f. bed of onions. 
oindre, v. a. to anoint; ungere;''') 

comp. joindre, poindre, etc. 
oing, s.m. cart-grease, unguentum, 

ungere; see j^rec. 
oiseau, s. m. bird; O.F. oisel; It 
uccello; Prov. auzel; M.L. au- 
cella, (avicella),avicula; avis; 
comp. oie. 

oiseler, v. n. to catch birds.^ 
oiselenr, s. m. bird-catcher, 
oiselier, s. m. dealer in birds. 
oiseUerie^ s. f bird-catching (art). 

— 172 — 

olsenx, se, adj. idle; otiosus, oti- 

um , leasnre. 
oisif^ ye, a^j- idle, unoccupied ;btium, 

see prec. 

oiiiveU, 8. f. idleness. 
olson, s. m. gosling*, see oie. 
ol^agrineux, se, adj. oleaginous, oily; 

oleaginous, olea, an oli?e. 

ol^andre, s. m. oleander, rose-bay; 
It oleandro;Sp. eloendro; Port, 
loendro; M.L. lorandrum, sup- 

Sosed to be a corruption of rho- 
odendron, s. t. 

olfaetif,ye. adj. olfactory, olfactus, 
p.p. of ol-facere, to smell,* olere, 
to smell, facere, to make. 

oUearehie, s. f. oligarchy; oXtyaQx^i 
oUyo^f few, aQx^f to govern.^ 
oligareliiq«e, ady. oligarchical; oliyag^ 

ollTe, 8. f. olive; oil? a, iXa/a. 
oliyaiMii, s. f. oliye-season, crop of 

oliTfttre, a4j. olive-coloured. 
Olivier, s. m. olive-tree. 

olympe, s. m. Olympus ;"DZt;f*«off. 

dympiade. s.f. Olympiad; olympias, 
-adis, OXvyi/nCag^ -ddog^ the Olym- 
pic games, the space of four years 
oetweea the celebrations of the 
Olympic games. 

dympien, ne, a^j- Olympian. 

olympique, adj. Olympic. 

ombelle, s. f. umbel; umbo 11 a (dim. 
of umbra, shadow), a little shaidow, 
a sun-shade comp. ombre lie. 

ombilie, s. m. umbilicus, navel; um- 
bilicus; comp. nombril. 

ombrage^ s. m. shade, umbrage; see 

ombrager, v. a. to shade. 

ombragenx, se, adj. umbrageous, (of 
horses) shy. 

ombre, s. f. shade, shadow; umbra. 

ombreile, s. f. parasol; umbel la; 
see om belle, (umbrella.) 

ombrer, V. a. to tint, to shade; um- 
brare, umbra; see ombre. 

ombreux, se, adj. shady-, shaded; 
umbrosus, umbra, see prec. 

omelette* S.X omelet; £t. d.; ace. to 
some F. oeufs m^les, mixed 
eggs; see oeuf and meler. 

*~Te^ V. a. to omit, to leave out; 
Uere, to let go, to leave of; 

omission* s. f. omission; omissio, 
-onis, omissus, p.p. of omittere; 
see prec. 

omnibus, s. m. omnibus; omnibus, 
to all, dat. pL of omnis, all. 

omnipotent, e, adj. omnipotent , al- 
mignty; omnipotens, -tis, om- 
nip, all, potens; pr.p. of posse, 
to be able. 

omnipotenee, s.f. omnipotence; omni- 

onuiiseienee, s. f. omnisdence; om- 
uls, all, scientia, knowledge, 
scire, to know. 

omoplate. s. £ omoplate, shoulder- 
blade; eofU)?, the shoulder, nXomfg, 

on, pron. one, they, people ; O.F. horn; 
homo, a man; comp. 6e. mann, 
man, and man, one, they.* 

one, onques, adv. ever, never; un- 

once, s. f. ounce (weight); unci a, 

once, s. m. ounce (quadruped); It 
lonza; lynx; Jlvyl; comp. azur. 

onele, s. m. uncle; avunculus, a 
mothers brother, dim. of avus, a 

on6tion,s.f. unction, anointing; unc- 
tio, -onis, unctum, sup. of un- 
gere; see oindre. 
onctaeux, so, adj. unctuous, oily, 
onetnosit^ s. f. unctuosity. 

onde, s. f. wave, water; unda. 
ondAe, 8. f. shower, 
ondin, s. m. e, s. f. undine, water- 

ondoiement, s. m. private baptism, 
ondoyer, v. n. to undulate, to wave, 
ondulation, s. f undulation, waving; 

ondvlatoire, adj. undulatory. 
ondnler, v. n. to undulate, to wave, 
to curl. 

on^reox, se, adj. onerous, burden- 
some; onerosus, onus, -oris, a 

ongle,s. m. nail, claw; ungula, un- 
guis, a nail. 

ongUe, s. f. numbness of the fingers, 
onglet, s. m. burin, guard (of book- 
onguent, s. m. ointment, unguent; 
ungucntum, ungere; see oindre. 

onomatop^e, s. f. onomatopoeia; oro- 

— 173 — 

fMETOXoAx, oi^ofMK, a woid, notim^ to 

onyx, B. m. onyx; onyx; Swiy a fin- 
ger-nail; hence from its colour a 
kind of yellowish marble, onyx. 

onze, adlj. eleven, eleventh ; a n d e c i m. 
owiifane, adj . eleventh. 

opaeit^9 s. f. opacity; opacitas) 

opacus; see opaque. 
opale, 8. f. opal; opal us. 
opaque, a^j. opacous ; opacus, shady. 
op^ra, s. m. opera, opera-house; It. 

opera; opus, -eris, work. 
op^rer, v. a. to operate, to effect, to 

perform; operari, opus, -eris, 


optoUaor, s. m. operator (surgeon), 
optetioii, s. f. operation, transaction; 

operatio, -onis. 

ophiel6ide, s. m. ophicleide, a laige 

brass instrument; Stpig, a serpent, 

xle^ff, %Xsi86g, a key. 
ophtalmie, s.f. ophtalmy, ophtalmia; 

6q>d'alfiia, 6<p9aX(i6s, the eye. 
ophtalmique, adj. ophtalmic 
opiat, s. m. opiate, s. f. opiate; It 

oppiato; see opium. 
oplner, v. n. to state one's opinion, 

to speak; opinari, to be of opi- 

opinaat, s. m. voter, opiner, speaker. 

oplnlfttre, obstinate, stubborn; see 

opini&tr«r, v. a. to render, to make 

opiaifttreti, s. £ obstinacy, stubborn- 
opinion, s. £ opinion ; opinio; -onis, 

opinari; see opiner. 
opium, s. m. opium; opium, Smov, 

^jff^Sf a juice. 
opportun, e, a^j. oportune, oppor- 
tunus, ob-portus, lit at or be- 
fore the por^ hence fit, convenient, 
epportoniti, s. £ opportunity, occa- 
sion; opportunitas. 

opposer, V. a. to oppose, to object; 
op-ponere, -sui, situm, to place 
against; comp. poser. 
opMdte, s. m. opposite, reverse, con- 
opposition, s. i. opposition; opposi- 
tio, -onis. 
oppressor, v. a. to oppress, to depress ; 
oppress um, sup. of opprimere; 
. see opprimer. 
opprMMW, s. m. oppressor. 

o ppr oi rif , ve, a4j* opressive. 
opproiiioii, s. £ oppression ; o p p r e s- 
sio, -onis. 
opprimer, v. a. to oppress; op-pri- 
me re, to press agamst, premere, 
to press. 
opprobre, s. m. opprobrium, shame; 
opprobrium, probrum, a re- 

opter, V. n. to choose; op tare, 
optatif, TO, acy. optative, 
optatif, s. m. optative. 
opfeioB, s. t. 

opUelen, s. m. optician; see optiqne. 
optlmlsme, s.m. optimism; optimus, 

the best 
optlmiste, s. m. optimist; see piee. 
option, s. f. option, choice; optio, 

-onis, optare, see opter. 
optique, acg. optical; 6int%6s^ osrro- 

fiat, to see. 
optiqne, s. £ optics; drrtxij; see 

opulent, e, acU* opulent, wealthy, rich; 

opulentus, ops, opis, power, 

opulence, s.£ opulence, wealth; opn- 

opuscule, s. m. pamphlet, tract; opus- 

culum, dim. of opus, work, 
or, coig. now, now then; O.F. ores, 

ore; Sp. Port hora, ora; Itora; 

hora, hour; comp. desormais, 

dor^navant, lors, etc. 
or, 8. m. gold; aurum. 

oraele, s. m. oracle; oraculum, 
or are, to speak. 

orage, s. m. storm, tempest thunder- 
storm; Prov. auratge; M.L. aura- 
gium ; aura, ecSga a breath of air. 
orageax, 86, adj. stormy, tempestuous, 

oraison, s.f oration, speech; o ratio, 

-onis, orare, to speak. 
oral, e, adj. oral; os, oris, the 

orange, s.f orange; M.L. orangia; 
It arancia, naranza; Pers. n&- 
reng; Arab, nslrang. 
orang^ e, adj. orange-coloured, 
orangeade, s. £ orangeade, 
orangeat, s. m. orangeat, candied 
oraager, s. m. orange-tree, 
omigorie, s. £ orangery. 
orang-outang, s. m. orang-outanff ; 
Miday, meaiung man of the wood. 

— 174 — 

oratear^ b. n. orator, sp«ftlnr; ora- 
tor, oraro, to speak, coni^. orai- 
8 on. 

omtoira, adj. oratory; oratorios, 
oratoire, s. m. oratory; oratoriam. 

oratorio, 8. m. oratorio ; It. o r a t o r i o ; 

see prec. 

0Tll>e, orb» orbit; orbis, a circle. 

orbioulaire, adj. orbicular; orbica- 

laris, orbiculusy dim. of orbis. 

orbite, s. i. orbit; orb it a, orbis, a 

orehestre, s. m. orchestra; 6ifxiiav^, 
a place for dancing, an orchestra, 
S^ioftai^ to dance, 
orshestration, s. f. (mus.) scoring. 
OMhtftfer, ?. a. (mus.) to score. 

onrdafle, s. f. ordeal; O.F. ordel; M. 
L. ordaliam; A.S. ordael; E. 
ordeal; 6e. urtheil, judgement 

ordinaire* adj. ordinary; ordinari- 
us, oraOy -inis, order. 

ordinal^ adj. ordinal; ordinalis, 
or do; see prec. 

ortttatlon, s. f. ordination; or din a- 
tio, -oniSy ordinare, ordo; see 

ordonner^ v. a. to ordain, to decree, 
to prescribe; O.F. ordener; ordi- 
nare; see prec. 

ordonnanoe, s. £ ordering, order, or- 
dinance, (mil.) orderly, medical pre- 
ordomiatenr, s. m. ordainer, orderer. 

ordre, s. m. order; ordo. 

ordure, s. f. dirt, filth, ordure ; O.F. 
ord, dirty; horridus, rough, hor- 
rere, to bristle; comp, horreur. 
ordaridr, lire, adj. filthy. 

or^adO) s.i. Oread, mountain-nymph; 
oQSLccg, ddog^ of mountains, an Oread, 
d^off, a mountain. 

oreille. s. f. ear, hearing, dogs-ear, 
handle; Prov. Port orelha; It 
orecchia; auricula, dim. of au- 
ris, the ear; comp. corbeille. 

«zeiUaid, e, adj. lop-eared (horse). 
oreiUer, s. m. pillow. 

orfdYre, s. m. goldsmith, jeweUer; 
auri faber, a worker in gold, au- 
ram, gokl, faber, a worker. 
orCkTrerie, s. f. goldsmith's art, arti- 
cles of gold or silver, jewelry. 

orfrale, s. i oaprey, fisbing-eirie; 
tvf osfraie; £. osprey; ossiirar 
fa, os,aboiia,fraAg«r«, tabnak. 

•rgane, s. m.oigaB, toice, mediam, 
spokesman; organum, d^ymvov, 
an iaatrament 
0Tg9MUp», adj. organic; organ! ens; 

organisatenr, s. m. organizer. 

organisation, s. f. organization. 

oigaaiaer, v. a. to organize. 

organisme, s. m. organism. 

organiste, s. m. oiganist; M.L. orga- 
nista; comp. orgue. 
organsin, s. m. organzine; It organ- 
orge. 8. f. barley; It orzo; Pxor. 
ordi; hordeum. 

orgeat, s. m. orgeat 

•rgelBt, orgeolat, a m. stye (in the 
eye) ; comp. Ge. gerstenkorn, sfye, 
lit. barlev-com. 
orgies, s. £ pL orgies, orgy; orffia; 

"Offyicc^ihe feast or orgies of Bacdins. 
orgue, s. m. orgnes, s. £ pi. oigan 
(musical instrument) ; o r g a n a m ; 
see organ. 
orgueil, s. m. pride, haughtiness; It 
orgoglio; Sp. orguflo; O.H.G 
urguol, distinguished. 

orgoeiUeux, se, aSy. proud, haughtiy. 
orient, s. m. east, orient; on ens, 
-entis. the quarter where to sun 
rises, tne east, pr. p. of oriri, to 

oriental, e, adj. eastern, oriental; orf- 

orientaliste, s. m. orientalist, oriestal 

orientanx, s. m. pi. orientals. 

orienter, t. a. to place, to set (with 
regard to the cardinal points), pr. 
V. to find out the East, i. e to find 
out where one is, to see one's way. 
orifllee, s. m. orifice, aperture, hole; 
orificium, os, oris, a monlh, 
face re, to make. 
orlflamme, s. m. oriflamme, the an- 
cient royal standard of France; anYi- 
flamma, aurum, gold, because 
borne on a gilded lance, flamviL 
flame, either as being made oi red 
cloth, or cut to vesemble flama 
orlgiiie, s. £ origin, source^ b^ipn- 
ning; origo, -inis, oriri, toanse. 

•rigiaaire^ aiij. native. originitlML 

original, e,l4j. original, ezeentnc. 

origlaaliti, s. £ originality, exeeBtricify. 

osi^hiel, la, adj. origiDsi. prmdiivt. 
orilion, s. m. little ear, orillAn, pi. 
momps; aaa ojrAille. 

— 175 — 

•Tl6B • B. m. Orion (eonst^tatioa). 
'SlQiav, a celebrated hnnter, in the 
Grecian mythology. 

orlpean, s. m. tinsel, orsedew; O.F. 
rip el; It. orj^ello; Prov. aur- 
pel; auri pellis, gold-skin, au- 
rum, gold, pellis, skin; comp. 
or and pean. 

<>rle, 8. m. orle, orlet; It orlo; ora, 
a border, edge. 

orme, 8. m. elmtree; Pro v. olme; 

oimale, 8. t elm-grove, 
orne, s. m. manna-ash-tree; ornns. 
omement, s. m. ornament; orna- 

mentam, ornare; see orner. 

omer, ▼. a. to ornament, to adorn, 

to decorate, to deck; ornare. 
ornidre, s. f. track, rnt, beaten track ; 

OJ". ordi^re; orbit a, the track; 

comp. orbite. 
ondthologie, b. f. ornithology; oQVig, 

BQVL^og^ a bird. l6yog^ a discourse, 
omithologiqiie, aaj. ornithological, 
oxniihologiiey s. m. ornithologist 
orpalUeur^ s. m. gold-seardier ; see 

or and paillette, spangle, who 

looks for gold-spangles. 

orpbelki, s. m. e, s. £ orphan ; O.F. 

orphenin; orphanus; 6^(puv6g. 
orly a^j. gross (weight); O.F. ord, 

orre; see ordure. 
oiteU^ B.m. toe, big toe; O.F. arteil; 

ariiculaSy joint, dim. of artns 

ertbodoxe, ad^. orthodox; Sg&odo^og^ 

6^6g, right, SS^a, opinion, Soniooy 

to think, 
•rtkedozie, s. f. orthodoxy. 

orthographe, s. f. orthography , spel- 
ling; dg^oYQaipia^ dg^og^ right, y^tf- 
9«>, to write. 

otthographiB » s. f. (arch.) elevation, 

ortihographier, v. a. to spell. 

orthographique, adj. ortographical. 

Brrthop^dle, s. f. orthopedy; ogd'og, 

right, naig, naMg, a child. 
#7ihopidiq<a0> adij. orthopedic. 

ortie, s. f. nettle; stinging nettle; ur- 
ti&a, urere, to bum. 

ortolan, s. m. ortolan; ortolano; 

h ortu lann 8, pertaining to gardens, 

hortus, a garden. 
orYlMn, 8. m. onrietan; It orvie- 

ttt*^; 80 caiiti, 4)eeaa8e it^NM in- 

vented by a Mlebrated ehtrivfean 
from Or vie to, a (own in Italy. 

OS) B. m. bone; ob, obbIb, a bone. 

oseUler, ▼. n. to oscillate, to vibrate; 

OBcillare; oscillum, an image 

of the face, hung on ropoB, and 

' swung up and down in the air ; dim. 

of OB, oris, mouth, face. 

oBeillation, bl f. oscillation, vibration. 

oBoillatoive, adU. oscillatory. 

08^* e, adj. bold; see oser. 

osetlle, s. f. sorrel; oxalis, o^dlig, 
dfpg, sharp. 

•ser* V. a. to dare, to venture, to be 
bold; M.L. ausare for and ere, 
an sum. 

osier, 8. m. osier, wicker; Bret ao- 
zil; oMg, 
oseraie, s. f. osier-ground. 

osselet, 8. m. ossicle, huckle-bone, 
osselet; dim. of OB. s. t 

OBsements, b. m. pi. bones; see os. 

osseiix, se, adj. bony; oBBens, ob; 
see 08. 

osslfler, V. a. to oBsiiy; os, oBsiB, 
bone, facere, to make, 
osiifloation, s. f. ossification. 

OBBii, e, a4j. bony, large-boned; 8M«b. 
OBfuaire, s. m. ossuary. 

ostensible, ai^. ostensible; ostea- 
Bum. sup. of ostendere, obB- 
tenaere, to stretch towards, to 

ostentation, s. f. ostentation, show; 
ostentatio, -onis, ostentare 
frea. of ostendere; see prec. 

ost^liMjrie, 8. f. osteology; oersoXo- 
y/cr, ohtiov, a bone, X&fog^ a dis- 
ostiologiqae, acU. osteolo^pc. 

ostracisme, s. m. ostracism; iKtzQa- 
luaiufg^ a voting or banishing by pot- 
sherds , S9TQ0CKOV, a tile, potsherd. 

Ostrogot, s. m. Ostrogoth. Eastern 
Goth.; Ge. ost, East, ana Goth. 

otftge, 8. m. hostage, pledge; O.F. 
ostage; It ostaggio; Sp. hos- 
taje; M.L. ob stations for ob- 
sidatictts; obsidatus, obses, 
•idis, a hostage, lit one who is 
blockaded, i. e. who is not free to 
move from plaee to place; o b side- 
re, to sit, to besiege. 

Oter, V. a. to remove, to take away; 
O.F. oster; Prov. ostar; (E. oust) 
E.d. Diez proposes hauBtare, tref. 
of hanrire, ha«Rtam, to 4faw 
but, to jitkdk oat 

— 176 — 

Ottoman, s.m. Ottoman, Tork; so cal- 
led from Othman, or Osman, a 
saltan, who ascended the throne 
early in the I4th century, 
ottommne, s. f. ottoman, sofa. 

on, coi^. or, either; It. od, o; aut. 
otk, adv. where, wither; It. ove; ub'i. 
onallle, s. f. sheep, pi. flock; ovica- 
la, dim. of ovis, a sheep. 

ouals, int indeed! bless me! O.F. wai; 

Goth, vai; A.S. vd, vae; E. woe, 

▼ai; ovai. 
ouate, s.f. wadding; It ovata; ovum, 

egg, something in the shape of an 

egg; comp. £. wad; 6e. watte. 

oubUe, s. f. wafer; O.F. oblaie, ob- 
14e, holy wafer, host; M.L. oblata; 
oblatum, sup. of offerre, to of- 

oubUer, v. a. to forget; O.F. oblier; 
Prov. O.Sp. oblidar; oblitare 
freq. oi oblivisci, oblitum. 

ouUi, 8. m. oblivion, forgetfulness, for- 
getting, negligence; oblivio. 

onbUottes, s. f. pi. oubliette, dungeon 
of a castle. 

ouUienz, le, adj. forgetful, oblivions; 

ouest, s. m. West; A.S. vest; E. 

west; Ge. west; (Sans, vasati, 

oid^ adv. ves : Prov. o c ; O.F. oil; hoc 

illud (est), BO it is; comp. nenni. 

oulr,v.ato hear; O.F. olr; audire. 

oni-dire, s. m. hearsay; see dirg. 

onie, 8. f. hearing, hole (of violins 
etc.), gill (respiratory organ in fis- 

ouragan, s. m. hurricane; It ura- 
cano; E. hurricane; 6e. orkan; 
a comparatively new word which is 
said to derive from the language 
of the Garibees. 

ourdir, to warp, to contrive, to plan; 

ordiri, to begin a web, to under- , 


onrdiMage, s. m. warping. 
onrdiiMur, s. m. le, s. f. warper, 
ourdisioir, s. m. warping-mill, warping- 


onrler, ▼. a. to hem; see orle. 
ourlet, 8. m. hem; O.F. orlet, dim. 
of orle. 

^. bear; ursus. 

^he-bear, ursa; ursa. 
. bears cab, whelp. 

onrsin, s. m. echinns, sea-urchin; sa- 
me as h^risson; s. t 

outarde, s.f. bustard; O.F. bistar- 
de; It ottarda; Sp. aoutarda; 
Port, abetarda; Prov. austarda; 
avis tarda, slow bird. 

outil, s. m. tool, implement; O.F. os- 
til, us til; £t d. Scheler suggests 
some imaginary latin forms, derived 
from uti, to use. 
outillage, s m. stock of tools. 
outiUer, v. a. to supply with tools. 
ontrage, s. m. outn^e, uojury; M.L. 
ultragium; ultra, see outre, 
outrager, v. a. to outrage, to taunt 
outrageiiz, se, adj.; outrageous. 
outranee, s. f. excess; see outrer. 
oiitre, s. t dkin for wine etc., leather- 
bag, leathern bottle; uter. 
outre^ adv. and prep, beyond, farther, 
besides; O.F. oltre; ultra. 

outreenldant, e, adj. overweening; 

outre, s. t and O.F. cuider; co- 

gitare, to think, 
outreouidanoe, s. f. overweening. 
outremer, s. m. ultramarine (colour); 

outre = ultra, mer = mare. 
outrer, v. a. to exaggerate, to provo- 
ke, to overdo; see outre, beyond, 
outre-passer, ▼. a. to go beyond, to 

exceed; see outre and passer, 
ouvert, e, a4]. open; p.p. of ouvrir, 

8. t 
oayerture, s. f. opening, aperture, 


ouvrer, v. a. to work; operari, 

comp. operer. 
oavrable, ac(j. working (day), 
oavrage, s. m. work, workmanship, 
ouyxier, s. m. workman, mechanic. 
ouYziire, s. f. work-woman. 
ouTTir, V. a to open; Prov. obrir, 

ubrir; de-operire, to un-cover. 
ouvreur, a. m. se, s. f. box-keeper in 

a theatre. 

onvroir, s. m. workshop; see ouvrer. 
ovaire, s. m. ovary, ovarium; ovum, 

an egg. 
oval, e, adj. oval; It ovale; ovum, 

an egg. 
ovation, s. f. ovation ; o vati o , -onis, 

ovare, to rejoice. 
OTipare, a4J. oviparous; ovnm, an egg^ 

pare re, to bring forth. 
oxyde, s. m. oxide; o^vg, sharp. 
oaqrd«r, v. a. to oxidate, to oxiaisfB. 

— 177 — 

oxygrdne, 8. m. oxygen; <{^;, sharp, axymel, s. m. ozymel; d^iult, 6ii6g, 
yivda, to generate. acid, iiili, honey. 


paeage, 8.m. pasture-land; O.F. pas- 
cage; pascaum, pascere, to 
drive to pasture, comp. paitre. 
paeager, v. n. to pasture. 

paehjderme, s. m. pachyderm; na- 
ZvSeQfiog, thick-skinned, xaxvg, 
thick, Si(f(ia^ skin. 

padfler, y. a. to pacify; pacificare, 
pax, pacis, peace, facere, to 

padfioateur, s. m. -trioe, s. f. pacifi- 
cator, pacifier, peace-maker; paci- 

paeifioation, s. £ pacification; paci- 
ficatio, -onis. 

paeiflquQ, adj. pacific, peaceful; pa- 

paeotillle, s. f. personal luggage on 
board ship; see paquet. 

paete, s. m. pact, contract, covenant; 
pactum, paciscere, pactum, 
to bargain. 

paetiser, v. n. to covenant, to com- 

paganlsme, s. m. paganism; paga- 
nus; see paien. 

page^ s. m. page (person); It. pa- 
ggi ; M.L. p agius; naidCov, ayoung 
child, a young slave, nalg^ nciidog, 
a boy. 

page, s. f. page (of a book etc.); pa- 
ffina, pag, root of pangere, to 

pagination, s. f. paging (of books), 
pagixier, v. a. to page (books). 

pagne, s. m. garment worn by ne- 
groes; Sp. pano, cloth; pa nuns, 
pagnon, s. m. black Sedan cloth. 

pagnote, s. m. coward; Et d. 

pagode, 8. f pagoda, pagod; Pers, 
but-kede, but, an idol, kede, 
a temple. 

paYen, ne^ adj. heathen, pagan; OJ". 
pagien; Prov. pagan, pay an; 
It. Sp. pagano; paganus, rustic, 
heathen, p a g u s , a vulage. Pagans, 
or villagers, came to be applied to 
all the remaining votaries of the old 
and decaying superstitions, jJMtfmnch 

as far the greater number were of 

this class. (Trench.) 

paillard, e, adj. wanton, rake; see 

paiUarder, v. n. to wanton, to rake. 
paillardiM, s.flewdeness, wantonness. 
paillasse, s. m. clown, buffoon; see 

paillasse, s. f. straw -mattress, pal- 
liass; see paille. 
paillasion, s. m. straw -mat. 

paille, s. f. straw, flaw (of gems, me- 
tals, etc.). It. paglia; Sp. paja; 
Prov. Port, palha; palea, chaff. 

pailler, s. m. heap of straw, farm- 

paillette, s. f. spangle. 

paiUenr, s. m. se, s. f. dealer in straw. 

paillet, acy. pale (red wine); dim. of 
p&le; s. th. 

pidn, s. m. bread, loaf, cake (of co- 
lour, wax, etc.); pan is. 

pair, a4}« similar, like, even (num- 
ber); par, paris, equal 
pair, 8. m. peer, equal, 
paire, s. f. pair, couple, brace, 
pairaiae, s. f. peeress, 
pairie, s. f. peerage. 

paisible, ad(j. peaceable, quiet; pax, 

pacis, peace; see paix. 
paitre, v. a. to graze, to pasture, to 


croitre and paraitre 

paix, s. f. peace, quiet; pax, pacis 
pal, s. m. pale; palus; comp. pieu, 

comp. 6e. pfahl, £. pale, etc. 
paladin, s. m. paladin; palatinus, 
in the Byzantine court an officer of 
the palace, palatium; seepalais. 

palais, s. m. palace, court of justice, 
court; Itpalazzo, palagio; pa- 

, latium, one of the seven hills of 
Borne, on which Augustus had his 

palais, s. m. palate, taste; same as 
prec. palais meant in O.F. a vault- 
ed hall, and was by and by applied 
to the vault of the mouth. 

palanquin, s. m. palanquin; Hind 


— 178 — 

palatale, adj. palatal; palatalis 
palatum, the palate. 

palatin, e, adj. and s. Palatine; pa- 
la t i n u s , pertaining to the imperial 
palace, palatium; see palais. 

Falatinat, s. m. Palatinate. 

palatine, s. f. Palatine's lady, fur-tip' 
pet, ,80 called after the Palatine 
princess Elizabeth Charlotte, who 
is said to have introduced the fashion 
of wearing these fur -tippets. 

pale 9 8. f. blade (of oars), small sluice, 
pall (cover of the calice); pal a, a 
spade; comp. pelle. 

pftle, acy. pale, palid; pallidus, 
pallere, to be pale. 

pal6e, s. f. row of piles, pile -work; 
palus; see pal. 

palefrenier , s. m. sroom; see next w. 

palefroi, s. m. pal&ey; M.L. para- 
fredus for L. paraveredus, an 
extra-posthorse, nagd, near, beside, 
beyond, veredus, a post-horse, 
(hence Ge. Pferd, horse). 

pal^ographie, s. f. paleography; na- 

Xaiog, ancient, yQdtpm, to ¥rrite. 
paler on, s.m. shoulder-bone; seep ale. 
palet, 8. m. quoit (a play) ; see pale. 

paletot, 8. m. paletot, great -coat; 
O.F. paletoque; Sp. paletoque; 
Bret paltdk, a rural garment; 
comp. paltoquet. 

palette, s. f. battle-door, pallet, pal- 
ette; £. pallet; see pale. 

p&Ieur, s. f. paleness, palidness; pal- 
lor; see p&le. 

palier, s. m. landing-place (of stair- 
cases); pala; see pale. 

palimpseste, s. m. palimpsest; na- 
Ufiiprjatog, parchment from which 
one writing has been erased to make 
room for another, ndliv^ again, 
^ao, to rub. 

palingen^sie, s. f. palingenesia; nct- 
liyyhvBcia, new birth, ndUv^ again, 
y^y£0iff, birth. 

palinodie, s.f. palinode, recantation; 

nciXivmdiu^ nutUv^ again, m^i}, a song. 
pftllr, V. n. to grow, to turn pale, 

to pale, to wane; pallere; see 

. Is, s. m. pale, enclosure made by 

pales; palus. 
^aiissade, s. f. paling, palisade; see 
UiMder, V. a. to palisade, to fence in. 

palisser, ▼. a. to pale up; see palis. 
palissandre, s. m. rose -wood; Et. d. 

palladium, s. m. palladium; palla- 
dium, a statue of Pallas Athene, 
esp. that, which was said to have 
fallen from heaven, and which was 
carefully guarded at Troy ; the safe- 
ty of the city being contingent on 
its possession; TlaXXddiov^ UalXdgy 

pallier, v. a. to palliate; p alii are, 
to cover with a mantle, pallium, 
a covering, mantle; comp. Ge. be- 
m&nteln, to palliate, from man- 
tel, mantle. 

palliatif, ye, adj. and s. m. palliative. 

palliation, s. f. palliation. 

pallium, s. m. pallium, pall; pal- 
lium, a mantle. 

palmaire, a^j. webbed; pal ma, na- 
Zofftij, the palm of the hand ; comp. 

palme, s. f. palm -branch, palm-tree, 

palm; pal ma, the palm of the hand, 

a palm-tree; comp. prec. 

palmetto, s. f. palm -leaf (ornament). 

palmier, s.m. palm-tree; palmarius. 

palmite, s. m. sap of the palm-tree. 

palombe, s. f. ring-dove of the Py- 
renees; palumba, ring-dove. 

palonnler, s. m. swing -bar (of car- 
riages) palus, see palis. 

palot, s. m. rustic; Et d. 

pftlot, te, adj. palish, wannish; see 

palper, v. n. to feel; palpare, to 

stroke, to touch softly, 
palpable, adj. palpable; palpabi- 
lis, palpare. 
palpe, s. f. palp, feeler. 
palpiter, v. n. to palpitate, to throb; 
palpitare, palpare; see prec. 
palpitant, e, adj. palpitating, throbing; 
palpitans, -antis. 
palpitation, s. f. palpitation; palpi- 
tatio, -onis. 
palsambleu, palsangn^, palsan- 
guienne , interj. zounds ; for p a r 1 e 
sangdieu, (; comp.morbleu. 
paltoquet, s. m. lubber, booby; O.F. 

paltoque; see paletot 
p&mer, v. n. and pr. v. to swoon; 
O.F. pasmer, espasmer, espan- 
mer; M.L. spasmare; spasmus; 
anucfidg; comp. spasme. 
pamelsen, s. f. swoon, fainting. 

— 179 — 

pamphlet, b. m. pamphlet; E. pam- 
phlet, £t. d. 
pamphUtaire, s. m. pamphleteer. 

pampre, 8. m. wine-branch ¥rith leaves, 
pamper; pampinus; comp. dia- 

pan, s. m. skirt of a coat, large piece 
of a wall; pannus, a cloth. 

panache, s.f. panacea, nostrum; pa- 
nacea; navanLSia^ a herb to which 
was ascribed the power of healing 
all diseases, n&v, all, d7iio(iaL, to 

panache, s. f. plume of feathers, 
plume, pendentive; O.F.pennache; 
penna, a feather. 

panacher, v. n. (of flowers, leaves, etc.) 
to beeome, to get variegated. 

panaehure, s. f. variegation. 

panade, s. f panada, panado (bread 

boiled in water); Sp. panado; Sp. 

pan, bread; panis, bread. 
panader, (se), pr. v. to strut; see 

panage, s. m. pannage; O.F. pas- 

naee; comp. paitreand paisson. 
panafs, s. m. parsnip; pastinaca. 

panaris, s. m. panaris, whitlow; It. 

panereccio; panaritium; na- 

QmwxtSf naifd, beside, Sw^, a nail. 
panearte, s. f. placard; M.L. pan- 

charta, prob. naVf all, charta, 

a leaf. 

pandeetes, s. f. pi. Pandects; pan- 
dectes; navdfuTTjg, a book that 
contains everything, nav, all, di- 
XOfictL, to receive. 

pandemonium, s. m. Pandemonium; 
nav, all, daC(iaiv, a demon. 

pan^gyrique, s. m. panegyric, eulogy; 
panegyricus, the festival oration 
oflsocrates, in which he eulogized 
the Athenians; navrjyvQi%6q, pertain- 
ing to a public assembly or festi- 
val; way, all, SyvQig, an assembly. 
panAgyriflte, s. m. panegyrist, eulogist 

paner, v. a. to cover with bread- 
crnmbs; panis, bread. 

panetier, s. m. pantler (formerly an 

officer, who had the charge of the 
bread); M.L. panetarius, pane- 
tus, a small bread; panis, bread. 
paneterie, s. f. pantry (of public estab- 
paastitof s. f. poach. 

panier, s« m. basket, pannier, ham- 
per, hojDp petticoat; panarium, 
a bread-basket, panis, bread. 

panifleation, s. f . panification, makin 
of bread; M.L. panificare; pag 
nis, bread, facere, to make. 

panl^ne, a^j. and s.f, panic; napindg 
ndVf a rural god, and the general oi 
Bacchus in his Indian expedition, 
where, being surrounded by an op- 
posing army far superiour in num- 
bers, he caused his men to raise 
simultaneous shout in the middle 
of the night, which, favoured by 
the echoes oif a rocky valley, so 
surprised the ennemy, that they 
fled precipitately from their camp. 


panne, s. f. velveteen, plush; O.F. 
pene; It. penna, pena; M.L. 
p anna, fur, plush; penna, feather. 

panne, s. f purlin, longitudinal rafter; 
M.L. panna; pannus, see pan. 

pannean, s. m. panel, pane; pan- 
nulus, dim. of pannus; see pan. 

panneton, s. m. key -bit; see pan. 
panoplie, s. f. psnioply;navonUa, a 

full suit of armour, nav, all, oitXov, 


panorama, s. m. panorama; n&v, 
all, opaftcr, a view, dqatOy to see. 

panse, s. f. paunch, belly ; O.F. pance; 
Sp. panza;. It pancia; Ge. pan- 
zen; E. paunch; pantex, -ticis. 

panser, v. a. to dress (a wound); 
same as penser (s. th.), to think, 
to mind, 
paniement, s. m. dressing (of wounds). 

pantalon, s. m. trousers, pantaloons, 
pantaloon (buffoon in pantomimes). 
Ace. to Menage, a word originat- 
ing among the Venetians, who wore 
the garment, calling it pantaloni, 
from P an t al e n , formerly the pa- 
tron saint of Venice. 

panteler, v. n. to pant, to gasp; see 

panth^isme, s. m. pantheism; nav, * 
all, ^firfff, god. 
panthi^ifte, s. m. pantheist 

pantheon, s. m. pantheon ; p a n t h e o n ; 

nav, all, ^sog, god. 
panthdre, s. f. panther; panther; 

pantin, s. m. manikin, puppet; Etd. 

12 • 

— 180 — 

pantograplie, s. m. pAntograpli; m^, 
navtdg, all, yQoifpm, to write. 

pantois, adj. oat of breath, amazed; 
£. pant, 
pantoiement, s. m. pantess. 

pantomime 9 s. m. pantomime (actor); 
pantomimus; navt6fii[iog^ a male 
ballet - dancer ,= nag , navrog , all, 
fiLfiiofiai , to mimic, 
pantomime » s. f. pantomime, dumb- 

pantoofle, s. f. slipper; It. panto- 
fola, pantufola; Sp. pantuflo; 
Ge. pantoffel; D. pantuffel; 
Piem. patofle; Et. d. Ace. to Diez 
the first pari of this word is the 
same as patte, s. th. The suffix 
-oufle may have been formed on 
the pattern of man oufle, still used 
in Provence for m oufle, s. th. im- 
plying a L. form m an up o la for 

paon, s. m. peacock, pea -fowl; It. 
pavone; Sp. pavon; pavo, -onis. 
paonne, s. f. pea -hen. 
paonneau, s* m. pea-chick. 

papa 9 s. m. ^apa, fatlier; pap pas, 
papas, Tcanitagf ndnag, a repeti- 
tion of the first syllable of pater, 
natilQj like ftaftfba, mamma for 

pape, s. m. pope; same as prac. 
papal, e, adj. papal, 
papauti , s. I. papacy. 

papegrai, s. m. popiujai, wooden bird 
serving asatarget; it. pappagallo; 
Sp. Port, papagayo; Prov. papa- 
gai; 6e. papagei; E. popinjai; 
Et. d. 

papelard, e, adj. hypocritical ; Et. d. 
papelardise, s. f hypocrisy. 
paperasse^ s. f. waste -paper, paper; 
see papier; the suffix asse is the 
same as the suffix ace; L. acea; 
comp populace, 
paperassier, s.m. person who amasses 
useless papers or books. 

papetier, s. m. paper-maker, stationer; 
see papier, 
papeterie, s. f. paper -manufactory, 
paper-mill, stationery. 

papier 9 s. m. paper; papyrus; ffo^ 
nvQog, the papyrus, of which writ- 
ins -paper was made. 

papfile, s. f. papilla, nipple; pa- 

papilloii) s. m. butterfly; pap ilia, 

papiUoner, v. n. to flatter about from 

one object to another. 
papillote, s.f. curl-paper; see papier. 

papilloter, v.n. to twinkle, to dazzle; 
see papillon. 

papillotage, s. m. twinkling of the 
eyes, dazzling. 
papisme, s. m. papism, popery; see 

papiste, s. m. f. and adj. papist, po- 
pish; see pape. 
pftque, 8. f. passover, pi Easter; It. 
pasqua; Sp. pascua; pascha; 
ndoxa-, Heb. pesach, prop, mean- 
ing passage, the festival of the 
Jews in commemoration of their 
providential deliverance on the night 
before their departure from Egypt, 
when the destroying angel, who put 
to death the first-born of the Egyp- 
tians, passed over (hence E. pass- 
over) the houses of the Hebrews. 
paquebot, s. m. packet -boat, mail- 
boat; E. packet-boat. 
pftquerette, s. f. daisy; O.F. pas- 

quier, pasture; pascuum. 
paquet, s. m. packet, parcel, bundle, 

mail; dim. of E. and Ge. pack. 
par, prep, through, by, from; per. 
par, in de par le roi, stands for 

part, s. th. 
parabole, s. f. parable, parabola; 
parabola, naQa§oXij, a compari- 
son, naQa'§diXX(o, to throw beside, 
to compare. 
parachate, s.m. parachute; It. para, 
par are, to ward off, F.chute,; 
comp. paravent, parapluie, pa- 
parade, s. f. parade, display, show; 
par are, to place in order, comp. 

parader, v. n. to show off. 
paradigme, s. m. paradigm; para- 
dig m a, TraQadsiyiia, a pattern, model, 
naga, beside, dsUvv(iL, to show. 
paradis, s.m. paradise; paradisus; 
nagadsLaog, a park or pleasure- 
grounds, an Eastern word used in 
the Septuagint for the garden of 
Eden; Sansc. parades a. 
paradoxe, s.m. paradox; naQado^ov, 
contrary to opmion, nuQu, against, 
di^a^ opinion, 
paradoxal, e, acij* paradoxical*. 

— 181 — 

parafe, paraphe, s. m. flourish of the 
pen aftorasignatare, paraph; M.L. 
paragraphuSy ffapay^crqpi}, any- 
thing written beside, ara^a, beside, 
ypdqDco, to write. 

parafer, paraph«r, v. a. to initial, to 

parage, s. m. extraction, birth, lineage ; 

It. parraggio; M.L. paragium; 

par, eqnaf. 
parage, s. m. quarter, parts (places); 

M.L. paragins, next 

paragoge. s. f. paragoge, addition of 
a syllable or letter to the end of 
a word; nagayonyi}, an alteration, 
nagd, beside, o^yeo, to lead, 
paragogique, adj. paragogical. 

paragraphe, s. m. paragraph; napa- 

yQa<P'ii; see parafe. 
paraguante, s. f. present (for a ser^ 

vice rendered); Sp. par, for, gn- 

ante; F. gant (s. th.) glove, for 


parattre, v. n. to appear, to come 
out, to shine, to seem; O.F. pa- 
roistre, like parescere for pa- 
rere, apparere. 

parallaxe, s.f parallax; naqdXXa^ig, 
7caQaXXoi66<o y to change or alter, 
nagd^ beyond, aXXdccm^ to change, 
parallaetiqiie, adj. parallactical. 

paralldle, adj. and s. f. parallel^ pa- 
rallelus; naQaXXriXog^ itaQUy be- 
side. aU^'Zov, of one another. 

paraimisme, s. m. parallelism. 

parallUogramme, s. m. parallelogram; 
TiaQuXXriXoyQaitiiov, y^afificx, a writ- 
ing, a drawing, ygdqxo^ to write. 

paralysie, s. f. paralysis, palsy; na- 
gdXvoig^ naQaXvo}, to loose from the 
side, nagcc, beside, Xvooy to loose, 
paralyser, v. a. to paralyze. 
paraMique, adj. paralytic; nagaXv- 
parant, e, ac^. ornamental, adorning; 
see parer. 

parapet, s. m. parapet, breast-work; 
It para-petto, parare, to de- 
fend, petto, the breast; pectus. 

paraphe, see parafe. 

parapheruaox, s. m. pi. parapher- 
nalia; M.L. paraphernalia; na- 
gdq)sgva, nagd, beside, (pBgvr}, a 

paraphrase, s. f. paraphrase; para- 
phrasis, nagatpgaaigj nccgd^ be- 

side, ipgdffig^ phrase, ^gdim^ to 


paraphraser, v. a. to paraphrase, 
paraphraieur, s. m. ampline. 
paraphraste, s. m. paraphrast; nct^- 


paraplnle, s. m. umbrella; It para; 
see parachute, F. pluie, s. th. 

parasite, adj. and s. m. parasitic, 
parasite; par a sit us; nagdcixog^ 
eating beside, nagd^ beside, citog, 
meal, bread. 

parasol, s«m. parasol; Itparasole, 
para; see parachute; sol, the 

paratonnerre, 8. m. lightning-con- 
ductor; para, see parachute, 
F. tonnerre, s. th. 

paravent, s. m. screen; para, eee 
parachute, vent, s. th. 

parblen, interj. zounds; O.F. par- 
bieu for par dieu, s. th. comp. 
morbleu, palsambleu, pardi, 

pare, s. m. park, pen (for cattle), 

(oyster^) bed; Itparco, M.L. par - 

cut; ace. to Diez connected with 

L. parcere, to spare, to preserve. 

paroage, s. m. penning of cattle. 

pareelle, s. f. very small part, par- 
ticle; It particella; particella 
forparticula, dim. of pars, par- 
tis, part 

paree que, conj. because; see par, 

ce, que. 
parchemln, s. m. parchment; O.F. 

parcamin; It. pergamena; Sp. 

pergamina; 6e. pergament; 

pergamena, so called, according 

to Isidore, Yarro, and others, 

because invented by Eumenes, 

king of Pergamus. 
paroheminerie, s. f. parchment-making, 

parchment - factory, 
paroheminier, s. m. parchment-maker. 

pareimonle , s. f. parsimony, sparing- 
ness; parcimonia, parcere, to 

parcimonieux, se, adj. parsimonious, 

pareourir, v. a. to go over, to run 

over, to go through, to look over, 

percurrere; see par and courir. 

parcGurs, s. m. line (travelled over 

by public conveyances), commonage. 

par-dessas, s. m. great coat, over- 
coat; see par and dessus. 

— 182 — 

pardl, inteij. by god, indeed; It 
der dio. 

pardonner, y. a. to forgive, to par- 
don; M.L. per-donare,for-give. 

pardon, s. m. pardon, forgiveness. 

pardonnable» adj. pardonable; comp. 

pareil, le, adj. alike, similar, such; 
It. parecchio; Sp. parejo; M.L. 
paricaluB dim. of L. par, eqaal; 
comp. appareiller. 

parement, s. m. ornament, facing of 
dress, sleeves^ etc.; see parer. 

parent, s. m. e, s. f. relation, rela- 
tive, kinsman, kinswoman; parens, 
-entis, parere, to bear, 
parent^, s. £ relationship, consan- 
parentUA, 8. f. kindred, kinsfolk. 

parenth^se, s. f. parenthesis; nagiv- 
d'saig, naQci, beside , h'tl^rnu^ to 
place in. 

parer. v. a. to adorn, to deck, to 
ward off, to guard; parare, the 
orig. signification of which seems 
to have been, to set or place in 
order, M.L. to adorn. 

paresse, s. f. laziness, idleness; Sp. 
Port, pereza; It. pigrezza; pi- 
gritia, piger, slow, 
pareaser, v. n. to idle, to laze, 
paresseux, Be, adj. idle, lazy. 

parfaire, v a. to complete, to make 

up; perficere; comp. par and 

parfait, e, adj. perfect; p.p. of prec; 

pertectus p. p. of perficere. 
pazfutqment, adv. perfectly, exactly. 
parliler, v. a. to undo the threadi 

of textile fabrics ; see p ar and filer, 
parfilage, s. m. undoing, picking out 

the thread of textile fabrics. 

parfois, adv. sometimes, occasionally; 

per vices; see par and fois. 
parfiuner, v. a. to perfume, to fumi- 
gate; per-iumare; see par and 

parftim, s. m. perfume, scent, fra- 


parfomerie ,s. f, perfumery, 
parfomenr, s. m. Be, s. f. perfumer. 
parh^lie, par^lle, s. m. parhelion, 

mock sun; nagrjUog^ nagd, near, 

^Xtoff, the sun. 
pari, s. m. wager, bet; see parier. 
paria, s. m. pariah, outcast; the 

name of the lowest caste of people 

in Hindustan, a cormptlon of the 

Tamul name Farriar, in the 

parier, v. a. to wager, to bet; M.L. 

pari are; par, equal, 
pari, s. th. 
parienr, s. m. better. 

Paris, s. m. Paris (city); Lutetia 
Pariflien, s. m. ne, s. f. Parisian. 
parity, s. f. parity, comparison; pa- 

ritas, par, paris, equal. 
paijnre, s. m. perjury, peijurer; 
perjurium, perjurus, per, for 
(in for-swear), jus, juris, justice, 

paxjurer (se) , pr. v. to perjure o's self. 
parlagre, s.m. prattle, speaking, talk; 

see parier. 
parlant, e, adj* speaking, expres- 
sive; see parier. 
parlement, s. m. parliament; M.L. 
parlamentum; see parier. 
parlementaire , adj* parliamentary, 
parlementer, v. n. to parley. 
parier, v. n. to speak, to talk; for 
parol er; It. pari are; Sp. Prov. 
parlar; see parole, 
parier 9 s. m. way of speaking, lan- 

parienr, s. m. Be, s. f. talker, 
parloir, s. m. parlour. 
parmesan, s. m. Parmesan cheese; 

made at Parma. 
parmi, prep, among, amongst, amid; 

per medium; see par and mi. 
Parnasse, s. m. Parnassus; Par- 
nassus; a mountain in Greece, 
sacred to Apollo and the Muses. 
pamasBien, ne, a^. Parnassian. 
parodie, s. f. parody; parodia; na- 
g(pdi*a, nagdy beside, ocdrj. an ode. 
parodier, v. a. to parody, 
parodiste, s. m. author of a parody. 

paroi, s. f. partition -wall, inner side 
of a wall, vase, viscera, etc.; pa- 
ries, -etis, a wall. 

paroisse , s. f. parish ; OJF. p ar o i c h e ; 
It. parocchia; Sp. Prov. parro- 
quia; M.L. parochia; nagomia^ 
ndg-oixogj a dwelling beside, ornear. 
pan^BBial, e, adj. parish, parochial. 
paroiBBien, s. m. ne, s. f. parishioner, 

parole, s. f. word (spoken), speech, 
utterance, language, voice , parole; 
O.F. paranle; It parola; 0. It. 

— 183 — 

paraala; parabola, ira^a/SoXi}; 
see parabole. 

paronyme, adj. paronymoas; naQoi- 
wfiog, called after a name or word, 
naQ(i^ near, ovoiucj a name. 

paroxisme, s. m. paroxysm , fit; «a- 
Qo^vciJLog, irritation, exasperation, 
naQ'O^vvio^ to sharpen, to irritate. 

parque, s. f. Fate, one of the three 

Farcae or Fates; pare a. 
parqner, ?. a. to pen cattle, to place 

in an enclosure, to park; see pare, 
parqaet, s. m. bar in courts of Justice, 

public prosecutor and his officers, 

Sarquet in a theatre, inlaid floor, 
ooring; dim. of pare, s. th. 
parqnetago, s. m. flooring (work), 
parqueter, y. a. to floor, 
parqueterie , s. f. art of making oak- 
parquetenr, s.m. maker of oak-flooring. 

parrain, s. m. god- father, sponsor; 

Prov. pairin; It. patrino; Sp. pa- 

drino; M.L. patrinus; pater, 

&ther; comp. marraine. 
parrleide, adj. and s. m. parricide; 

parricida, pater, a father, cae- 

dere, to kill 
parsemer, v. a. to strew, to sprinkle 

(for ornament), to stud; see par 

and semer. 

part, B. m. birth, child, infant; par- 
tus, parere, to bear. 

part, s. f. part, share, portion, side; 
pars, partis. 

partage , s. m. partition, division^ dis- 
tribution; partitio; see partir. 
partager, v. a. to divide, to share, 
to participate. 

partanee, s. f. sailing, departure; 
see partir. 

partant, adv. consequently, therefore, 
hence, thus; per tantum; see 
par and tant 

partenaire, s. m. f. partner; E. 

parterre, s. m. flower-garden, par- 
terre, pit of a theatre; see par and 
parti, s.m. party, side, part, decision, 
match (person to be married); see 

partial, e, adj. partial, biassed, 
parti&lit^, s. f. partiality, bias. . 
partisan, s. th. 

participation, s. f. participation ; p ar- 
ticipatio, -onis; see participer. 

participe, s. m. participle; partici- 
pium, particeps, snaring, pars, 
partis, part, capere, to take. 

partieiper, ▼. n. to participate, to 
take part, to partake; participare, 
particeps; see prec. 

partieulariser, v. a. to particularize; 

particularis; see particulier. 
partieularit^, s. f. particularity; It. 

particularity; see prec. 
partieule, s. f. particle, fragment; 

particula, dim. of pars, partis, 


partiealler, dre, a^j. and s. parti- 
cular, peculiar, individual; parti- 
cularis, particula; see ^rec. 

partienli^rement, adv. particularly, 
in particular. 

partie, s. f. ^art, party, lot; parti- 
tum, partita, partiri, to share; 
see partir. 

partiel, le, a4j. partial. 

partir, v. n. to depart, to leave, to 
go off. to start; O.F. se partir, 
to separate; partiri, to divide. 

partisan, s. m. partisan; M.L. par- 
tesanus; parti, s. th. 

partitif, ve, ac|j. partitive; It Sp. 
partitive; pars, partis, a part. 

partition, s. f. (mus.) score; parti- 
tio, -onis, distribution; partiri, 
see partir. 

partout, adv. everywhere, all about, 
anywhere; see par and tout 

parure, s. f. attire, ornament, set of 
gems, adornment; see parer. 

parvenir, v. n. to attain, to reach, 
to arrive at, to rise to high station; 
per- venire, to arrive at; see 
par and venir. 
parvenu, s. m. parvenu, upstart. 

parvis, s. m. parvis, porch of a church; 

paradisus, which in M.L. meant 

porch, comp. par ad is. 
pas, s. m. step, pace, stride) gait, 

precedence; pass us. 
pas, adv. not, no, not any; like ne 

passum quidem,notastep; comp. 


pas, s m. straits, passage ; see passer. 
pascal, e, a4j. paschal; paschalis, 
pascha; see p&que. 

pasquin, s.m.pasquin; Itpasqnino; 
a mutilated statue of an ancient 
gladiator, dug up at Rome about 
300 years ago, and now lying in 

— t84 — 

the court of the capitol, was popu- 
larly called by the Bomans Pas- 
quino, or Pasquin,&omtheiiaine 
of a barber or cobbler, remarkable 
for his sneers and gibes, opposite 
to whose house it was onginally 
set up. To this statue it was the 
custom to affix satirical placards. 


pasquinade, s. f. pasquinade. 

passable, adj. passable, tolerable, mid- 
dling; It passabile; see passer. 

passade, s. f. passage through a place 
without making a stay in it, pas- 
sade; Prov. Port, passada; Sp. 
pasada; see passer. 

passage, s.m. passage, passing, voyage, 

thoroughfare, ferry, crossing; It 

passagio;Sp.pasage; seepasser. 

paasager, ire, adj. and s. passing, 

transitory, passenger, traveller. 

passant, s m. passer-by, person pas- 
sing by. passenger; see passer. 

passarant, s. m. permit (to remove 
goods), gangway; see passe and 

passe, s. f. pass, odd money, stake 
(P^Ay); passus; see passer. 

pass^, s. m. past, time past; see 

passement, s. m. lace, of gold, silk, 
worsted, etc. for clothes or furniture, 
trimming; It passamano; Sp. pa- 
samaoo,lit balustrade (pas a, pass, 
mano, hand, comp. main); see 

paaiementerie, s. f. lace -work, lace- 
trade, trimming. 

passementier, s. m. fringe -maker. 

passe-partout, s. m. pass-key, mas- 
ter-key, passepartout (engrav.); see 
passe and partout 

passe -passe, s. m. slight' of hand; 
see passer. 

asse^poU, s. m. edging (for clothes), 
braid; see passe and poil. 
passeport, s. m. passport; see passe 
and port; lit permission to leave 
a harbour. 

passer, ▼. n. a. to pass, to pass over; 
It passare; Sp. pasar; Port. Prov. 
passar; passum sup. of pan- 
der e, to spread out 

passereau, s. m. sparrow; passerine; 
passerellus, dim. of passer, 
-eria, sparrow. 

passe- temps, s. m. pastime, amuse- 
ment; see passe and temps. 

passible, adj. passible, liable; pas- 
sibilis, patiri, passum, to bear, 
to suffer; comp. impassible, 
passibiliti, s. f: passibility; passi- 

passlfj TO, adj. passive; passivus, 
patiri, passum, to suffer, 
passif, s. m. debts; passive. 
paiaiyetA, s. th. 

passion , s. f. passion; passio,-onis, 
patiri; see prec. 

passionn^, e, adj. impassioned, pas- 

paniiomier, v. a. to impassion; pr. v. 
to become impassioned. 

passlvet^, s. f . passiveness ; see p a s s i f. 
passolre, s. f. strainer, catlender; 
see passer. 

pastel, s. m. pastel, crayon; It. pas- 
te llo, dim. of pasta, paste; see 
p&te; pastel being made of a paste 
composed of coloring matter and 
gum -water. 

past^que, s. f. water-melon; ace. to 
Roquefort, O.F. paste; see pS,te. 

pasteur, s. m. pastor, shepherd, cler- 
gyman, minister; pastor, pascere; 
see paitre. 

pastiche, s. m. imitation, pasticcio; 
It pasticcio, pasta; see p4te. 

pastille, 8. f. lozenge, pastil; pas- 
tillus;! a little loaf, dim. of pa- 
nts; see loaf. 

pastoral, e, adj. pastoral; pasto- 
ralis, pastor; see pasteur. 
pastorale, s. f: pastoral. 

pastoureau, s. m. shepherds boy; 

see pasteur, O.F. pastour. 
pastourelle, s. f. shepherds girl; see 


pataehe, s. f. patache (a small boat), 
a kind of stage-coach in Spain; It 
patascia; Sp. patache. 

pataud, s. m. dog with large paws; 
see patte. 

patauger, v. n. to dabble, to become 
entangled; see patte. 

pftte, s. f. paste, dough, pulp; O.F. 

paste; It Sp. Port pasta; pasta, 


p&t^ , s. m. pie , pasty , patty, 
p&tte, B* £ paste, dogs' ponidge. 
pAteuz, ••» 8. th. 

— 185 — 

yuPteUn. 6) a4j. and s. wheedling, 
wheedkr; name of the principal 
personnage in a farce of the fifteenth 
century; comp. harp agon, 
patelintr, t. a. and n. to wheedle. 
pateUaewr, m, ad^. and s. wheedler. 

l^tdne, 8. f. paten, patin; patina, 
or patena, a broad dish, patere, 
to be open. 

patenOtre. s. f. paternoster, Lords 
prayer, cnaplet; paternoster, onr 
father, first words of the Lords prayer. 
patenMrier, s. m. bead -maker. 

patent, e, a4j- obvious, evident, pa- 
tent; patens, -entis, open, pr. p. 
<rf patere. to be open. 

ptttente, s. f. patent, letters patent, 
license; lettre understood.^ 

patenter, y. a. to patent, to licence. 

pater, s. m. Lords prayer, pater no- 
ster; first word of the Lords prayer; 
see patendtre. 

patere. s. f. peg, patera; patera, a 
broaa flat dish, patere; seepatdne. 

patene, patemel, le, adtj. paternal, 
fatherly ; paternus, pater, father, 
pateraiti, s. f. paternity, &therhood; 

patenx, se, adj. doughy, pasty, muddy; 
see pkie, 

path^tique, adj. pathetic, afiecting; , 

ira^iTTixdff, na&og, suffering, WaxcOy 

nad'siv, to suffer. 
patlK>logie, 8. i pathology; nd&og, 

suffering, loyog, a discourse, 
pathologi^ue, adj. pathological; nu- 


pathos, 8. m. pathos, passion, bom- 
bast: xd9'og. see pathetique. 

patibulaire, adj. patibulary; pati- 
bulum, a gibbet. 

patient, e, a^. and s. patient, suffer* 

ittg, sufferer, culprit (about to be 

executed); patiens, -entis, pr. p. 

of patiri, to undergo, to suffer; 

comp. impatient, 
patiemment, adv. patiently ; comp. im- 

patience, s. f. patience, forbearance; 

patientia; comp. impatience, 
pationter, v. n. to take patience, to 

have patience ; comp. impatienter. 

patln, 8. m. high -heeled shoe, skate, 
patten; ndvog^ a step. 
patiner, ▼. n. to skate, 
patlnenr, s. m. skater. 

pitir, T., n. to suffer, to endure; 

patire for pati; comp. mourir. 
p&tis, 8.m. pasture common; pas turn, 

sup. of pascere; see pattre. 

p&tisser, v. n. to make pastry; It 
pasticcio, paste, pasta, see 

pfttisserie, s. f. pastry, pastry-bu- 
siness; see prec. 

pfttissler, 8.m. i^re, s. f. pastry-kook; 
see prec. 

patois, s. m. patois, rustic or pro- 
vincial dialect ; ace. to Diez an ono- 
mat.; ace. to Menage from L. pa- 
trius, of a faUier, pater, -trie, 

patraqne, s. f. trash, rubbish; £i d. 

p&tre, s. m. shepherd, herdsman, pas- 
tor; pastor, see pastenr. 

patriarehe. s.m. patriarch; natQidQ' 
XT??, the father or chief of a family, 
nctTQiti^ descent, a^zij, supreme 
■ power. 

j^riaroal, e, adj. patriarchal; It 

patriaroat, s. m. patriarchate; It 

patriee, s. m. patrician (rank); pa- 
tricius, patres, fathers -or sena- 
tors, pi. of pater, father. 

patrieiat, s. m. order of patricians. 

patrieien, ne, adj. and s. patrician. 

patrie, s. f. native country, father- 
land, home; patria, pater, father. 

patrimoine, s. m. patrimony, inheri- 
tance; patrimonium, pater, 

patrimonial, e, adj. patrimonial; pa- 

patriote, s m. and adj. patriot, pa- 
triotic; ytcitQL<6ti]g , a fellow-coun- 
tryman, ntkqiog, national, nav^q^ 

patriotiqne, adj. patriotic. 

patriotisme, s. m. patriotism. 

patron, s. m. patron^ master, pattern 

(model); patronus, pater, father, 
patronage, s. m. patronage; It pa- 

patronal, e, ad(j. patronal; patro- 

patronne, s. f. patroness, 
patronner, v. a. to patronize, to take 

the pattern of. 
patronnesse, s. f. patroness. 

~ 186 — 

patronymlqae, adj. patronymic; ««• 

t^owfUTLog, fftfTi}^, a father, Snoiia, 

a name. 
patrouiller, v. n. to paw about, to 

paddle, to patrol; Sp. p at ml la r, 

pattular; see patte. 

patronllle, s. f. patrol; O.F. pa- 
touille, It pattuglia; Sp. pa- 

patte, 8. f. paw, foot, leg (of birds, 
etc.); natiooy to tread, ndtog, a 
trodden way, a step; comp. pa- 
taud, patauger, patin, pa- 

patte -d'oie, s. f. goose-foot, inter- 
section of several roads , crow's foot 
(wrinkle about the eye); see pate, 
de, oie 

pfttnre, s. f. food (of animals), past- 
ure; 0. F. pasture; It. Sp. M.L. 
pastura; pastus, pascere, to 
feed; comp. paltre. 

pftturage, s.m. pasture, pasture-land, 
pftturer, v. n. to pasture, to graze, 
p&turon, s. m. pastern; O.F. pastu- 
ron; ML. pastorium; see de- 

paome, s. f palm (of the hand), hand 
(measure), tennis; pal ma, nccXdfMfj. 

paup^risme, s. m. pauperism; pau- 
per, poor; comp. pauvre. 

paupidre, s. f. eye -lid, eye -lash; 

pause, s. f. pause, suspension, rest; 
It. Sp. L. pa us a; navoig^ a stop, 
navm, to stop. 
pauTre, adj. and s. poor, needy, pau- 
per; It. povero; pauper, 
panvrease, s. f. poor woman , beggar- 

pauvret, s. m. te, s. f. poor thing, 
poor creature, 
pauvreti, s. f. poverty, need; It. po- 
verta; paupertas. 

payage, s. m. paving, pavement; see 

pavane, s. f. pavan; It. pavana, 

cont. of padovana, from Padua, 

where it originated. 
pavaner (se), pr. v. to strut; pavo, 

-onis; see paon. 

paver ^ v. a. to pave; M.L. pa v are; 
pavire, to beat, to ram down, 
pavi, s. m. paving -stone, pavement, 
payement, b. m. paving. 
pay«Br» s. m. pavler. 

paylllon, s. m. pavilion, tent, fla^, 
standard; It. padiglione; Sp. pa- 
bellon; M.L. papilio, -onis, a 
pavilion; papilio, a butterfly. 

payois, s. m. large shield, armour (of 
a ship); It. pavese, palvese, 
from Pa via, where they were prin- 
cipally made. 

payoiser, v. a. to dress, to adorn a 
ship with flags. 

pavot, 8. m. poppy, poppy -seed; Et. 
d. probably pa paver. 

payable, adj. payable; see payer. 
paye, pale, s. f. bay, wages; see 

payement, paiement, s.m. payment; 

see payer. 

payen, ne, adj. and s. see paien. 

payer, v. a. to pay, to defray, to re- 
compense; Prov. pagar, payar; 
It. pagare; pacare, to pacify, 
pax, pacis, peace, 
payenr, s. m. se, s. f. payer, pay- 
master; see also payable; im- 
payable, paye, payement. 

pays, s. m. country, native country, 
fellow-countryman; It. paese; Sp. 
Port, pais; pagus, a village, a 
district, the country people. 

paysage, s. m. landscape. 

paysagiste, s. m. landscape-painter. 

paysan, s. m. ne, s. f. peasant; It 
paesano; paganus. 

payse, s. f. fellow country woman, 
country woman. 

p6age, s. m. toll, toll-house; It pe- 
daggio; M.L. pedagium; pes, 
pedis, foot, (passage money), 
p^ager, s. m. toll -gatherer. 

peau. s. f. skin, hide, peel, fell; OF. 

pel; pellis; comp. beau (peel, 

peaussier, s.m. skinner; M.L. pelli- 

ciarius; pellicius, pellis; see 


peauBserie, s. f. peltry, fiir- trade. 
pec, adj. recently salted (herring); 

D. pekel; 6e. poekel, boekel; 

£. pickle; from Beukel, who is 

said to have invented the art of 

pickling herrings. 
peccable, a^. peccable; It pecca- 

bile; peccare; seep^cher, to sin. 
peccadlUe, s. f. peccadillo; Sp. pe- 

cadillo; It peccadiglio; pec- 

catum, a sin. 

— 187 — 

peccant 9 e^ a4]. peccant; pec cans , 
-antis, pr. p. of peccare; see 
p^cher. to sin. 

p^ehe, Js. I. peach; It pesca, cont 
of persica; Persicum malam, 
the Persian apple, introduced into 
Europe from Persia. 

p^ehe, s. f. fishing, angling, fishery; 
see p^aher, to nsh. 

p^eM, s. m. sin; peccatum, pec- 
care; see next w. 

p^eher, ▼. n. to sin; peccare. 
peehi, s. th. 
pMiereiae, s. i. sinner. 
pMiaiir, 8. m. sinner. 

p^eher, ▼. a. to fish, to angle; O.F. 

pescher; piscari, piscis, fish. 
p&ohe, s. th. 

pteheiie, s. f. fishery, fishine- place. 
pMhflur, s. m. se, s. f. fisherman, 

fisher , fisher - woman , angler ; p i s - 

p^eore. s.f. animal, stupid; pecora, 

pi. or p ecus, cattle. 

peeqoe, s.f. impertinent woman; ace. 
to Scheler O.F. and Prov. pec, 
stupid prob. fromL. pec us, cattle. 
pectoral 9 e, adj. pectoral; pecto- 
ralis, pectus, -oris, the breast; 
comp. poitrine, poitrail. 

p^eulat, s. m. peculation; pecula- 
tus, peculari, to embezzle the 
public money, p e c u 1 i u m ; see next w. 

p^eule, s. m. proceeds of trade; pe- 
culium, a small private property, 
pecunia; see next w. 

p^euniaire, adj. pecuniary; O.F. p6- 
cune, money; pecunia, property, 
money, pec us, cattle. 

p^eonleux, se, aty. having money, 
moneyed (person); pecuniosus, 
pecunia; see prec. 
pedagogue^ s. m. pedagogue; naida- 
ymyog, guiding, naig, naidog, a child, 
ayco, to lead. 

pMagogie, s. f. pedagogy; naidaymyia; 
a guiding. 
pM^ogique, adj. pedagogical. 

p^dale, s. f. pedal; It. Sp. pedale; 

pes, pedis, a foot. 
pedant, s. m. e, s.f. pedant; It. pe- 

dante, pedagogue, teacher; Tcai- 

dsvm, to bring up a child, natg, 

naidig, a child. 

pMaater, v. n. to play the pedant 
pManterie, s. f. pedantry. 
pMantesqne, adj. pedantic. 
pMantisme, s. m. pedantry. 
p^destre, ad[j. pedestrian; pedes ter, 

pes, pedis, foot; comp. pi^tre. 
p^diealaire, ad^. pedicular; s. f. louse- 
wort; pedicularis, pediculus, 
a louse; see poux. 

p^dieole, B. m. pedicle, pedicel; pe- 
diculus, dim. of pes, pedis, a 

pedicure 9 s. m. corn -cutter; pes, 
pedis, foot, curare, to cure. 

Pegase, s. m. Pegasus; Iljjyaaog, a 
horse sprung from the blood of Me- 
dusa, and named from the springs 
{nriyaC) of Ocean , near whicn she 
was killed. Later he was supposed 
to be the winged horse which Be- 
lerophon rode, when he slew Ghi- 
maera, under whose hoof the foun- 
tain Hippocrene sprang up on Helicon. 

peignais, peigne, etc., see peindre. 
peigne, s. m. comb; Sp. peine; It 
pettine; pecten, pectere, to 

peigner, y. a. to comb; M.L. pecti- 
nare; pectere. 
peignier, s. m. comb -maker, 
peignoir, s. f. dressing-gown. 
peindre, v. a. n. to paint, to portray, 
to describe; O.F. poindre, pin- 

peine, s. f. pain, penalty, punishment, 

trouble, pains; poena; noivji. 
peiner, v. a. n. to pain, to ^eve, to 

toil; comp. also penible. 
peintre, s. m. painter; pictor, pin- 

gere, pictum; see peindre. 
peinture, s. f. painting, picture, paint; 

pictura, pingere; see prec. 
p§le-m$le, adv. pell-mell, confusedly; 

Et d. Scheler thinks p^le formed 

after m61e, m^ler, to mix (s. th.). 
peler, v. a. n. to strip off the hair, 

to peel; Sp. Port Pro?, pelar; It 

pelare; pilus, a hair. 

p^leriu, 8. m. pilgrim; Pro v. pele- 
grin; It pellegrino; Sp. pere- 
grine;' peregrinus, that comes 
&om foreign parts, a foreigner; 
peregre, in a foreign place. 

plUerinage, s. m. pilgrimage. 

ptierine, s. f. tippet 

*) See P. on langnage p. 52 seq. 

— 188 — 

pMcMi9 8. m. pelican; ffsXmiift, the 
wood -pecker, a water-bird of the 
pelQian Idnd, nsXeaaaij to hew with 
an axe, niXsuLvg^ an axe. 

pelisse, s. f. pelisse; pellis, the skin 

or hide of a beast; comp. pean. 
pelle, s. f. shovel; ItSp. Prov. pala; 
pal a, a spade; comp. pale, 
pellie, peller^, pelletto, s. f. shovel-full. 
pelletier, b.» m. idre, S; f. ftirrier; 
O.F. pel; pellis, skin, comp. 
pelleterie, s. f. peltry, furriery. 

pellieule. s. f. pellicle, film; pelli- 
cula, dim. of pellis, skin. 

pelote,s.f. skein, ball, coil, pin-cushion ; 
Sp. Port. Prov. pelota; It. pil- 
lota; pila, a balU 
peloter, v. n. to knock about a ten- 
nis ball; V. a. to beat, 
peloton, s. m. skein, ball, tennis ball, 

pdotonner, v. a. to wind up into balls, 
to gather together. 

peleuse, s. f. lawn, grass-plot; Prov. 
pelos; pilosus, hairy, pilus, 

peln, e, adj. hairy, same as poilu; 
see poiL 

peluehe, s. f. plush; It. pelucio; 
pilus, hair, 
pelnoher, v. n. to become shaggy. 

pelare, s. f. peel, paring; see peler. 
penaille, s. f. rags; pannulus, dim. 
of pannus, cloth, rags. 
penaiUon, s. m. rag. 
p^nal, e, adj. penal; poenalis, 
poena; see peine, 
ptealiti, s. f. penal laws. 

penates, s. m. pi. penates, house- 
hold-gods; penates, root pen, 
whence penetrare, to penetrate, 
etc. expressing the idea of entering, 
interior, hence, as deities of the 
interior of the house. 

penaud, e, adj. abashed; see peine. 

peneher, v. a. n. to incline, to bend, 
to stoop; Prov pengar, penjar; 
M.L. pendiculare from pendere, 
to hang down; comp. pente. 
penohant, s. m. declivity, inclination, 
penehement , s. m. stooping, stoop. 

pendable, adj. deserving to be han- 
ged, abominable, see pendre. 
pepdalsoii, s, Changing; see pendre. 

pendant, prep, during; pendente, 
pendens, -entis, pr. p. of pen- 
dere; see pendre, comp. moyen- 

pendant, s. m. thing pendent, han- 
ging, counterpart, pendant; pen- 
dens, -entis, pr. p. of pendere; 
see pendre. 

peudard, s. m. rogue (that deserves 
to be hanged), scoundrel; see pen- 

pendeloque, s. f. pendant (of chan- 
deliers), pendant, drop; pendre, 
8. tib. and loque, see oreloqn*. 

pendentif, s.m.pendentive; see pen- 

pendiller, v. n. to hang, to dangle; 

Prov.pendeillar; M.L.pendicu- 

lare from pendere; see pendre. 

pendre, v. a. n. to hang, to hang up, 

to suspend; pendere, pendJ^re. 
pendu, s. m. man, that has been. 

hanged; p. p. of prec. 
pendnle, s. m. pendulum; pendu- 
lum; pendere; see pendre. 
pendnle, s. f. clock, ornamental clock. 
pgne, s. m. bolt (of a lock); Et. d. 
p^n^trer, v. a. n. to penetrate, to 
pierce, to impress; penetrare, root 
pen; see penates. 
p6nAtrabiUt6, s. t. penetrability; It 
penetrabilitli; see next w. 
p^trable, adj. penetrable; pene- 


pinAtrant, e, adj. penetratmg, piercmg. 
p6n6tration, s. f. penetration; pene- 
traiio, -onis. 
p^nible, adj. painful, distressing, dif- 
ficult; see peine. 
p^ninsule, s. f. peninsula; penin- 
sula, pa eninsula, paene, nearly, 
almost, insula, an island, 
peninsulaire , adj. peninsular. 
penitent, e, adj. penitent, repentant; 
poenitens, -entis, pr. p. ofpoe- 
nitere, to cause to repent; comp. 

ptoitenoe, s. f. penitence, repentance, 
penance; poenitentia. 
pinitencier, s. m. penitentiary (priest), 
pinitentiaire , adj. penitentiary, 
pinitentiaux, elles, adj. pi. penitential. 

penne, s. f. large feather of birds of prey ; 
penna, afeather; comp. panache, 
pennage, s. m. plumage, 
pennon, 8. m. pennon. 

— 189 — 

p^ttonbre, s. f. penumbra; paene, 

almost, umbra, a shade. 
penser, y. n. to tJiink, pensare, to 
weigh, to ponder; p end ere, see 
peaute, 8. f. thought, pansy, 
pensevr, s. m. thinker, 
peniif, ye, a^j. thoughtful, pensive. 

pension, s. £ pension, board and 
lodging, boarding-house, boarding- 
school; pen si 0, -onis, a weighing, 
a paying, p end ere, to weigh. 

pensioiiiiaire, s. m. f. boarder, pen- 
sionary, pensioner. 

penaionnat, s. m. boarding-school. 

penaioxmer, y. a. to pension. 

pensnm, s. m. (school) task; pen- 
sum, a portion weighed out, a task. 
penta^9 a prefix, the 6r. nivts, five. 

pe&tagone, s. m. pentagon; nsvtd' 
ymvov, ycovi'a^ an angle. 

pentametre, s. m. pentameter; xsvtd- 
fuv^off, see m^tre. 

pentatenque, s. m. Pentateuch, five 
books of Moses; nsvrd-tsvxog^ con- 
sisting of five books, zBvxost a tool, 
a book. 

pente, s. f. inclination, slope, decliv- 
ity, gradient; ML. penduta; 
tente, vente. 

penteeOte, s. f. Whitsuntide, Pente- 
cost; pentecoste, nsvTrj%o<nri^ fif- 
tieth, the fiftieth day after the Passover. 

p^nultidme, acy. penultimate, last 
but one; penultimus, paene, 
almost, ultimus, last. 

p^nurie, s. f. penury, dearth, scarc- 
ity; penuria. 

p^pie, s. f. pip (disease of birds); 
(ie. pipps; E. pip; It M.L. pi- 
pita; 8p. pepita; pituita, slime, 
clammy moisture. 
pepin, s. m. pip (of fruit), kernel, 
stone (of grapes); ace. to Frisch 
pepo; comp. noyau, 
pipiniire, s. i nursery, nursery-garden, 
p^piniiriste, s. m. nursery -man. 

peplon, pej^lum, s. m. peplum; pe- 
plum, nBnXov, the robe of state 
of Minerva at Athens, in which her 
statue was solemnly clothed in the 

pereale, s. f. cambric -muslin; Et. d. 
per^ant) e, a4j. piercing, penetrat- 
ing; p. p. of percer, a. th. 

peree (en), adv. abroach, tapped; 

see percer. 
peree -bois, b. m. borer (insect); see 

percer and bois. 
pere6e, s. f. opening (in a wood), ?i- 

sta; see percer. 

pereement, s. m. piercing, perfora- 
tion, boring, opening of roads, streets, 
etc.; see percer. 

peree - neige , s. f. snow - drop (plant) ; 
see percer and neige. 

peree -oreille, s.m. ear-wig (insectX 
see percer and oreille. 

.pereepteur, s. m. collector (of taxes- 
etc.), perceptor, perceptnm, 
sup. ofpercipere; seepercevoir. 

pereeptible, adj. perceptible; see prec, 
perceptibiHtA, s. £ perceptibility. 

pereeption, s. f collection (of taxes, 

etc ),perception;perceptio, -onis, 
a gathering in, percipere; see 
percer, v. a. n. to pierce, to perfio- 
rate, to penetrate, to open streets^ 
etc.; contr. of O.F. pertuisier; 
see pertuis. 

percevoir, v. a. to collect (rents, taxes; 
etc.), to perceive; percipere, per, 
used intensively, and cap ere, to 
take, to receive; comp. apercevoir 

perehe, s. £ perch (fish); Sp. per c ha; 
perca; nlgnrj, nsQuvogy dark co- 
perehe, s. t pole, perch; Sp. Port, 
percha; It. pertica; pertica. 
peroher, v. n. to perch, 
perchoir, s. m. roost. 

perelns, e, adj. impotent; per-clu- 

sum, sup. of cludere (clau- 

dere), to close. 
perf^oir, s. m. piercer, borer, gimlet; 

see percer. 
pereussion, s. £ percussion; per* 

cussio, -onis, a beating, sinking, 

percutere, to strike. 
perdable, adj. losable; see perdrie: 
perdant, e, adj. losing, pr. p. of 

perdre, s. th. 

perdition, s. £ perdition, ruin; per- 
ditio, -onis, perdere, perdi- 
tum; see perdre. 

perdre, v. a. n. to lose; perdere. 

perdreau, s. m. young partridge; 

dim. of next w. 
perdrix, s. £ partridge; perdix 

— 190 — 

pdre, 8. m. father, sire; O.F. peir; 
pater, -tris. 

per^grrination 9 s. f. peregrination; 
peregrinatio, -onis, peregri- 
nari, peregrinus, see p^lerin. 

p^r^grimt^, s. f. alienism, being an 

alien; peregrinitas, peregri- 
nus, see pelerin. 
peremptions s. f. (law) limitation; 
peremptio, -onis, peremptus, 
p. p. of perimere; see perimer. 
p^remptoire,adj. peremptory ;p eremp- 

perfectible, adj. perfectible, improv- 
able; see perfection, 
perfectibility, s. f. perfectibility. 
perfection, s. f. perfection; per- 
fectio, -onis, perficere, to do 
thoroughly, per, through, facere, 
to make. 

perfecticmnftinimt , s. m. improvement, 
pezfeetiozmer, v. a. to perfect, to im- 
perflde, adj. perfidious, treacherous; 
perfidus,' per, through, fides, 

perfidie, s. f. perfidy, treachery; per- 

perforer, v. a. to perforate; per- 

forare, per, through, for are, to 


perforation, s. f. perforation. 
p^ricarde, s. m. pericardium; nsgi- 

fLagdiov, nsQi, about, Ttagdicc^ the 


p^ricliter, v. n. to be in peril, dan- 
ger; periclitari, to tryj to put in 
peril, periculum, a trial, peril. 

p^rig^e, 8. m. perigee ; nsQi^ near, yfj, 

the earth. 
p^rih^lie, s. m. and adj. perihelion; 

nsgit near, tiXiog, the sun. 

p6ril, s. m. peril, danger; Sp. peli- 
gro; It. periglio, pericolo; pe- 

p^rillevz, se, adj. perilous, dangerous; 

perimer, v. n. (law) to be barred by 
limitation, to fall into disuse; per- 
imere, to annihilate, per, through, 
em ere, to take. 

p^rimdtre, s. m. perimeter; nsQ^fis- 
TQog, the circumference, tcsq^, around, 
jUtQov, a measure. 

periode, s. f. period; periodus; 
m^i'oSog, a going round, a well 

rounded sentence, ^sqI, about, 

oddg, a way. 
p^de, s. m. period (highest point), 

pitch, period of time, 
periodicity, s. f. periodicity, 
p^riodiqne, adj. periodic, periodical. 

peripateticien , ne, adj. and s. Pe- 
ripatetic; nsQinatritiiidg^ given to 
walking about, esp. while teaching. 
Aristotle and his followers were call- 
ed so, because Aristotle delivered 
his doctrine to his disciples, while walk- 
ing with them in the Lyceum, in 
the suburbs of Athens; n6Qi\ about, 
Ttcctito, to walk. 

p6rip6tie, s. f. peripetie, catastrophe 
in a dramatic piece, sudden change 
of fortune; TtBginitsia, a disaster, 
esp. a sudden change of fortune, a 
reverse, on which the plot of a tra- 
gedy turns; TtsQiTCBTilg^ falling round, 
changing suddenly; nsQi-nlnTat, to 
fall around, upon, to befall one. 

p^riph^rie, s. f. periphery; nsQupsgsia, 
nsQi\ around, (psQ(o, to carry. 

p^riplirase, s. f. periphrase, circum- 
locution; periphrasis; nsQi-tpga- 
cig^ circum- locution, nsQ^, around, 
tpgaSot^ to speak, 
p^phraeer, v. n. to periphrase. 

p^rir, V. n. to perish; per-ire, to 
go through, to pass away. 
piriflBable, adj. perishable, subject to 

peristyle, s. m. peristyle, peristy- 
lium; nsQiatvXtov, a place sur- 
rounded with columns on the inside, 
nsQ^, around, atvXog^ a pillar. 

perle, s. f pearl, bead; It. Sp. Prov. 
perla; Port, perula; O.H.G. pe- 
rala, berala; A.S.E. pearl; M.L. 
perula; £t. d. Some derive it from 
L. perna, a shell, others from 
pirum,apear, or pilu la, a little ball. 

perU, e, adj. pearled, pearly. 

perler, v. n. to pearl, to bubble. 

perlnre, s. f. curls of antlers. 

permanent, e, permanent, constant; 
permanens, -entis, pr. p. of 
permanere, to continue in staying, 
per, through, manere, to stay, 
permanence, s. f permanence, per- 

permeable, adj. permeable, pervious; 
per-meabilis, per, through, me- 
are, to go. 

— 191 — 

penntebiliU, 8. f. permeability, per- 
permettre, y. a. to permit, to allow; 

per-mittere, to let go through, 
permii, s. m. permission, permit; 

permissum, sup. of permittere. 
pemiiMion, s. f. permission, leave; 
permissio, -onis, a giving up. 

permater, v. a. to exchange, to per- 
mute; per-mutare, to change 

pexmntaUa , a^j* commutahle. 

permutation, s. f. permutation, transpo- 
sition, change ; permutatio,-onis. 

pernieieuxy se, adj. pernicious, mis- 
chievous; perniciosus, perni- 
cies, destruction, ruin, per, used 
intensively, necare, to kill; see 

peronnelle, s. f. silly talkative woman; 
for Petronelie, proprename; comp. 
martinet, pierrot, sansonnet, 

perorer, v. n. to harangue, to speech- 
ify; per-orare, to speak through- 
peroraison, s. f. peroration; pero ra- 
tio, -onis. 

perpendicnle, s. m. perpendicular line ; 
perpendiculum, plumb-line, per- 
pendere, to weigh carefully. 

perpendioulaire, adj. and s. f. perpen- 

perpendieulariti, s. f. perpendicularity. 

perp^trer, v. n. to perpetrate; per- 
petrare> to carry through, to ac- 
complish, patrare, to accomplish, 
lit. to appoint a person as father, 
pater, father, 
perpetration, s. f. perpetration. 

perp^tael, le, adj. perpetual, ever- 
lasting; M.L. perpetualis; per- 
petuus, uninterrupted; petere, to 
go to, to attack. 

perp^tuer, v. a. to perpetuate; per- 

perpituiti, s. f. perpetuity; perpe- 

perplexe^ adj. perplex, perplexed, 
perplexing ;per-piexus, entangled, 
plectere, plexum, to plait, to 
pezplezite, s. f. perplexity; perple- 

perquisitioiif s. f. search, perquisi- 
tion; It perquisizione; perqai- 

sitns, p. p. of per-quirere, to 
ask or inquire diligently after, quae- 
rere, to look for. 
perron, s. m. flight of steps, perron; 
for pierron; see pierre. 

perroqaet, s. m. parrot, gallant-sail; 
£t d. Ace. to some, from per rot, 
dim. of Pierre, Peter, the man's 
name given to the bird (comp. pier- 
rot), ace. to others parochus, a 
priest, the parrot being a favourite 
bird with priests; comp. papegai. 
permohe, s. f. femal parrot 

perraqae, s. f. wig, peruke, periwig; 
It perruca, parruca; op. pe- 
luca; pilus, hair, 
permquier, s. m. wig-maker, hair- 

persan, e, ady. Persian; F. Perse, 

pers^cater, v. a. to persecute; MJL. 
persecutare, ireq. of perseqai, 
persecutum;per, used intensively, 
sequi, to follow after, 
penteutenr, s. m. triee, s. f. perse- 
cutor; persecutor, persecutrix. 
pen^ntion, s. £ persecution; per- 
secutio, -onis. 

pers^T^rer, v. a. to persevere; per- 

sever are, per-severus, very strict 
periiviranoe, s. f. perseverance; per- 

pen^y^rant, e, adj. perseverant; per- 

severans, -antis, pr. p. of per- 


persicot, s.m.persicot, a cordial made 
of alkohol and the meat of peach- 
stones; malum persicum; see 
p^che, peach. 

persienne, s. £ window -blind, Vene- 
tian -blind; Persian blind. 

persiiler, v. a. to jeer, to scoff; per- 
sibilare, to hiss down, sibilus, 
a hissing; comp. siffler. 
persiflage, s. m. persiflage, mockery, 

persil, s.m. parsley; It petrosello; 
A.S. peterselige; 6e. petersilie; 
E. parsley; petroselinum; ns- 
tQoaiXivov^ rock -parsley, nhgog, a 
rock, ailivov^ parsley. 

persiqae, acy. Persian; F. Perse, 

per sister, v. n. to persist, persistere, 
lit to continue standing, per, used 
intensively, sisterei to stand. 

— 192 — 

pirdftaaoe, ».f. persistence; It per- 

peniatant, e, adj. persistent, persi- 
sting; persistens, -entis, pr. p. 
of persistere. 

piDnoiiAe, s. f. person, s. m. anyone, 
no one, nobody; persona, a mask, 
esp. that used by players, a per- 
sonage, character, part, represented 
by an actor, a person, 
penwnnage, personage, character; 
It personaggio. 

personnel 9 le, adj. personal, s. m. 
personnel, persons, body; perso- 
nalia, persona; see personne. 
penczmalit^, s. f. personality; It per- 

personnifier, v. a. to personify, to 
nnperson; Itpersonificare; per- 
sona, a person, facere, to make, 
pflrsonmifleation, s. f. personification; 
1%.. personifieazione. 

perspeetif, tc, adj. perspective; per- 

spectum, sup. of per-spicare, 

to look through, specere, to look. 

perspectiye, s. f. prospect, vista, view, 


perspi^aee, adj. perspicacious, sharp 

of sight, acute; perspicax, -acis, 

sharp-sighted, perspicere;see prec. 

penpieaoit^, s. f. perspicacity; per- 

spicacitas, -atis. 

perspicuity, s. f. perspicuity, per- 
spicuitas, transparency, clearness, 
perspicuus, transparent, perspi- 
eere, to see through. 

perspiration, s. f. perspiration; It 
used intensively, spirare, to breath. 

persuader, v. a. to persuade, to con- 
vince, to satisfy; persnadere, to 
bring over by talking, per, used 
intensively, suadere, to advise. 

penaasif, e, adj. persuasive. 

perBuasion, s. f. persuasion, conviction, 
belief; persuasio, -onis. 

parte, s. f loss, ruin; perdita, p. p. 

ofperdere, to lose; comp. perdre. 
pertinent, e, adj. pertinent; perti- 

nens, ofper-tinere, 

to hold through, tenere, to hold; 

eomp. impertinent 
pertinemment, adv. pertinently, 
pertinenee, s. f. pertinence. 
pertuis, s.m« opening, straits (geog.); 

O.F. pertitiBier; Prov. pertnsar; 

It pertugiare; R pierce> ire?" 
tusus, p. p. of per-tundere, to 
beat through, to perforate, 
pertaisane, s. f. partisan, a kind of 
ancient halberd or pike. 

perturbateur, triee, adj.ands. per- 
turbator, -trix, pertnrbare, 
per, used intensively, turbare, to 

perturbation, s. f. perturbation ; per- 
turbatio, -onis; perturbare; 
see prec. 

pervenche, s. f. periwinkle; It. per- 

vinca; pervinca, vinca. 
pervers, e, adj. perverse, wayward; 
perversus, p. p. of pervertere, 
per-vertere, to turn thoroughly, 
pervenion, s. f. perversion; perver- 

sio, -onis. 
peryersit^, s. f. perversity; perver- 

peryertir, v. a. to pervert; perver- 

tere; see pervers. 
pesamment, adv. heavily, weightily; 

see peser. 

pesant, e, adj. heavy, weighty, pon- 
derous; see peser. 
pesanteur, s. f. heaviness, weight 
gravity; comp. appesantir. 

peser, v. a. n. to weigh; O.F. poi- 

ser; pensare, freq. of pendere, 

to suspend, to weigh, 
pes^e, s. f. weighing (quantity weighed), 

pesenr, s. m. weigher (person that 

peson, s. m. steelyard. 

pessimisme, s. m. pessimism; pes- 
simus, worst; comp. optimism e. 
pessimiste, s. m. pessimist; see prec. 
peste, s. f. plague, pest, pestilence; 

peste, int. plague! pest! 
pester, v. n. to swear, to bluster. 

pestif^re, adj. pestiferous, pestilen- 
tial; pe8tifer,pe£'tis, pest, ferre, 
to bear. 
pe8tif6r6, e, adj. infected with the 

pestilent, e, adj. pestilential, infec- 
tious, contagious; pestilens, -en- 
tis, pestis; see peste. 

pestalenoe, s. f. pestilence; pesti- 

poRtOisatiBl, 1ft, adj. pestilentiiJr f^* 

— 193 — 

pet^ 8. xn. fart; It. peto; peditum, 
pedere, to fart. 

p6tale, 8. f. petal, flower leaf; niters 
Xov, a leaf. 

petard, 8. m. petard, cracker (fire- 
works); see p^ter. 

p^taudidre, s. f. bearirarden (assem- 
bly without order); Et. d. 

p^ter, y. n. to fart, to break wind, 
to crackle, to burst, (of fire-arms) 
to explode; O.F. peder; pedere; 
comp. pet 

petanr, pateuc, s. m. se, s. f. farter. 

p^tiller, V. n. to crackle, to sparkle, 
to be eager; dim. of p^ter, s. th. 

petiole 9 s. m. petiole, foot-stalk, leaf- 
stalk; petiolus, dim. of pes, 
pedis, a foot. 

petit, e, adj. little, small, petty, 
mean; petitto, pitetto; 
Prov. petit, pi tit, Et d. Diez 
connects it witn a Celtic root pit, 
meaning something thin or pointed. 
peliteiM, 8. f. littleness, smallness, 

petition, s. f. petition ; petit io,-onis, 
an attack, a request, pet ere, to 
attack, to request 
pititioBnairt, s. m. f. petitioner, sup- 
pkitioimer, v. a. to petition, to solicit 

p^trltler, v. a. to petrify, to change 
to stone; nitQa, a rock, a stone, 
facere, to make, 
pitrifleation, s. f. petrification. 

p^trin, 8. m. kneading trough, scrape; 
pistrinum, a pounding mill, a 
bakery, pinsere or pisere, to 
beat, to crush. 

p6trlr, V. a. to knead; O.F. pestrir; 
Ace. to Diez like pisturire from 
pistura, pinsere; see prec. 
pitrisiage, s. m. kneading, 
ptoissenr, s. m. bread -maker. 

parole, s. m. petroleum; nixQa, a 
rock, iXttiov, oil. 

petto (In), adv. in petto, in reserve; 
It in petto, lit in the breast. It 
petto; pectus, the breast 

petulant, e, adj. petulant; petu- 
lans, -antis, forward, pert, 
ptodaaoe, s. f. petulance ;petulantia. 

peu, adv. and s. m. little (small quan- 
tity), few; O.F. pou, poi, poc; 
Prov. pauc; ItSp. poco; paucus^ 

peuple, 8 m. people, nation; It po- 
polo; popalus; comp. oeuvre, 

peapIadA, s. f. people (emigrating in 

order to populate another country), 

horde (of uncivilized people), tribe. 

peapler, v. a. to people, to populate. 

peupiier, s. m. poplar, poplar -tree; 

pear, s. f. fear, fright, dread; OF. 
paour; pavor, pavere, to be 
struck with great fear or terror, 
penreuz, se, fearful, timid. 

peutf peux, peavent, etc.; see pou- 

pent-dtre, adv. perhaps, may be; 
pent, may (see pouvoir), ^tre, 
to be, 8. th. 

phaeton, 8. m. phaeton (carriage); 
<^ai&(ov, a son of Ai>ollo, famous 
for upsetting the chariot of the sun. 

phalange, s. t phalanx (body of men), 
phalanx (one of the rows of small 
bones which form the fingers and 
toes); phalanx, -angis, qpaZay£, 
•yyog, a band of soldiers, 
phalanstire , s. m. phalanstery; com- 
munity ot followers of Charles Fourier, 
the French socialist, who created 
this word. 

phaldne, s. f. moth; icpdllaiva, qtd- 
Xmva^ a whale, a devouring monster. 

phantasmagorie, s. f. see fantas- 

phare, s. m. light -house, beacon; 
pharus, from Pharus, ^apop, an 
island near Alexandria in Egypt, 
on which Ptolemy Philad. erected a 
famous light- house. 

Pharlsien, s. m. ne, s. f. Pharisee; 
one of a sect among the Jews, whose 
religion consisted chiefly in ceremo- 
nies, and whose pretended holiness 
led them to separate themselves from 
the rest of the Jews; ^a^/ccrto^; 
Heb. pharash, to separate, 
pharisaiqne, adj. pharisaic, Pharisaical. 

pliarmaeie, s f^ pharmacy, apothe- 
cary's business, chemist's shop; tpag- 
fiansia, the use of any kind of drugs, 
(paQfiaiievai , to administer a drug, 
(paQiictnov, a medicine, drug, 
pharmaoentiqne, adj. pharmaceutic, 
pharmaceutical ; qxxgfiansvtiyiog. 
pharmaoien, s. m. apothecary, chemist 
pharmaoop^e, s. t.parmacopoeia; q>aQ- 
fMcuonota, the preparation of me- 
dicines, (pccQiittKovj a medicine, 
noiim, to make. 

pharynx, s. m. pharynx; tpagvyi^ 
(paQ(Oj to cleave. 


-=r- 194 — 

phase 9 «. i phase; phasieit |M«^; 
9a0i.s; qiutva^ qpao, to a^p^ax. 

Fh^bim, s. m. Plioebas; Phoebus, 
^oipog, epith. of Apollo. 

ph^hus, 8. m. bombast, fustian (style), 
said to come from a work on bun- 
Ijng, written by the count Gaston 
de Foin in the l4th century and 
called „Miroir de Phebus''. 

ph^nix, s. JXL phenix, siqieriour per- 
son; phoenix, tpoiwi^, a fabulous 
Arabian bird, which was said to 
live 500. years, and to put an end 
to its existence by placing itself on 
a burning pile of aromatic woods 
and other substances, its ashes giv- 
ing birth to a young phoenix. 

|ih^iiomdne9 ^ ™* phenomenon, ap- 
pearance; q>uiv6fi8vov, tpaivopMiy Xfi 
p h eno mtoal , e, acy. phenomenal. 

phll-philo-, pref. the greeks tpCkog^ 

loved, a friend. 
philaiitlirope, s. m. phihinthropist ; 

tpiXdv^qtanog^ tpCkoq^ a friend, av- 

^pcDTTOff, man. 
philanthropie, s. f. philanthropy; tpiX- 

j^iilanikropique, a^}- philanthropic. 
pMLharmoniqae, a^. philharmonic; 

(piXim^ to love, aQii,ov£a, harmony. 
pldUielJ^e, s. m. f. philhelleoe, a 
friend of the Greeks; qp/log, a friend, 
'^EXlriVy a Greek. 

pbUippique, s. f. philippic; ^iXinm- 
xdg, pertaining to Philip, one of the 
orations of Demosthenes against 
Philip of Macedon. 

philologue, s. m. philoloeist; philo- 
logus, qptXoXoyog, fond of discus- 
sion, learning, a student of language 
and history, (pdog^ a friend, Xdyog, 
a word, discourse. 

philologie, s.f. philology; philologia, 
pbilologique, a^. philological. 

phliosoplie, s. m. philosopher; phi- 
losophus, qptldffoqpoff, loving wis- 
dom, qpAog, lover, aofj^jCciy wisdom. 
phUoiopher, v. n. to philosophize; 

philoiophie, s. f. philosQphy; philo- 
sophia, ipiXoootpiu, 
phUMophique, a^j. philosophical. 
ohlloteehniqae, a^j. philotechnic, fond 
of the arts; 9A06, a lover.» ^ft^t 
va art. 

pUltre.9 s. m. philter; philtrum; 

(piXtQov, a love -potion, philter, 

tpiXfm, to love. 

phl^botomie, s. f. phlebotomy, bleed- 

ing; (pXeporofua^ q^Xifilf , qfXk^g, a 

vein, toiirj, a cutting, ti^Vfo, to cut. 

pUegme, s. m. see negme. 

phonlqae, ajiy. phonic, phonetic; <po?v)7, 

a sound* 
phoqae, s. m,. seal; phoca; (p(o%fi. 
phosphore, s. m. phosphorus; (pm- 
(poQog, bringing light, qpfog, coptr. 
for qpaoff^ light, <pf9m%. ^ bea^, to 
phosphatf^. s. m. phosphate. 
phosshocesoence, s. f. phosphorescence, 
phosphoreioeiit, e, acy. phosphorescent 
phoiphcriqae, adj. phosphoric. 

photographe, s. m. ])hotographiBt; 

q>mg^ (pcaxog, light, ypaqpoo, to write. 
photographie, s. f. photography. 
photographiqoe, adj. photographic. 
phrase 9 s.f. phrase, sentence; phra- 

sis, q>Qdaig, tpQctiOj to tell, to sp«ak. 
phraseologlA, s. t. phraseology; Xoyog, 

a discourse. 
phzBser, v. n. to form phrases, 
phrasenr, phrasier, s m. phraseologist. 

phr^n^sie, s. f. see frenesie. 
phrin^tiqne, adj . see f r e n e t i q u e. ^ 
pnr^noiogie, s. f. phrenology; tpg^v, 
(pQSv6g, the mind, Xoyog, a discourse, 
phzi&nclogiqiie, adj. phrenological, 
phrenologifte, phrenologne, s. m. phre- 

phthisie, s, f. phthisis, consumption; 
fp^Caig, qpd't'oo, to decline, to decay, 
phthiaique, adj. consumptive. 
pkysieien, s. m. natural philosopher, 
experimentalist (in physics); phy- 
sicds; see physique. 
physiologie, s. f. physiology; phy- 
siologia; q>vaioXoyCa^ knowle(q(e 
of nature, tpvaig, nature, Xoyog ^ a 

phjiiologiqaey a^j. physiological 
phyiiologiste, s. m. physiologist 
physiouomie, s. f. physiognomy, coun- 
tenance, look, expression; phy- 
siognomon, ^vffioyvojf&flov, judging 
of a man's character by ms ^out- 
ward look, 9^01 ff, nature, yvafiaif, 
one that Knows, a jud^^e. 
phyBioiLomiite» s. m. physionomist 

physique, acy. physical; physical; 

195 — 

plijiiq^, s. f physicfl, natural ]^liilot- 
ophy, physica, ipvcinif. 
phygiqiu, s. m. natural constitution, 
exterior, physical (not moral) part. 

piaffe, s. f. ostentation, show; £t. d. 
piaffer, y. n. to be ostentations, (of 
horses) to paw the ground. 

plalll^r, y. n. to bawl, to squall; the 
root pi is an onomat. 
piaillerfe, 8. f. bawling, squalling. 
piaHlrar, s. m. le, s. f. bawjer, squaller. 

piano, adr. softly; It piano; pla- 
nus, even. 

plane, piano-forte, s.m. piano, piano- 
forte; forte, strong, fortis. 
pianiste, s. m. pianist 

piastre, s. f. piaster (coin); It Sp. 
piaatra, emplastrum (see pla- 
tre), anything spread out or flatoned. 

piauler. v. n. to pule, to whine; see 
piaalard, e, acfj^ whining, puling. 

pie, 8. m. wood -pecker; picus. 

pie, s. m. pickaxe, pick,^ peak; A. S. 
pycan ; Ge. picken, bicken; comp. 
pique r. 

pieorer, v. n. to maraud, to pickeer, 
to pilfer; M.L. pecorare, to steel 
cattle; pecus, pecoris, cattYef. 
pieorAe, s. f. marauding, pilfering. 

pleot, 9, m. small splinter (of wood), 
port (of lace); see pic. 

pteoter, ▼. a. to prick, to irritate; 
freq. of piquer, s. th. 
piootement, s. m. pricking, 
piooterie, s. f. teasing. 

ple^tibi, 8. m. peck (of oats); F. pic, 
piquer, s. th. 

pie, 8. f. magpie, pie; pica. 

pie, adj. pious; pi us; comp. pieux. 

pie, adj. piebald; pica, see pie, 

pidee, s. f. piece, bit, piece of ord- 
nance, play; Sp. pieza; Prov. peza, 
pessa; It pezza; M.L. petium, 
petia, a piece of land; Et d. 

pied, s. m. foot; Prov. Port, pe; It 
piede; pes, pedis, comp.pierre, 
mi el, etc. 

pied«ll:^erte, 8. m. temx>orary lodg- 
ing; see pied, &, terre. 

pi^deistal, s. m. pedestal; It piede- 
stallo, piede, foot (see pied), 
stallo, a stand; 0e. stall ;E. stall 

pi^ge, s. m. trap, snare; It p i^di'ca; 
pvdica, a shackle, a snar^;: p«s, 
pedis, a foot; comp. jugeir,.8idge, 
a»iiTa|pe, «te; 

pierref s. t stone; Prov. |«lra, 

petra; Sp. piedra'; It pietra; 

petra; nhgtic, a rock, a sione; 

oomp. pied, miel etc. 
pierrerias, s. f. pi. precions stones, 


p&rrevz, se, a^> stony. 
pierrier, s. m. stOne- mortar. 

pierrot, s. m. sparrow, down; F. 

Pierre, Peter, comp. maftidH, 

perroquet, sansonnet 
pirn, s.f. piety, godliness; Itpietft; 

pietas, pius; comp. pieux. 

pi^tiner, v. a. n. to tr^ad, to trample 
under foot, to stamp; see pied, 
piitinement, s. m. moving about the 
feet, stamping. 

pl^tiste, s. m. pietist, ene of a iett 
that sprung up in Germany in the 
J7tb century; see pi^t^. 

piston, 8. m. pedestrian, walker, foot- 
passenger; for piedon,M.L.pedo, 
-onis; pes, pedis, foot; see pied. 

^<^tre, a4j. poor, wretched, miser- 
able; pedester, -tris, -tre, on 
foot, pes; comp. pied* 

plea, s. m. pale, stake, pile; O.F. 
piel for pieil; piculns, rootpic; 
see pic, piauer. 

pieux, se, a^j. piods; pius,- comt>. 

pie, pioud. , ^.^ , 

pigeon, 8. m. pigeon, dove; O.F. pi- 

gion; It pippione, piccione; 
p. pinchon; pipio, -onis, a 
youngi pipping bird, pip are, to pi^), 
to peep. 

pigeozmeau, s. m. young pigdon. 
pi^nnier, st m. pigeon- ho tise. 

pignon, 8. m. gable^ gable -end, pin- 
ion (wheel); pinna, another form 
of penna, a wing, a pinnacle. 

pignon, s.m. pine-kernel; Ge. pinie; 
pinus, pine; see pin. 

pilastre, s. m . pilaster ; It p i 1 a s t r 6 ; 
pila, a pillar, comp. next w. 

pile, s,f pile, pier (of bridges); pila, 
a pile, a pillar. 

pile, s. f. reverse of a coin (pile ou 
face, head or tale, see face); Et d. 

piler, V. a. to pound; M.L. pi lair e; 
pilum, a pestle. 
pUeur, 8. m. pounder. 
pilirer, s. m. pillar, column, post* 

Silarium, pila« see pileypile, 
er, V. a. to pillage, to plunder, 
to ransack; M.L. pilare; etfni- 
piiar&,.to rob; t<r phmder. 


pfllaft, B. m. pillage, plunder. 
plll>rd, •, >4J- pillaging, plundering. 
pillrar, i. m. plonderer, pillager. 
pilon, a. m. pestle, etamper; pilnm, 

comp. piler. 
plldri, s. m. pillory ; M.L.pillorimni 

Et. d. 
pQoriBr, T. 0. to pillory, to put in the 

pllolagfl, B. m. piling, pile-work; Bee 

pilotage, H. m. piloting; aee pilote. 
ptlote, s. m. pilot; It 3p. Fort, pi- 

loto; Et. d. 
plloter, T. k. to pilot; see prec. and 

plloter, V. a. to jtile; see next t. 
pllotlg, g. m. piling, pile-work; Bee 

pile, pile, 
pllale, B. f. pill; pilula, alittieboll, 

dim. of pila, a DaU. 
plmbftche, B. f. impertinent, affected 

person; Et d. 
plment, b. m. pimento, allspice; Sp. 

pimiento;U.L.pignientDin, Bpice, 

piment; pigmentum, material for 

colonriag,^ Dinger e, to colour; 

comp. peindre. 
plmpant, e, adj. Bmart, abowy; Et d. 

prob. connected with pompe, a. th. 
plmpreDelle, b. i pimpernel, bumet; 

It pimpinella; Qe, pimpinelle; 

pis, e, Dt. pine, pine-tree; pinni. 
plnacle, a. m. pinnacle; pinnaca- 

liim, pinna, comp. pignon. 
plnasse, I. f. pinnace; pinus, apine, 

pince, 3. t. toe (of nngnUte animalB), 
claw (ofcruBtaceonH animals), pincer, 
crow-bar, tongs, pincers; see pin- 

dim, of peniculos (lit alittletail), 
a bnisb, penis, a tail 
pincer, f . a. to pinch, to catch, to 
seize (somebody), to play (the gui- 
tar, harp); Ge. pfetaen, pfitzen; 
D. pities, root pit, see petit; 
complLpissicare, pinao.aprick. 

pinoe, s. t., S. th. 

pino^, 9. £ pinch (of ranff, etc.). 

pineapple; F. pin, pine, s. th. 

ptngoain, a. m. penguin, auk; pin- 
guis, fat; comp. Oe, fettgans, 
penguin, lit fat goose. 

plBBOn, S. m. finch, chaffinch; OJ*. 
pinion; It pincione; Sp. pin- 
zon, pinchon; U.L.pincia; con- 
nected with exiia, finch, amvlBto*, 
OJtitio. to pi 
finch, Ge. ] 

plntade, b. f. pintado, Guinea fowl; 
Sp. pintado, painted, pintar, to 
paint, gee peindre, because ofthe 
coloured plumage of this bird. 

plate, B.f. pint; A.S. pynt; K pint 

pioche, E. f. pickaie, mattock; prob. 
for picoche; see pic and ptquer. 
piodier, T. a. n. to dig, to slody bard 
pioelunr, s. m. digger, Tory diligeot 

plon, s. m. pawn (in chess), man ^ 
draughts); Sp. peon; same as 
piston, s. th. 

^onnsr, v. a. to take pawns, 
pionnier, g. m. |iioneer; OJ*. peo- 
nier, tbot-Boldier. 

pipe, B. f. pipe; A.S. pip, pipe; Ge. 
pipenjpTeifen, to pipe, to whistle, 
pteife, a pipe; pipare, aee 
plp«M, B. m. shepherds pipe, iime- 

piper, T. a. to allure or catch birds 
by a bird-call; to deceive; Ge. pi- 
pen; B. pipe; pipare, to pip, to 

p^it, 8. t bird-catching (with a bird- 

plparie, a. f. cheating (at play). 

p^ear, s. m. cheat (at play), 
piquant, e, adj. prickly, piquant, 

pungent; see piquer. 
pique, B. f. pike (weapon), piqne (of- 
fence), spade (cards); see pioner. 
plqne-niqne, b. m. picnic; £t a. 

piquer, T. a. n. to prick, to sting, to 
pique; A.S.pijcan; Ge.picken; E. 
pick; It piccare; Sp, Port. Piot. 
picar; see pic. 

pitai, e, a4j. quilted. 

pIqBrt, a. m. picket, piquet (game of 

ptqaatts, a. t piqoette^ acid wine. 

-- 197 — 

plqiMnr, 8. m. outrider, overseer, 

piqttre, s. f. prick, stin|[, stitching, 
pirate 9 s. m. pirate; pi rata; nBiQa- 
tijg, a sea-rohher, nsigdm^ to attempt 
piriiPter, t. n. to pirate, 
piraterie, s. f. piracy. 
plre, adj. worse, worst; O.F. pejour, 

pcor; pejor. 
piroaette, s. f. pirouette, whirl, whirl- 
igig; dim. of O.F. pirou, ace. to 
Fnsch, pied and roue, s. th. 
piroutttter, v. n. to pirouette, to turn 

pis, adv. worse, worst; pejus; comp. 

pi re. 
pis, s. m. udder; O.F. pis, peis, 

breast; Pro?, peitz; It petto; 

pectus, the breast; comp. pecto- 
ral, poitrine. 
pis aller, s. m. worst, last shift, 

make -shift; see pis, worst, and 

aller, to go. 
piseine, s. £ fish-pond, reservoir, 

piscina (of a church); piscina, 

piscis, a fish. 

pissasplialte, s. m. pissasphalt; matf- 
dgtpaXtog^ nicoa^ pitch, aOfpnXtog^ 

pisser, v. n. to piss, to urine; Pro v. 
pissar; It pisciare; Et d. 
pissat, s. m. urine, 
pissenlit, s. m. pissabed, dandelion; 

see en, lit 
pissoir, s. m. urinal. 

plstache, s. f. pistachio -nut; pista* 
cium; nioxdmov^ Arab, phistak. 
pistaohier, s. m. pistachio -tree. 

piste, s. f. piste, trace, track; Sp. 
pista; It pesta; Sp. pistar, It 
pestar, to pound, to beat; pistus, 
p. p. of pinsere, to beat, to pound. 

pistil, s. m. pistil; pistillum, a 
pestle, pinsere, see prec. 

pistole . s. f. pistole (gold coin) ; Et d. 

pistolet, s. m. pistol; O.F. pistole; 
It. Sp. p i s 1 1 a ; Et d. ace. to Frisch 
pistillus; It pestello, pestle, 
the old pistols having had big knobs. 

piston, s. m. piston; It pest one; 
pistus, see piste. 

pitanee, s. f. pittance, portion; Sp. 
Prov. pitanza; Itpietanza;Etd. 
Diez connects it with the root pit, 
a trifle, see petit 

piti^, s. f. pity, compassion; second- 
ary form of pi6t6, s. th. 

piteu, se, ac|]. piteous , pitiable. 
piioyaUe, adj. piteous, pitiable; comp. 

pittoresqae, adj. picturesque, graphic ; 
It pittoresco, pittore, painter. 

pituite, s.f. pituite, mucus; pituita, 
pituitenz, se, adj. pituitous. 

pivert, 8. m. modwall, green wood- 
pecker; cent of pic vert (s. tkX 
green pecker. 

pivoine, s. f. peony; It peonia; 
paeonia; neuatvia, ilor/ov. Paeon 
(the God of Medicine), ace. to Pliny, 
its discoverer. 

piToine, s. m. bull-finch, paeonius, 

pivot, s. m. pivot; Et d. 
pivoter, v. n. to turn on or upon a 

plaeage, s. m. plating, veneering, 
patchwork ; see p 1 a q u e r. 

plaeard, s. m. placard, bill (posted 
up), cupboard (in a wall), slip (print) ; 
see plaque, 
plaoardar, v. a. to placard, to post up. 

place, s. f. place, spot, room, town, 
position; Sp. Port Prov. plaza, 
pla^a, plassa; It piazza; Qe, 
platz; platea, nXatsCcej a street, 
jtlatvg, flat, wide. 

plaeement, s. m. placing, putting, in- 

placer, v. a. to place, to put, to invest 

plaeet, s.m. petition; placet, please, 
placere, to please. 

plaiond , s. m. ceiling ; for plat fond, 
s. th. 

plafozmer, v. a. to ceil. 

plafonnenr, s. m. plasterer (that makes 

plage, s. f. beach, sea -shore, strand, 
region; Itpiaggia; M.L. plagia; 
plaga, a flat surface, a region. 

plagiaire, s. m. plagiarist; plagia- 
rius, a kidnapper, plagium, kid- 

plagiat , s. m. plagiarism, literary theft. 

plaid, s. m. (law) plea, sitting of a 
court; Prov. plait; Sp. pleito; It 
piato; M.L. pi acitum, agreement, 
court of law; placitum, l£at which 
is pleasing, placere, to please, 
plaider, v. n, a. to litigate, to plead. 
pUidenr, s. m. se, s. f . suitor, litigant, 
plaidoirie, s. f. pleading, speech, 
plaidoyer, s. m. barrister's, counsel's 

— 108 

plale, 8. f. wound, Bore, plagiLe; 

pUga; n^wii a Wow, W4.i}0f^,'fcp 

P'l^iniaii't, e, a^j-aads. con^>laimng, 

coipplainaiit, prosecutor ; see p 1 a i n - 

4 re. 
plaigrne, plaigrnais, etc., seeplaindre. 
plain 9 e,. adj. even, level, plain; 

nlfjina, s. f. plain. 
pifdndre, v. a. to pity, pr. v. tpcom- 

plf^; plangere*, to strike, to 

laipent aliOud. 

plalne, s. f. plajn; see plain. 
plainte, s. f . complaint ; see p 1 a i n d r e. 

plamtif, «e, a4j. plaintive. 
plaire, v. n. to please, pi ace re. 

plaisamxnent, adv. pleasantly, agreeaMy. 

plajsaiiee, s. f. (place of) pleasure. 

plaiianty e, adj. pleasant, agreeable, 
s. m. ludicrous, humorous , jester. 

plaisanter, v. a. to joke, to jest. 

^laiiaQterie, s. f. joke, jest, pleasantry. 
pllMse, plalsAZ, etc., see pi aire. 

plaisir, s. m. pleasure; It. piacere; 
Sp. placer; O.F. verb, plaisir, to 
pieai^)B; piacere, seeplaire, comp. 
plan;} e, adj. even, plain, level; ]jla- 
niis, see plain, comp. aplanir. 
plan, 8. m. plane, plan, 
planer, v. a. n. s. th. 

plf^n^lfl^, s. £ plank, boi^rd, pla^e 
(engraviiig); Prov. plane a; It. p^- 
lanca, pianca; (E. plank, G^e 
planke); M.L. pianca; palanga, 

'phalanga, pole: nld^j nipfno^, 
any thing flat and broad. 

pl^ifchdier, v. a. to board, to plapk, 
to floor. 

p^nc)ifir, s. m. floor, flooring. 

pl^chette, s. f. small board, busk, 
plane -table (math, instr.). 
pl%lf QQn, s. u). (bort,) sapling ; see p 1 a n t. 

plave^ s. m. plane-tree, platane; 

cont. of platane, s. th. 
piano, a. f. draviring-knife, shaye; see 

planar, to plane. 
plapec, v. n. (of birds) to hover, to 

tower (over); see plan. 
ptoner., v. a. to plane, to planish, to 

shave; see plan. 
pll^ndte, s. f. planet; planet a; ^i«* 

viffijff, a wandering star, nlnvdm^ 

to wander. 

.piaataiie, adj. planetary, s. m. or* 
rery, planetarium. 

planun^rie, s. f. planimetry; pla* 
nu8, plane, (iixqov, a measure. 

planisphi^re, 8. m. planisphere, pla- 
nus, plane, sphaera, a 8pli«*e; 
see sphere. 

plant, 8. m. sapling, plantation, plant; 
see plante, comp, plan^on. 

plantage, s. m. plantation ; see p Ian t e. 

plantain, s. m. plantain; plant ago, 

plantation, s. f. plantation, planting; 

plantatlo, -bnis, plantare, see 

plante, s. f. plant; planta, a sprout, 

planter, v. a. to plant, to set, to pi^, 

to leave in the lurch; plantare. 
plantenr, s. m. planter. 
plaaton, 8. m. soldier in attendance^ 

orderly officer, 
plantoir, s. m. dibble. 

plantnreox, 96, adj. abundant, fer- 
tile; O.F. plante; £. plenty; 
plenus, full. 
plannre, 8. f. shavings (of wood); 

see planer, to plane. 
plaque, s. f. plate (ot metal), star 
(of orders of knighthood), thin leaf 
of metal; plaga, a flat surface, 
nXd^j anything flat; comp. plage, 
placard, planche, etc. 

plaqni, s. m. plated metal, plated 

pUmner, v. a. to plate, to veneer. 

plaqnette« s. f. Belgian coin, small 

plaqnenr, s. m. plater (of metals), 

plastlque, adj. and s. f. plastic, plastic 

art; plasticus, nlaGTiHog, nXdaasft 

to form. 
plastron, s. m. breast- plate, plastron, 

laughing - stock ; fftvXetQVQOv , see 

pUurtronner, v. a. to put on a plastron, 

plat, te, adj. flat, insipid; nlatvg, 
flat, broad. (6e. platt, flatt; E. 
plat, plate, etc.) 
plat, s. m. flat, dish, scale of a bal- 

plateau, s. m. s. th. 
platane, s. f. platane, plane-tree; 
plat anus, nXdzucvos. 

See P. on Ungaage p. 59 and.5S« 

— IW — 

j^IfttesQ, 8. m. table -land, plateaa, 
waiter , wooden basin of scales ; see 

plate -bsiide, 8.f. platband; see plat 
and bande. 

plate -forme 9 s. f. platform ; see plat 
and forme. 

platine, s. f. flat-iron, gun-lock; see 

platine, s. m. platinum; Sp. p latin a, 

pi at a, silver. 
platitude, s. f. platitude, insipidity; 

see plat 

platoniqae, adj. Platonic: Ilkcitapi' 
nog, relating to Plato, Uldttov, Plato, 
the Athenian Philosopher. 
plAtre, s« m. gypsum, plaster, plaster- 
cast; O.F. piastre; emplastrum; 
ifiieXaatQOv , see em pi &t re. 

pUtrage, s. m. plastering, plaster- 
work, unsolid work. 

pl&trai, s. m. pieces of plaster. 

pUtrer, v. a. to plaster, to patch up. 

plAtrier, s. m. plasterer. 

plAtrito, s. f. plaster- quarry. 

plaasible, adj. plausible; plausibi- 

lis, deserving applause, acceptable, 

plaudere, to clap, 
plausibility, s. f. plausibility. 
pl6b61en9 ne, aoi. and s. plebeian; 

plebeius, plebs, plebis, the 

common people. 

plebiscite, s. m. plebiscit; plebis- 
citum, pies, plebis, the common 
people, s citum, an ordinance. 

Pleiades 4 s. f. Pleiades, the seven 
stars; IlXs^ccg, -ddog, in piur. illeia- 
dsQ, seven daughters of Atlas and 
Pleione, who were placed by Zeus 
among the stars. 

pleige, s. m. pledge, caution; prae- 
bium, a surety, praebere, to hold 
in front, contr. from praehibere, 
habere, to have. 

plein, e, adj. full, replete, abundant; 
plenus; comp. frein and veine. 

pl^nidre, adj.ful, plenary; M.L. ple- 
narius; plenus, see prec, comp. 

pl^nipotentiaire, adj. and s. m. ple- 
nipotentiary; It plenipotenzia- 
rio; plenus, a, um, full, no- 
te nti a, power, potens, mignty, 
posse, to be able. 

plenitude , s. f. plenitude, fulness; 
plenitude, pletius, see plein. 

pl6oiiaBiiie, 8. m. pleonasm; pleo* 
nasmus; nlsovaaik6gy sfZcov, more. 

pietltore, 8. f. plethora, exuberance 
of blood ; nlri^oiQriy fullness, «X)|6'tt, 
to be or become full, nXiog, fulL 
plAthorique, acfj. plethoric. 

plearer, v. n. a« to weep, to cry, to 
lament; plorare; comp. honneur. 

pleureur, se, acy. and s. weeper, mourner, 

jplaumioher, v. n. to whine. 

pleurs, s. m. pi. tears. 

pleur^sie, s. f. pleurisy; nXevQttig 

nXsved, a rib. 
pleaToir^ v. n. to rain; pluere; 

comp. jeunOj fleuve, pouvoir. 
pleyon, s. m. osier-band; OJP. pleyer, 

see plier. 

pli, s. m. fold, wrinkle, bent (direct- 
ion); O.F. ploi, see plier and 
pUer, v. a. to fold, to bend; O.F. 
pleyer; It piegare; Prov. Sp. 
plegar; plicare. 
pliable, a4j. pliant, flexible, 
pliant, s. m. folding chair. 

plinthe, s. f. plinth; nXivd-og, abridk 

or tile, a plinth. 
plioir, 8. m. folding -knife, paper- 
knife; see plier. 
plisser, v. a. to plait; plicitum, 
sup. of plicare, see plier. 
plissement, s. m. plaiting (action), 
plissure, s. f. plaiting (manner, wotlt). 
ploient, ploierai, etc.; see ployer. 

ploknb, 8. m. lead, plumb; plumb- 
line; plumbum. 

plomber, v. a. to lead, to fill (teeth) 
to plumb, to seal with lead. 

plomberie, s. f plumbery, lead-woilts. 

plombeur, s. m. who seals (goods) 
with lead. 

plombier, s. m. plumber. 

plonger, v. a. n. to plunge, to im 
merse. to dive; O.F. ploncher; 
plumb icare, to fkll like lead into 
the water, plumbum, lead. 

plongeon, s. m. diving, ducking. 

plongenr, s. tn. plunger, diver. 

ployer, v. a. n. to bentl, to fold up; 

same as plier, s. th. 
plu, p. p. of plaire and pleuvoir 

s. th. 
pluehe, s. f. see peluche. 
pluie, 8. f. rain; O.F. plueve; plii- 

via, pluere, see pleuibir. 

— 200 — 

plnine, s. f. feather, pen, qoill; 


plunage, s. m. plumage, feathers, 
plunail, 8. m. pinme, feather -broom, 
plwmaiieaii, s. m. feather-broom, pen- 

phuaaiserie , 8. f. feather -trade. 
pluaaiBier, 8. m. dealer in feathers, 
plvmeau, s. m. feather -broom, 
plnmer, v. a. to plume, to pluck, to 


plumet, 8. m. plume, feather, 
plunenx, le, adj. feathery, plumous. 

plnmitif, 8. m. minute-book; ace. to 
Manage a corruption of prim it if 
(8. th.): M.L.primitiTum, a minute. 

plapart, s. f. msgority, greatest part; 
O.F. pluspart, see plus and part. 

plurality ^ 8. f. plurality; pluralitas, 
pluralis, see next w. 

plariel, le, a^}. and s. m. plural; 
pluralis, plus, see next w. 

pins, adv more, most; plus, 
plvfieun, adj. pi. several, many ; comp. 
M.L. pluriores from L. plures. 

plns-qae-parfait, s. m. pluperfect; 
see plus, que and parfait. 

plusse, see pi aire.- 

plat, pi At 9 etc ; see pi aire and 

platOt, adv. rather, sooner; see pins 
and tdt. 

plavial, e. adj. pluvial, pluvious, rainy; 
pluvialis, pluvia; see plnie. 

plaTieux, se, adj. rainy, wet, plu- 
vious; pluvius, see prec. 
Plnvi68e, s. m. the fifth month of the 
calender of the first French republic. 

pneumatique , adj. and s. f. pneumat- 
ic, pneumatics; nvevfuxzi nog, heloiig- 
ing to wind or breath, nvsvua, 
wind, air, nvfm, to blow. 

pneamonie, s. f. pneumonia, inflamma- 
tion of the lungs; nvsvfioav, a lung. 

poehade, s. f. (paint.) rough sketch; 
see poche. 

poche, s. f. pocket, pouch; O.F. po- 
que; A.S.pocca, poha; M.L.'po- 
hia; (E.poke, pouch); Icel. poki. 

poeher, v. a. to bruise (the eyes), to 
poach (eggs). 

pochette, s. f. small pocket, pocket- 
-podagra, s. m. and adj. gout in the 
feet, gouty; podagra; nodayga, 
the gout, «ovV, nodcg^ a foot, <?yoof, 
a catching. 

podle^ 8. m. pall, canopy ; O.F. p o e si e , 
poile; Et d. prob. pallium. 

poMe^ poile, s.m. stove; O.F. po isle; 
M.Ij.pi8ele, pisalis; ace. to Diez 

Srob. L. pensile, hanging (pen- 
ere, to hang). 
poAIier, 8. m. stove- maker. 
po^le, 8. f. pan, frying pan; O.F. 
pael, paesle; patella, a small 
pan, patere, to be open, 
potton, 8. m. saucepan. 
poSme, s.m. poem; poem a; noiruuxj 
anjTthing ms^e, a poem, notim, to 

poSsie, s. f. poetry, poesy; poesis; 

noiriaig, noiim, see prec. 
poSte, s. m. poet; poeta; ^roii^Tr^g, 
a maker, a poet, see prec. 
poSterean, s. m. poetaster, 
podtesse, s. f. poetess, 
podtiqiie, adj. poetical; poetic us; 

podtiser, v. a. to versify. 
poids, 8. m. weight, gravity, burden; 
It Sp. Port, peso; like pesum 
for pensum, weighed, pendere, 
to hang down; comp. peser and 

poignant, e, adj. poignant; pr. p. of 
poindre, s. th. 

poignard, s.m. dagger, poniard; like 
pugnardus, pugnus, seepoing. 
poignarder, v. a. to stab with a dag- 
ger, to poniard. 

polgn^e, 8. f. handful, handle, hilt; 
see poing. 

poignet. s.m. wrist, cuff, wrist-band; 
see poing. 

poll, s. m. hair (of the beard, etc. of 
animals); It. pelo; pilus, hair; 
comp. noir and moins. 

poile, 8. m. see po^le, stove. 

poiln, e, adj. hairy, pileous ; seep oil. 

poiiiQon, s. m. awl, puncheon; It. 
punzone; punctio, -onis, a 
pricking, pungere, to prick, comp. 

poindre, v. a. to sting, v. n. (of the 
day) to dawn, to appear; pun- 
gere; comp. oindre,joindre, etc. 

poing, s. m. fist, hand; O.F. pung; 

pugnus, pug root of pungere; 

see prec. 
point, s. ra. point, stitch, full stop, 

daybreak; It. punto; Ge. punkt; 

punctum, a prick, a point; p. p. 

of pungere, see poindre. 

— 201 — 

pointy adv. sot, not at all, no. 
pointagtt, 8. m. levelling (of a gun), 


pointOy 8. f. point, dawn, 
pointer, y. a. n. to point, to shoot 
pointillery ▼. a. n. to tease, to dot 

(paint); dim. of prec. like puncti- 

pointillage, s. m. dotting. 
pointilleu, se, adij. panctilious. 
pointa, e, adj. pointed, sharp, peaked; 

see pointer. 

poire, s. f. pear, powder-flask; It. 

pera; pirus, a pear-tree; comp. 

poirier, s. m. pear* tree; M.L. pira- 

pois, 8. m. pea; jpisnm. 
poison, 8. m. poison; O.F. potion; 

It pozione; potio,-onis,apotion, 

drink; comp. 6e. gift, poison, from 

ffeben, to give. 
poissard, e, adj. low, vulgar; prob. 

from next w. 

poissarde, s. f. fish -worn an, market- 
woman; see poisson. 
poisser, V. a. to smear with pitch; 

see poix, comp. also empeser. 
poisson, 8. m. fish, the eighth of a 
pint; O.F. pescion; Itpescione; 

poiafonnarie, s. f. fishmarket 
poissonnenz , se, adj. fishy, abounding 
in fish. 

poiMonnier, s. m. fishmonger. 
poiBionniAre, s. f. fishmonger (woman), 

poitrail, 8. m. chest of horses ; pee- 
to rale, pertaining to the breast, 
Sectus, see poitrine. 
trine, s. f. breast, chest; Prov. 
peitrina; like pectorina from 
pectus, -oris, the breast 
peitrinaire, adj. and s. consumptive. 
poivre, s. m. pepper ; Prov. Sp. p e b r e ; 
It pepe, pevere; piper; comp. 
poire and poll, 
peivrade, s. f pepper -sauce, 
poivrer, v. a. to pepper, 
poivrier, s. m. pepper -plant, pepper- 

poiTritoe, s. f pepper-caster, pepper- 
poix, 8. f. pitch; pix, picis; ^rtcraof. 
p(^le, 8. m. pole; polus; noXog^ a 
pivot, a pole, noXiatj to turn round, 
polaire, acfj- polar. 

polaristr, v. a. to polarize. 

polariiation, s. £ polarization. 

polarity, s. t polarity. 
pol6miqae, a((j. and s. f polemic, po- 
lemics ; nolsfiLnog^ warlike, ndlsnog^ 
poli, e, adj. polished, polite; O.F. 
polit; politus p. p. of polire, 
see polir. 

poUtesio, 8. f 8. th. 
police, 8. f. policy of insurance; It 
polizza; M.L. polyptychnm, re- 
gister; noXyntvxogj with or of many 
folds, nolvg^ many, Trrtfg, ntviog, 
later nxvxriy a fold, a leaf. 

police, 8. f. police; Sp. Port policia; 

It poiizia; politia, noUxBia^ the 

State, noXig, a city. 
poUoer, V. a. to civilize, to refine. 
poliehinelle, s. m. pnnchinello, Punch, 

buffoon; It pulcinella, one of the 

persons in the Napolitan comedy; 

Et. d. 


polir, y. a. to polish; polire. 
pclissage, s. m. polishing. 
poUisenr, s. m. se, s. f. polisher, 
polinoir, s. m. polisher (tool), 
polissoire, s. f. polishing brash, 
polisson, s. m. see next w. 
poliisore, s. f. s. th. 

polisson , ne , adj. and s. blackguard, 

urchin, licentious fellow; politio, 

- n i s , a polishing, polire, see prec 

polissenner, v. n. to behave like a 


polissonnerie, s. f. obscenity, black- 

polissure, s. f. polishing; see polir. 

politesse, s. f. politeness, civility; 
politus, see poli. 

politique, a4i. political, politic; po- 
litic us; ffoXiTixdg, pertaining to 
the civil government, political, sro- 
XitJig, a citizen, xroZcff, a city, a state. 
poUtiqae, s. m. politician, politic, 
politique, s. f. policy, politics; noXi* 
TtxrJ (>c. tixvri) the science of politics, 
politiqner, v. n. to talk politics. 
polka 4 8.f. polka; a dance of Polish 

polker, V. n. to dance the polka. 
pollen, s. m. pollen, flower -dust, 

pollen, ndXri, ndXXm^ to sift. 
pollaer, v. a. to pollute; polluere^ 
pro-luere. lit to overflow, 
pdlutlon, 8. f. pollution; pollutio, 
-onis; pollutns, p.p. ofpoUuere. 

— 204 — 

Polonais, « , «4j. and s. Polish, ?oli». 
Polonaiflt, b. f. polonaise. 
poltron. ne, adj. and s. cowardly, 
cowMrd, poltroon; It. poltrone, 

{»oltro, lazy, boldrone, cover- 
et; O.H.G. polstar, (Ge. polster; 
E. bolster), cushion, bolster. 
peltnmnerie, s. f. cowardly action, 

. y- a prefix signifying many, mnlti> 
plicataon, plurality, etc., noXvs^ noXv, 

polygame, adj. polygamoas; noXvg^ 
many, ytqiito^ to marry, 
poljgiunie, 8.1 polygamy; noXvyafiia, 

polyglotte, at^y.anci s.f. polyglot, poly- 
glot (Bible); noXvyXmtt^g, Att for 
Aolt^ylfiMTcroc, many-tongued, noXvg^ 
many, yXmaauj the tongue. 

polyvoii6, adj. and s. m. polygonal, 
polygon; noXvg, many, yutvia, an 

polype, 8. m. polypus, polype; noXv- 
novg^ noXvg, many, novg, a foot. 

pdljpevs, M, adj. polTpous. 

polysyllable, adj. and s. m. polysyl 
lable; noXvavXXa§eg, of many sylla- 
bles, noXvg, many, avXXafit}, a syl*- 
lable, see syllable. 

polyteehniqne, a^j. polytechnic; noXvg, 
many, tiz^* art. 

poIyth6i8iiie , 8.m. polytheism; noXvg^ 
many^ d'sog, a god. 

pommaile, s. f. pomatum, pomade; 
(Sp. pomada; It. pomata); see 
pom me, apple, because it was for- 
merly made of apples and lemons. 
pommadBr, y. a« to pomatum. 

p<mime, s. t apple, knob; Prov. Sp. 
poma; It. porno; pomum, poma, 

pmnmeaii, s.m. pommel; O.F. pomel. 

pomflMlnr, (§•), pr. v. to dapple. 

pommaUe, s. f. grating (of pipes). 

pemiaer, y. n. to cabbage. 

pommeraie, s. f. apple-garden, apple* 

poniaiette, s. f. pommel, knob, cheek- 

yommier, s. m. apple-tree; poma* 
rius, pertaining to fruit, pomum. 

pompe, s. f. pomp, splendour, state; 
pomp a, nofinrij a public proces- 
sion, niyknto^ to send, 
pompenx, se, adj. pompous, stately; 
Dompe, s. f pump, small syringe; 
nmp; Qe. pumpe. 

pomper, v. a. n. to pomp, 
pompier, s. m. fi^^man. 
pompon, s. m. ornament, tuft; see 

pompe, pomp, 
pomponner, v. a. to ornament, to dresst^. 
p<>nant, s. m. west; Prov. p on en t; 
It. ponente; ponere, tolay do%ta, 
like Occident, s. th. 
ponee, s. f pumice, pounce; It. |ro- 
mice; pumex, -icis. 
poneer, v. a. to pumice, to pbtmtee 
(drawing etc.). 

ponds, 8. m. pounce (draw. «ld.), 
drawing pounced. 

poneeaa, s. m. deep -red cblotkt, 
corn-poppy; punicens, red, (itt- 
nicus, Punic, red, (punicnm, a 

poneeaa, s. m. cnWert: It. ponti- 
cello; ponticulus, dim. of pons, 
see pont 

ponche, s. m. punch; E. pnncli; 
Sans, panchan or panchlL, five, 
the number of ingredietits of "tirhleh 
it is composed. 

ponetlon^ s. f. puncture, tapping; 
punctio, *>onis, pungere, me 
poindre, comp. poin^on. 

ponetaallt^, s. f. punctuality; tee 

ponetoatlon, s. f. punctuation, Intd^- 

punction; see ponctuei'. 
ponctuel, le, adj.punctual; puncttttt, 

see point. 
ponetaei], v. a n. to puncttiate, 16 

point; punctum, see point 
ponderer, ▼. a. to poise, to balande; 

ponderare, pondus, a weight, 

pendere, to weigh, 
ponderable, adj. ponderable, 
ponderability, s. f. ponderability. ^ 
pond^ration, s. f. ponderation, poising, 


pondre, y. o.n. to lay f eggs); pondte, 

to lay; comp. cenare, moindre. 
pondeuso, s. f. (hen) that lays tnany 

pont, 8. m. bridge, deck; pbAti, 

ponte, 8. f. laying of birds; dDI 


ponte, 8. m. punter; Sp. ptthti^i 
ponter, t. n. to punt. 

pontife, 8. m. pontiff; pontififtl, 
-icis, a Roman high priest, accoHl- 
ing to Yarro and Yossins, (Mli 

— 203 — 

pons, -ntis, a bridge, and fa- 
ce xe, to make, because the first 
bridge over the Tiber was con- 
strueled and consecrated by the 
chief priest 

fOBkttoal, e, adj. and s. m. pontifi- 
cal; pontificalis. 

pMtifleat, 8. m. pontificate; ponti- 
pont-leyls. s. m. draw -bridge; see 
pent ana levis. 

pont-nenf, s. m. popular song; Ht. 
new bridge (see pont and neuf), 
one of tihe principal bridges in Pans 
where popular songs were sung. 

ponton, 8. m. pontoon, pontoon-bridge; 

see pont. 
pontonnage, s. m. toll for passing a 
bridge, pontage, 
pontoanier, s. m. toll -gatherer. 

populaee, s. 1 populace « mob; po- 
poluSy people; comp. peuple. 

popalalre, a4j- popular; popular is, 

populus, s^e peuple. 
S«sp4Wifler, v. a. to popularize, to 

make popular. 
ItP|}^larit6, s. f. popularity; popula- 

population^ s. f. population; M.L. 

populatio, -onis; populatio, a 

laymg waste,p op u 1 ar i,seep eupler. 
pcgre, s. m. pig, hog, pork; porcus. 
PQIT'Celaine, s. f. porcelain, China, 

cowry, sea-snail; It. porcellana; 

Sp. Port porcelana; Et d. 

po^Ov^lrto, s.m. porcupine; O.F. porc- 
espi, pore, (s. th.), espi, seeepi. 

porebe, s.f porch; portions, porta, 
a ffate. 

^fM^cuker, s. m. dre, s. f. pig- driver, 
swipe* herd; see pore. 

pore, s. m. pore; porus; nogogy a 

poreazy ae, adj. porous, 
porositi, s. f. porosity. 

P<(9fliyre ,; s. m. porphyry; Tropqpt^pa, 
the purple-fish, the purple dye ob- 
tained from it 

port, s. m. harbour, port, haven; 

pott, s. m. postage, carriage, port, 
portliness; see porter. 

portable, ai^. wearable; see porter. 

portage, s. m. conveyance, carriage, 
pQiiierage; see porter. 

portall, s. m. front (of churches), door- 
way, portal; see porte^ 

portatif, ve, adj. portable; see porter. 
porte, s. f. door-way, gate-way, door, 

gate; porta. 
porte- (m composition) bearer, carrier, 
porter, holder; see porter, 
porta-allunettes, s. m. match-box; 
see allumette. 

portaerayon, s. m. pencil-case, port- 
crayon; see crayon, 
porta -drapeaa, s. m. ensign; see dra- 

porta -ip6e, s. m. sword-bearer, frog- 
belt: see 6p6e. 

porta&iz, s. m. porter; see faix. 
portaftuilla, s. m. portfolio, pocket- 
book; see fenille. 
portamantaan, s.m. portmanteau; see 

porta-monnaia, s. m. portemonnade, 
puree; see monnaie. 
porta -plame, s. m. penholder, pen- 
case; see plume, 
porta- voix, s. m. speaking trumpet; 

see voix. 
port6e, s. f. range, span, extentr; me 

porter, v. a. n. to bear, to carry, to 
support; portare. 

portaur, s. m. la, s.f. carrier, poiter,. 
portier, s. m. porter, door-keeper, 

see porte. 
port^ra, s. f. portress, door*way, oar- 
portion, s. f. portion, part, shaiH^ 

portio, -onis. 
portique, s. m. portico; portieus; 

see porche. 
portraire, v. a to portray, to depict; 

pro-trahere, to draw forth, 
portrait, s. m. portrait, likeness; 
protr actum, p. p. of protrahere. 
portraiture, s. f. portrait 
Portugal, s. m. Portugal. 
Portugais, e, acy. and s. Portuguese. 
poser, V. a. to place, to put, v. n. 
to sit for o's likeness, to pose; 
same as pauser (s. th.); M.L. 
pausare, to stop, to rest; pau- 
sare, to halt, to pause, pausa, 
Tcavaig, a stop, pause, comp. pause, 
posaga, s. m. laying, laying down, 
posa, s. f. popture, attitude, laying, 
poseur, s. m. layer (workman), plate- 
positif, ye, adj. positive, certain; 
positiyus, positus, p. p. of po- 
nere, to place. 

— 204 — 

posltloii, 8.1 position, j^osture, situa- 
tion, positio, -onis, ponere, 
see prec. 
poss^der, v. a. to possess, to have; 
possidere, pot, rootofpotis, 
able, seder e» to sit 

poMesMiir, s. m. possessor, owner; 
possessor, possessum sup. of 

pofsessif, a4j. possessive; posses- 
sivas, possessus, see posses- 

pofseiiion, s. f. possession; posses- 
sio, -onis, possessum, see pos- 
possible, adj. possible; possibilis, 
posse, to be able. 

poMibUit^, 8. f; possibility; possi- 
poste, s. 1. post, post-office, mail; 
M.L. posta, orig. the relay of hor- 
ses; po situs, placed, p. p. of 
ponere, to place. 

postal, e, adj. postal. 

postilloa, 8. m. s. th. 
poste, 8. m. post, guard -house, em- 
ployment; positus, -tum, p.p. of 
ponere, to place, comp. prec. 

poster, Y. a. to place, to station; 
M.L. postare, freq. of ponere., 
see prec. 

post<§riear, e, adj. posterior, sub- 
sequent; posterior, comp. of pos- 
terns, posterior, post, after, 
postirioritft , s. f. posteriority, sub- 

posterity, s. f. posterity, issue; pos- 
teritas, posterns, see prec. 

posthame, adj. and s. posthumous; 
postumus. Slip, of posterns, see 

postiehe, adj. and s. m. superadded? 
artificial, false, out of place; Et. d. 
Diez thinks it to be perhaps a shor- 
tened form of the It. appositi- 
ccio, (same meaning), which is a 
reproduction of a latin form appo- 
sititius, appositus, applied to, p. 
p. of apponere, ad-ponere, to 
put at. 

postilion, s. m. postilion, post-boy; 

see poste. 
post-seriptum, s.m. postscript; post, 

after, scrip tum, something written, 

p. p. of scribere, to write. 
postuler, y. a. to solicit; to apply for; 

postulare, poscere,.to ask for. 

postulant, s. m. e, s. f. applicant, pos- 
tulant; postulans, -antis; pr. p. 
of postulare. 
postare, s. f. posture, position; po- 
situra, ponere, po si tum, to place. 
pot, s. m. pot, jug; Sp. Fort, pote; 
D. pot; W. pot; Gael, poit; Et d. 
pot-an-fen, s. m. soup and boiled meat; 
lit pot on the fire; see feu. 
potage, 8. m. soup, 
potager, ^re, adj. oleraceous. 
potager, s. m. kitchen -garden, stove 
for soups and stews. 
pot-de-vin, s. m. rebate, bonus; lit a 
pot of wine; see vin. 
poterie, s. f. s. th. 
petier, s. m. s. th. 
potable, adj. potable; potabilis, 

potare, to drink. 
potasse, s.f. potash; Ge.pottasche; 

D. potasch; E. pot and ashes, 
poteau, 8. m. post (piece of timber, etc.); 
O.F. postel, poste; postellus, 
dim. of postis, a post 
potel^, e, adj. plump (fat); Et d. 
potenee, s. f. gibbet, gallows, crutch^, 

postis, comp. poteau. 
potentat, s. m. potentate; pot ens, 
-entis, mighty, pr. p. of posse 
to be able. 
poterie, s. f. pottery, earthen -ware; 

see pot 
poterne, s. f. postern; O.F. pos- 

post, behind. 

potior, 8. m. potter; see pot 

potin, 8. m. red brass, pinchbeck; 
prob. pot, 8. th. 

potion, s. f. potion, draught; potio, 
• onis, comp. poison. 

potiron, s. m. pumpkin ; Et. d. Scheler 
thinks it derived from O.F. pas- 
ture, posture, see pdtur.e. 

pou, s. m. louse; M.L. pedu cuius; 
pediculus, dim. of pedis, pes 
pedis, a foot 

peace, s. m. thumb, inch (measure) 
pollex, -ids. 
ponder, s. m. thumbstalL 

pou-de-soie, see pout- de-sole, 

poading, s.m. pudding; E. pudding. 

poadre, s. f. powder, dust, gunpowder; 
O.F. poldre; pulvis,-eri8; comp. 
moudre, dissoudre, etc. 
pondrer, v. a. to powder, 
pondrette, s. f. poudrette, dried night- 
pondreuc, se, a^j- dosty, powdery^ 

— 205 — 

povdztor, 8. hl powder-box, powder- 

povdziire, 8. £ powder-mill, powder- 
magazine, 8and-box. 
pouf, inteij. puff; onomat. 
povf, s. m. paff. 

povffiv, y. n. to bur8t out (langhing). 
poullleux, se, adj. lonsy; see pon. 
poulaiUe, 8. f. poultry; see poule. 
povlmiller, 8. m. poultry -house, poul- 
terer, poultry -cart. 

poulaln) 8. m. colt, foal, filly; O.F. 

folain, polin; Prov. pulin; pul- 
us, cent of puellns, a young 
animal, comp. puceau. 
poule. 8. f. hen, pool (play); pulla, 
pullu8, 8ee prec. 
poulardB, s. f. fat pullet, 
ponlet, 8.m. chicken, chick, love-letter, 
poulftte, 8. f. pullet, lass. 
pouliehe, 8. f. colt, foal, filly; like 
puUica (equina), pullus, see 

ponlie, s. f. pulley; E. pulley. 

poulin, 8.m. same as poulain, s. th. 
povliaer, v. n. to foal. 
poaUnttre, breeding mare. 

poalpe, s. f. see pulpe. 

pottlpe, 8. m. poulp; p ulp a, the fleshy 
portion of animal bodies, or ace. to 
some polypus, a polypus, the 

pouls, 8. m. pulse ; p u 1 s u s , a pushing, 
beating, pulsum, sup. of pellere, 
to push, to strike; comp. ponsser. 

pomnoii) 8. m. lungs, lung; pulmo, 

ponpard,, babe, doll; O.F. 

poupe, breast; It. poppa; pupa, 

a gin, a puppet, comp. poup^e. 
poupe, 8. f. stern, poop; puppis. 
poup^O) s. f. doll, puppet; pupa, a 

girl, a puppet 
poupoU) 8. m. ne, s. f. chub -faced 

baby, darling; pupus, a boy, a 

child, comp. prec. 
pour, prep, for, on account of, in 

order to; O.F* Sp. Port, por; pro. 

pourboire, s. m. drink -money, fee 
to servants, gratuity; see ptourand 

poureeau, s. m. pig, hog; po reel- 
las: dim. of porcus, see pore. 

pourehasser, ▼. a. to pursue ardently; 
see pour and chasser (purchase), 

pourfendre, v. a. to cleave, to cat a 
manintwo; see pour and fendre. 

pourparler, s. m. parley; see pour 

and parler. 
pourpoint, 8. m. doublet; Sp. per- 

punte; M.L.perpunctum; (ves- 

tis perpuncta),punctum,apoint, 

a stitch. 

pourpre , s. m. £ pourple (colour), pour- 
pie ; p u r p u r a, the purple - fish, the 
purple, noQtfWQa, see porphyre. 
poQzpri, 0, acy' purple. 

pourquol, conj. why, wherefore, see 
pour and quoi, like £. where- 

pourral, pourrals etc.; seepouYoir. 
pourrlr, ▼. a. n. to rot, to get rotten; 

putre score (putrid); comp. nour- 


pouritue, s. £ rot, putrefaction. 
poursuite, s £ pursuit, prosecution, 

suit at law, proceedings; see next w. 

poursulyre, y. a. n. to pursue, to 
prosecute, to continue ;pro8equere 
for prosequi; comp. suiyre. 

pourtant, adv. nevertheless, howeyer, 
yet; O.F. ne por-quant, non 
pourtant; non pro tanto, see 
pour and tant 

pourtour, s. m. circumference; see 
pour and tour. 

pouryoi, s. m. appeal (law), applica- 
tion, petition; £2t d. 

pouryoir, y. n. a. to provide, to supply, 

to endow; proviaere; comp. voir. 

poorvoirie, s. £ provision -store. 

pounroyeur, s. m. purveyor, provider. 

ponrvu que, conj. provided, provided 

that; comp. also d^pouryu. 

pousser, y. a. n. to push, to thrust, 

to urge, to shoot up, to push on; 

Prov. polsar; Sp. Port pulsar; 

pulsare, freq. of pellere, to 

push; comp. poumon. 
poBise, 8. £ sprout shoot, (voter.) asthma, 

broken wmd, the heaves, 
poiuite, 8. £ pushing, push, thrust 
pouisotte, 8. £ pushpm (game), 
pousif, ve, adj., see th. 

poussier, s. m. coal-dust; same as 

next w. 
poussidre, s. £dust; O.F.porri^re, 

pourri^re; pulvis: see poudre. 
pousslf, ye, a4j.(veter.)Droken-winded, 

pursy; see pousser. 

poussiu, 8. m. young chicken ; M.L. 
pullicenus; pullus, contr. of 
puellns, see pouUin. 

— 206 — 

p,oat-de-soi«9 &• m. padaasoy; corr. 

of Padoue-soie, i. e. silk of Pa- 
dua; see sole. 
Houtre, 8. f. beam, rafter; O.F. pou- 

tre, poultre, youDg horse; It. 


poledrua; Sp.Port potro, young 

horde, andiustrumentoftorture, comp. 

eqttnlns, a foal, and a wooden rack; 

see poulain. 
pontrella, s. f. a small beam, rafter. 
|foir?olr, Y. n. to be able, to be per- 
mitted, to be possible; O.F. pooir; 

Sp. Port Prov. poder; It. potere; 

l&.L. pot esse for posse; comp. 


ptvfoicv 8. mi power, 
pragrmatiqae, adj. pragmatic; pr a g- 

DMMiieas; ni^flfyfiaTixrfff, skilled in 
, polHMl a^irs^, xQ&y^^ something 

(iDii0, one^s bvshiess. 
Uratei^v 8. i nveadow, prairie; M.L. 

prralaria^ ptatum; see pre. 
PraliM^. e^, w^ the ninth month of 

lh% 4a,k»detf of the first French 

fialjae^ 81 i brown roasted almond; 

so called because a servant of 
. Fiflldmmrabal , Duplessis-Pralin 

fii^t prepared almonds in this way. 

|^^;aliiier,,v. a* to roast (like almonds). 

pratKcattle, adj. practicable, feasible; 

It practicabiie; see pratiquer. 
f|!«tleieB, 8. m. practitioner; see 

yrattqae, aiiij. practical; ^^otxtimc^^, 

%qaaoay, to do. 
pratique, s. f. practice, custom, cus- 
tomer; sr^onrrixif, see prec. 
pmttqiMr, V. a. u. to practice, to 

tamper with, to associate with; see 

Pt6) s. m. meadow; Sp.prado; i^ra- 

tum; comp; prairie and pr§au. 
ft€^ a prefix^, the L. prae, before. 
pr^alable, acy- preliminary; pre, 

prefix, the L. prae, before ^ and 

aller, s.. th. 
pr^ambole, 8. m. prearaMe;- prae- 

am*balare, to walk b^ore. 
pr^au, 8. m. small meadow, yard (of 
. oonreiits, schools. eta); O.F. prael, 

^aiel; Prov. pradell; It pra- 

t«!lio; M.L. pratellum for pra- 

tulum, dim., of pratum, see pre. 
nr^ende, Si f prebendi prebendary- 

sh^: Prov. It prebenda, 

tenda; praebeada^ to be'ofie^d. 

Eraebere, to offer, contr. of prae - 
ibere, habere, to have; comp. 
prftbendiar, s. m. prebendary. 
pr^caire, adj. precarious; preca- 

rius, precari, to pray, to wish. 
pr^eaution, s. f. precaution, cautioli; 
praecautio, -onis, pra^cau- 
tus, p. p. of prae-cavere, to 
guard against 
prieantionner, v. a. to caution, to wa^n. 
pr^c^demment, adv. previously, be- 
fore; see pr6c^der. 
pr^e^dent, ady. n. s. m. precedent; 
praecendens, -entis, pr p. of 
praecedere; see next w. 
pr^e^der, v. a. to precede, to gO' be- 
fore; prae-cedere, to go before. 
pr^eepte, s. m. precept, rufe, com- 
mandement; praeceptum, pr&e- 
cipere, to take before hand', to 
give rules, cap ere, to take, 
pnoeptenr, s. m. tutor, teacher; pre- 
ceptor; praeceptor. 
prieeptoral, e, adj. preceptorial, 
prteeptomt, s. m. tutorship, 
pr^^cher, v. a. n. preach, to r^tMu- 
strate; praedicare, to pfeeliiln, 
prae, before, dicere, to My, 
comp. juger and emp^chee. 
prAehe, s. f. sermon, Protestant ckotch. 
prtehevr, s. m. le, s. f. preacher, ser- 
pr^elemx, se, adj. precious, valusMe, 
costly; pretiosus,pretium,pfttce, 
pr^eipice, s. m. precipice, praeei- 
pitium,praeceps, -cipitis, head- 
formost, prae, before, caput, head, 
prfalpitammeiit , adv. precipitately, 
pzieipitatioxi, s. f. precipitation; prae- 
cipicatio, -onis. 
pr^piter, v. a. to precipitate, to 
throw down, to hurry; praeci- 
pr^eis, e, a<y. precise, exact, just; 
praecisus, broken off, abrupt, 
prae- cider e, to. cut ofi^ cae- 
dere, to fell, 
precis, s. m. abstract, summary, epitome, 
pr^oiser, v.a. to state precisely, to specify, 
pjoidsion, s. f. precision, precisaiess. 
pr^oit^, e, adj. aforsaid, fore -men- 
tioned; prae, before, aadF.eiter, 
s. th. 
pr^oce,, adij. precoci^s; prae«^z, 
-^cOiCisff ripiB before its time, prae , 

- 207 — 

before, coquere,coxi, -etum, to 
cook, to ripen. 
prtoodUy 8. I. precocity. 
pr^eoneeyoiT) y. a. to preconceive; 
prae, before, and F. concevoir, 
8. th. 

pr^eoniser, y. a. to preconizate, to 
extol, to praise; M.L. praeconi- 
zare for praeconare; praeco- 
nium, a proclaiming, see prone, 
prteeniiiatien, 8. f. preconization. 

pr^eurseur, 8. m. precursor, fore- 
runner; praecarsor, prae-car- 
rere, to mn before. 

pr ^d^eesseur , s. m. predecessor ; p r a e, 
before, decessor, one who leaves, 
de-cedere, cessum, to go away. 

pr^destiner, v. a. to predestine ; p r a e - 
destinare, to determine before- 

grtdertination, s. f. predestination; 
pcaedestinatio, -onis. 

predeterminer 9 y. a. to predetermine, 
to preordain; prae, before, and F. 
determiner, s. th. 
pgWta nnin at i o n , s. f. predetermination, 

predicateur^ s. m. preacher; prae- 
dicator, aproclaimer, crier, prae- 
dicare, see precher. 

predieation, 8. f. sermon, preaching; 
praedicatio, -onis, a proclama- 
tion, see prec. 

predietiony s. f. prediction, foreboding; 
praedictio, -onis, praedicere, 
see pre dire: 

predilection, s. f. predilection, pre- 
ference, partiality; prae, before, 
dilectam, sap. of diligere, to 
choose, to love. 

predire, v. a. to foretell; to predict; 

prae-dicere, to say beforehand, 

to fore -tell. 
predisposer, y. a. to predispose; see 

pre- and aisposer. 
prediipoiition, s.f. predisposition, see 


predominer, y.n. to predominate, to 
prevail; see pre- and do miner. 
pvMominaaoa, s. f. predominance, 
predominant, e, acy. predominant, 

preeminent, e, acfj. preeminent; prae- 
emiaens, -entifl.,pra*-eininere, 
to be proninentto 
prMninenoa, 8. t preeminence. 

preexiflter. v. n. to preesiat; see 
pre- ana exister. 
pzeexbtMUM, 8. f. preexistene*, see 
prefiiee, s. f. pre&ce, preamble; prae - 
f atio, a saying beforehand, a pre- 
face, prae- tan, to say beforehand, 
to premise. 
prefecture, s. f. prefecture; prae- 
fectara,praefectus, aeeprefet 
prererer, v. a. to prefer; prae- 
ferre, to bear before, 
prtferable, acU- preferable, 
prittrenee, s. f. preference. 

prefei, 8. m. prefect; praefectus, 
p. p. of prae-ficere, to put at 
the head of, to set over, face re, 
to make. 

prefix, e, adj. prefixed; praefixM, 
p. p. of prae-figere, to fix before, 
priflxe, s. m. prefix. 

prejudiee, s. nu iiuory, wrong; for- 
merly prejudice; prae-Judieiun, 
prae, before, j u dici am , jndgement 
pr^ndieiable, ad[].i]]jnrioaa^detrimei|[taL 
prejndioier, v. n. to pr^udice, tohanD. 

prejuger, v. a. to prctjadge^ prae- 

judicare, to judge beforehand, 

see juger. 

priijnge, 8. m. prejudice, 
preiat, 8. m. prelate; ML. prae>la- 

tus; praelatus, p. p. of prae- 

f erre, to carry before, to prefiBci.- 

preiatore, s. f. prelacy. 
preie, 8. £ shaye- grass, Dutchr meh; 

O.F. presle; It. asperella, dim. 

of L. asp era, rough, because of 

its rough surface. 

preieyer, v. a. to deduct, to take off 

first; see pre and lever, 
prei^yement , s. m. previous dedwution. 
preiiminaire, adj. preliminary; p rae , 

before, limen, -inis, the lintei of 

a doorway, an entrance. 
prelude, 8. m. prelude; M,L. prae- 

ludium; prae, before, Indus, a 

play; comp. next w. 
preiuder, v. a. to prelude; prae- 

ludere, to play beforehand, to 


premature, e, adQ. premature^ untitne- 

\j; prae-maturue; pra^e, bt- 

&re;matuvaB, ripe, 
prematurite, s. f. prematurity; comp. 

piremediter, y. a. to pieiaeditalie ; 

prae-meditari,. to* think Qiver» to 

~ 208 — 

deliberate upon beforehand; comp. 

prtoMitation, s. f. premeditation; 
praemeditatio, -onis. 

pr^mlees, s. flpl. first fruits, beginn- 
ing; primitiae, primus, first. 

premier, dre, adj. first, foremost, 
chief, prime- (minister) ; p r i m a r i u s , 
primus, first, 
premi^rement, adv. firstly, first. 

premisses, s. f. pi. (logic) premises; 
praemissum, prae, before, mis- 
sum, sent, mitt ere, to send. 

pr^monir, v. a. to warn, to cause 
(a. 0.) to provide beforehand, to 
caution, prae-munire, to fortify 
or defend in front, to protect; comp. 
prendre, y. a. n. to take ; O.F. pr e n r e ; 
prenderc, cont. of prehendere, 
to take hold of. 

prenable, adj. expngnable, pregnable, 
prenaat, p. p. of prendre, 
preneur, s. m. se, s. f. taker, catcher 
(of animals) , buyer. 

pr^nom, s. m. Christian name, first 

name; prae-nomen, seepr^- and 

pr^oceuper, ?. a. to preoccupy, to 

prepossess; prae-occupare; see 

pre- and occuper. 
prfooonpation, s. f. preoccupation. 
pr^opiner, v. n. to give o.'s opinion 

before another ; see p r ^ - and o p i n e r. 
prftopinant, s. m. previous speaker, 

last speaker. 

preparer, v. a. pr. to prepare; prae- 
par are, to get ready beforehand, 
see pr^- and parer. 

priparatif, s. m. preparation, prepa- 

priparatien, s. f. preparation; prae- 
paratio, -onis. 

priparatoire, adj. preparatory. 
preponderant, e, adj. preponderant, 
prevailing; praeponderans, -an- 
tis, pr. p. of prae-ponderare, 
to be of greater weight, see pr6- 
and ponderer. 

pripondtouioe, s. £ preponderance; 
It. preponderanza. 

proposer, v. a. to place before, to 
place over; praeponere, seepre- 
and poser. 

priposi, 8. m. superiour, chief, 
proposition, 8. f. preposition; prae- 
positio, -onis. 

prepuce, s. m. prepuce, foreskin; 
praeputium, prae, for, noaO-iov, 
dim. of noad'rjj the foreskin. 

pr^rogratiye, s.t'. prerogative; prae- 
rogativus, prae-rogare, to ask 
before; comp. abroger, inter- 
roger, etc. 

prds, prep, near, close, by ; It. p r e s s o ; 
pressum, p. p. of premere, to 
press; comp. pros que. 

pr^sager, v. a. to presage, to fore- 
bode; prae- sag ire, to feel be- 
forehand, prae, before, sagire, 

i to perceive quickly; comp. sag ace. 
presage, s. m. presage, t'orebodiDg; 

presbyte, adj. presbytic, far-sighted; 
nQS6§vT7jg, ngiafivg, an old man, 
(one who sees like an old man). 

presbytdre, s. m. parsonage, vicarage, 
presbytery; ngscpwr^giov , a council 
of elders, see prec, comp. pr^tre. 

prescience, s. f foreknowledge, pre- 
science; prae, before, scientia, 
knowledge; comp. science. 

prescription, s. f. prescription, limi- 
tation; praescriptio, -onis, prae- 
scribere, see next w. 

prescrire, v. a. n. to prescribe, to or- 
der; praescribere, prae, before, 
scribere, to write, comp. ^crire. 

pr6s6ance, s.f. precedence, presidency; 
see pre and seance; comp. pri- 

pr^senee, s. f. presence; praeseu- 

tia, praesens, see next w. 
present, e, adj. present; praesens, 

•entis, pr.p. of prae-esse, to be 

present, s. m. present, gift; see next 


presenter, v. a. to present, to offer; 
M.L. praesentare; praesens, see 

present, s. m s. th. 

presentable, adj. presentable ; see pre- 

prtentation, s. f. presentation ; see 

prisentement, adv. at present, now. 

preserver, v. a. to preserve, to keep; 
M.L. praeservare; prae, before, 
servare, to save. 

prOservatenr, trice, a^j. preservative. 

prtarvatif^ ve, a^j* ana s. m. pre- 

— 209 — 

pr^sider, ▼. a. n. to preside, to di* 
rect; prae-sidere, to sit before, 
sedere, to sit. 
prteidenee, s. f. presidency ; see next w. 
prudent, s. m. president, speaker (of 
the house of Commons); p rae si- 
den s,entis, pr. p. ofpraesidere. 
prteidial, s. m. presidial. (coart of ju- 
dicature); praesidialis, praesi- 
dium, defence. 
pr^somptif, ye, adj. presumptive, pre- 
sumed, apparent; prae sum pt ivu s, 
praesumptns, p. p. of praesu- 
mere, see pr^sumer. 

pr^somption, s.f. presumption; prae* 
sumptio, -onis, a taking before- 
hand, praesumere^ see pr6su- 

pr^somptaeux, se, adj. presumptuous, 
presuming; see prec. 

presquc, adv. almost, nearly ; see pr & s 
and que. 

pressant, e, adj. pressing, urgent; 
see presser. 

presse, s. f., press, crowd, printing 
press* newspapers, press-gang; see 

pressentiment, s. m. presentiment, 
misgiving; see pr6- and sentiment 

pressentir, v. a. to have a presenti- 
ment of, to forbode; praes entire, 
see pr^- and sentir. 
presser, v. a. n. to press, to squeeze, 
to urge, to hasten; pressare, freq. 
of premere; comp. pr^s. 

prenion, s. f. pressure; pressio, 

preuoir, s. m. press (for expressing 
juico, etc.). 

pretBorer, v. a. to press out, to squeeze. 

preAsurage, s. m. pressure of fruit; 
see also pressant, presse. 

prestanee, s. f. imposing deportment, 
bearing; p rae stan tia , preeminence, 
praestans, -antis, pr. p. of prae- 
stare, to stand before, comp. prater. 

prestation, s.f. prestation, taking an 
oath; praestatio, -onis, prae- 
stare, see prater. 

preste, acy. agile, nimble, quick; M.L. 
praestus;praesto,at hand, ready, 
comp. prfet 

prerteue, s. f. agility, nimbleness, 

prestidigitateur, s. m. juff|(ler, conjuror ; 

pr ae 8 to,seeprec. and diffitus, finder. 

prettidifltatloB, s. f. cox^axing, Jaggbng. 

prestige, s. m. prestige, fascination, 
illusion; praestigia, a deception, 

preitigienz, te, adj. enchanting, fas- 
cinating, illusive. 

pr^samer, v. a. to presume, to sup- 
pose; prae-sumere, to take be- 
fore; comp. assumer. 
prtenmable, a^. presumable; see also 
pre^iomptif, pr^somption, pre- 

pr^supposer, y. a. to presuppose; see 
pre- and supposer. 
prteupposition, s. f. presupposition; 
see supposition. 

presare, s. f. runnet; ace. to Nicot 
prensura, prensare, prehen- 
sare, freq. of prehcndere; see 

prfit, e, adj. ready, prepared; Prov. 
prest; It. Sp. Port, presto; M.L. 
praestus; see preste. 

prdt, s. m. loan, (mil.) advance -money 
see prater. 

pr6tendre, v. a. n. to pretend, to 
maintain, to intend; prae-tendere, 
prae, before, tendere, to stretch, 
to tend to. 

pritendant, ». m. e, s. f. pretender, 
claimant, suitor. 

pritenda, s. m e, s. f. intended (future 
husband, wife). 

pritentieax, le, adj. pretentious, as- 
suming; praetentum, sup. of prae- 

pretention, s. f. pretension, claim; 
see prec. 

prater, v. a. to lend, to attribute, to 
take (oath); prae-stare, to stand 
before, to give. 

pr^t^rit, s. m.' preterit; praeter- 
itum, sup. of praeter-ire, to go 
past, praeter, beyond, ire, to go. 
prMrition, s. f preterition, preter- 
mission; praeteritio, -onis. 

pr^teur. s. m. pre tor; praetor, one 
who is before, a praetor, prae, before. 

pr^tear, s. m. se, s. i. lender; see 

pr^texte, s. m. pretext, pretence; 

praetextum, prae-texere, to 

weave before, to pretend, 
pr^texter, v. a. to pretend, to feign 

to sham. ' 
pr^toire, s. m. praetorium; praeto- 

rium, a generals tent, praetor, see 



^ MO — 

pr^torlen, ne, adj. pretorian; prae- 

torianus; see prec. 
prdtre, s.m. priest, clergyman; O.F. 
prestre, prebstre; presbyter; 
see presbyte and presbyt^re. 
prttraiUe, s. f. priesthood, 
prdtreise, s. f. priestess, 
prdtriie, s. f. priesthood. 
preaye, s. f. proof, evidence; O.F. 

preux, adj. and s.m. valiant, gallant, 
doughty; O.F. pron, preu; Et. d. 

pr^vaioir, v. n. to prevail; prae- 
valere, comp valoir. 

pr^variqaer, v. n. to prevaricate; 
prae-varica^ri, to walk crookedly, 
not to act in a straightforward 
manner; prae, before, varicare, 
to straddle, varus, having the 
legs turned inwards, different, 
prtvarioattftty, adj. ana s. m. preva- 
privarieatioB, s. f. prevarication. 

pr^venir, v. a. to anticipate, to pre- 
vent, to be before, to prepossess, 
to prejudice; prae-venire, to 
come before, to outstrip. 

prtvenant, e, adj. prepossessing, en- 
gaging, predisposing. 

pr^enaaee, s. f. prepossessing, kind 
attention; see prec. 

prtventif, ve, adj. preventive (im- 
prisonment), before trial. 

prtveation, s. f . prevention, preventing, 
bias, prosecution (before a police- 
court); prae, before, ventio, 
-onis, a coming. 

prtvenu, e, adj. accused, defendant. 

provision, s. f. prevision; prae vi- 
sum, sup. of prae-videre, to 
see beforehand; see next w.; comp. 
pr^Toir, V. a. to foresee; prae-vi- 
dere, prae, before, videre, to 
see; comp. voir, 
pr^voyant, e, adj. provident, 
pr^voyanoe, s. f. foresight. 

prevdt, s. m. provost; O.F. prevost; 
It. prevosto; Sp. Port, preboste; 
praepositus, p. p. of prae- 
p on ere, to place before. 
pr^voti, 8. f. provostship. 

prier, v. a. n. to pray, to beg, to 

solicit, to invite; 0.F. preier, 

proier; precari; comp. nier, 

pller, ployer. 

pri«-dien» s. m. prie-dieu; see die a. 

pri^re, b. f. prayer, request; It 


precari; see prier. 
prieur, s. m. prior;- li. priore, 

priojT, former, first. 
prieur^ s. m. priory ; M.L. prioratus. 
primaire, adj. primiary, elementary; 

primarius, primus, first; eomp. 

primat) s. m. primate; primas, 

-atis, primus^ firait. 
primatie, s. f. primatesbip, primacy. 

primaat^9 s. f. primacy, sa|Mremacy; 
O.F. primalte; MX. primalitas, 
primalis, first; see prec. 

prime 9 s.f. premium, bounty, prime; 
primus, nrst. 

prime abord, (de), adv. at first sight; 
O.F. prime, first, prime; primus, 
and abord; see aborder. 

primer, v. a. n. to excel, to sur- 
pass, (play) to lead; O.F. prime, 
first; see prec. 

prime-sautier, dre, adj. inconsid- 
erate thoughtless; O.F. prime- 
saut; see primer, and saut. 

primear, s. f. early part of the 
season, early fruit, vegetables, etc., 
see prec. 

primevdre, s. f. primrose, cowslip ; O.F. 
spring; primum ver, first spring. 

primidi} s. m. first day of the de- 
cade m the calender of the first 
French republic; primiis dies. 

primitif, ye, adj. primitive, native, 
primary; primitivus, primus, 

primogeniture, s. f. primogeniture; 
primogenitus, primus, first, 
genitus, born, p. p. of gignere, 
to be bom. 

primordial, e, adj. primordial; prim- 
ordialis, prim or d i um , the be- 
ginning, ordiri, to begin. 

prince, s. m. prince; It. principe; 
prlnceps, primus, nrst, and 
capere, to take. 
pri]i«eise» c. f. princess; It. princi- 
prineiar, ire, adj. princely. 

prineipal, e^ adj. principal, chief; 

principalis, princeps, first, 

see prec. 
prineipal, s. m. principal thing, chief, 

prineipaat^,, s. f. princedom > princi- 

palityv 0.F; prineipalt^. 

— 311 - 

prlDeipe^ n, m. origine, |Nrmeiple; 

principinm, princeps, nrat; see 

printanier, dre, adj. vernal, spring; 

see next w. 

printempS) s.m. spring, spring-tfane-, 

primnm tempus, first season. 
priorite. s. f. priority, anteriority; 

It. priorita; prior, former. 
piis, e, p. p. of prendre; pren- 

snm, p. p. of prendere, see 


prise, s. f. taking, capture, prize, 
' pinch (of snuff); see prec. 
priser, v. n. to take snuff. 
piiser, y. a. to appraise (goods), to 
estimate, to value, to prize; O.F. 
pris; see prix, comp. m^pris. 
priste, s. f. appraisement, 
priseur, le, adj. appraiser, auctioneer. 
piisme, s. m. prism ; p r i s m a : nQ^tfpta, 
ng^m, to saw. 
prismatiqiie^ adj. prismatic. 

prison, s. f. prison, goal; Sp. pri- 
sione;prensio, -onis.prensum; 
see pris; comp. emprisonner. 
prisonnier, s. m. km, s. f. prisoner. 

priyatif, ve, adj. privative; priva- 
tivus; privu's, separate. 

privatioiij s. f. deprivation, privation; 
privatio, -onis, privare, see 

privaut^, s. f. extreme familiarity, 
liberty; see next w. 

priv^, e, adj. private, privy, (of ani- 
mals) tame; privatns, privare; 
see next w. 

priver, v. a. to deprive, to tame; 
privare, to separate, to deprive, 
privus, separate; comp. appri- 

privilege, 8. m. privilege, preroga- 
tive; privilegium, a law against 
or in favour of an individual; pri- 
vus, private, lex, legis, law. 

priviUgi^, e, adj. privilegea. 

privH^er, V. a. to privilege. 

prix, s.m. price, prize, reward; O.F. 
preis, pris; Prov. pretz; Sp. 
prez, precio; It. prezzo; pre- 

probable, adj. probable, likely; pro- 
babilis, probare, to try, see 

pfobftbUiii, ». f. probability, UkeU- 
bood; probabilitas. 

pr^batloii, s. L probation; pr^ba- 
tio, -onis, a trying, probare, 
to try; see prouver. 

probatoire, adj. probatory; pro- 
batorius, probare; sea preo. 

probe, adj. honest, upright, of prob- 
ity; probus. 

probtt^ s. f. probity, integrity, hon* 
esty; probitas. 

probl^me, s. m. problem ; pr o b 1 e m a , 
nQo§lrifi,oc , anything that projects, 
a task, a problem, 9qo§M<», to 
put forward, 
problimatiqiie, adj. problematical; 

proe^der, v. n. to proceed, to orig- 
inate; pro-cedere, togo forward. 
proeMure, s.f. proceedings, pleadings. 
proems, s. m. law -suit, trial, pro- 
cess; processus, p. p. of pro- 
cedere; see prec. 
proeMiif, ve, adj. litigious, 
proete -verbal, s. m. record, proceed- 
ings, journal; see verbal 
procession, s. f. procession; pro- 
cessio, -onis, procede^e; see 
proeesfionaeUemeiU, adv. in procession 

proehain, e, adj. near, next, s. m. 
fellow -creature; proximus, sup. 
of propius, see next w« 
proehainement, adv. shortly, soon. 
proeke, adj. and prep, near, approach- 
ing;propius,comp.of prope.near, 
comp. approcher, reproenef. 
proches, s.m. pi. relatives, relations. 
proclamer, v. a. to proclaim, to 
make known; pro-clamare, to 
call out. 
proclamation, s.f. proclamation; pro- 
clamatio, -onis. 

proconsul, s. m. proconsul; pro- 
proconsulaire, adj. proconsular; pro- 
proeonsnlat, s. m. proconsulship. 
proer^er, v. a. to procreate, to beget; 
pro-creare, to bringforth; comp. 
procrtotion, s. f. procreation; pro- 
creatio, -onis. 

procurer, v. a. to procure, to obtain; 
pro-curare, to take care of in 
place of another, pro, for, cu- 
rare, to care. 

proouratesr, s. m. procurator*, pro- 


— 21J _ 

proeuatioi, s. f. procuration, power, 
proxy; procnratio, -onis. 

proeureur, s. m. procurator, solicitor, 
prodigralit^9 s. f. prodigality, lavish- 
ness, extravagance ;prodigalitas, 
prodigere; see prodigue. 
prodige, 8. m. prodigy, wonder; 
prodigium, pro, before, and root 
dig or die, point out, (nence di- 
gitus, finger). 

prodigievz, se, adj. prodigious, won- 
derful, stupendous; prodiglosus. 

prodigue, adj. and s. m. prodigal, 
spendthrift; prodigus, prod- 
igere, to drive forth, to squander, 
pro, forth, agere, to drive. 

prodiguer, v. a. to lavish, to throw 
away; comp. also prodigality. 
produeteor, trice, adj. and s. pro- 
ductive, producer; productor, 
productus, p. p. of producere; 
see produire. 

produetibte, adj. producible. 

productif, ▼•, adj. productive. 

productioii, s. f. production; pro- 
ductio, -onis, producere; see 
produire and produit. 

produire, v. a. to produce, to bring 

forth; pro-ducere, to lead or 

bring forth. 
prodnit, 8. m. produce, proceeds, 

product; pro due turn, p. p. of 

producere; see prec. 
preeminent, e, adj. prominent; pro, 

before, and eminens, -entis, see 


pro^minenee, s. f. prominence; pro, 


profane, adj. profane; profanus, 
prop, before the temple, hence, 
not sacred, fanum, a temple, fari, 
to speak. 

profkaateur, s. m. profaner. 

profanation, s. f. profanation; pro- 
fanatio, -onis. 

profaner, v. a. to profane; profa- 
prof^rer, v. a. to utter, to speak; 
pro-ferre, to bring forth. 

profds, esse, adj. and s. (rel. ord.) 
professed, professed friar, nun; 
professus, p. p. of profiteri, 
to declare publicly, tateri, to 
confess, fari, to speak, 
professor, v. a. n. to profess, to be 
a professor ef, to declare, to teach. 

proflMiettr, s. m. professor, teacher 

profession, s. f. profession, declara- 
tion, trade; professio, -onis. 

professionnel, le, adj. professional. 

professorat, s. m. protessorship. 

profiier, v. a. to profile; It. pro- 
filare, see next w. 

profii, s.m. profile; It. profile; Sp. 
perfilo; per, pro, filum, a thread. 

profit, s. m. profit, gain, utility, ad- 
vantage; It. profetto; profectus, 
advance, p. p. of proficere, to 
make way, face re, to make, 
profitable, adj. profitable, 
profiter, p. n. to profit, to gain, to 

profond, e, ad^. deep, profound; 
pro-fundus, fundus, the bottom 
of any thing. 

profondeur, s.f. depth, profoundness; 
comp. also approfondir. 

profas, e, adj. profuse, lavish; pro- 
fusus, p. p. of pro-fundere, to 
pour out. 

proAition, s.f. profusion; profusio, 

prog^niture, s. f. progeny, offspring; 
progenitus, p. p. of pro-gig- 
nere, to beget; comp. primo- 

prognostic, s. m., see pronostic. 

programme, s. m. programme, play- 
bill; ngoygcc^na, a public procla- 
mation, or notice, ngo-ygaqxa, to 
write before. 

progrds, s. m. progress, course, im- 
provement , proficiency ; progres- 
sus, p. p. ofpro-gredi, to march 
forwards, gradi, to take steps, 
to step. 
progreiter, v. n. to progress, to im- 

progressif, ve, adj. progressive, 
progression, s. f. progression; pro- 
gressio, -onis. 

prohiber« v. a. to prohibit, to forbid; 
pro-hibere, to hold or keep at 
a distance, habere, to have, to hold, 
prohibitif, ve, adj. prohibitive, pro- 
prohibition, s. f. prohibition; pro- 
hibitio, -onis. 

proie, 8. f. prey; praeda, booty, 
ace. to Pott from prehendere, 
to take, ace. to others from prae- 
dium, proprety; comp. foin. 

— 218 — 

projeettle, s. m. projectile; pro- 
jectum, sup. of pro-jicere, to 
throw forth, j a cere, to throw. 

projection, s. f. projection; pro- 
jectio, -onis, a throwing for- 
ward, projicere, see pree. 

projet, 8. m. project, design, scheme; 

projectum, see projectile, 
projeter, v. a. n. to project, to throw 
out, to delineate, to scheme. 

prol^gomdnes, s. m. prolegomena; 
ngoXsydiisva, rtgo-XByoDy to say be- 

prol^taire, adj. and s. m. proleta- 
rian, proletary; proletarius, a 
citizen of the lowest class, who 
from his poverty, was useful to 
the state only by producing child- 
ren, proles, offspring. 

prolifique, adj. prolific; proles, 
offspring, face re, to make. 

prolixe, adj. prolix^ diffuse; pro- 
lixns, stretched tar- out, laxus, 
wide, loose. 
prolixity, s. f. prolixity; prolixitas. 

prologue 9 s. m. prologue; ngo-Xoyog, 
preface. nQoliyoi, to foretell, to 
say before. 
prolonger, v.a. to prolong, to lengthen; 
It. prolongare; pro, forth, lon- 
gus, long. 

prolongation, s. f. prolongation, pro- 

prolongement, s. m. prolongation 
(space added). 

promener, v.a. to take for a walk, 
to take out (animals), pr. v. to 
walk, to promenade; M.L. pro- 
. minare, see mener. 
promenade^ s. f. walk, airing, prom- 

promeneur, s. m. se, s. f. walker, 
one who takes (others) out. 
promenoir, s. m. place for walking, walk. 

promesse, s. f. promise, word, prom- 
issory note; M.L. promissa; 
promissio, promissum, sup. of 
pro-mittere, see next w. 

promettre, v. a. to promise; pro- 
mittere, to send forth, to pro- 
mise, comp. mettre. 

prominent, prominence, see pree- 
minent, pro6minence. 

promis, e, adj. promised, p. p. of 
promettre; promissum, p.p. of 
promittere, see promettre. 

promiscnit^, s. f. promiscuity; pro- 
miscuus, mixed, miscere, to 

promiRsion, s. f . promise ;promis8io, 
-onis, see promesse. 

promontoire, s. m. promontory; pro- 
montorium, pro, for, before, 
mons, mentis, a mountain. 

promotenr, s. m. promoter; M.L: 
promoter; promotus, p. p. of 
promovere, see promouvoir. 

promotion, s. f. promotion; seepreo. 

promouvoir, v.a. to promote; pro- 
movere, to move forwards, comp. 

prompt, c, adj. prompt,' speedy, 
hasty; promptus, brought out, 
p. p.' of promere, contr. of pro- 
em ere, to take or bring out. 
promptitude, s. f. promptitude, readi- 
ness, hastiness. 

promulguer, v. a. to promulgate; 

promulgare (for provulgare), 

to make known, t u 1 g u s , the people. 

promnlgatioxi, s. f . promulgation ; p r o - 

mulgatio, -onis. 

prdne, s. m. sermon; praeconium, 
the office of a public crier, p r a e c o, 
a crier, a herald. 

pr6ner, v. a. to preach to, to extol. 

prftneur, s. m. preacher, extoller. 

pr onom, s. m. pronoun ; pronomen, 
pro, for, nomen, name, 
pronominal, e, adj. pronominal; pro- 

prononcer, v. a. to pronounce, to 
speak, to declare; pro-nuntiare, 
to make publicly known, to pro- 
claim, nun tins, that announces, 
see nonce. 

prononciation, s. f. pronunciation, 
utterance, giving judgement) ; pro- 
nuntiatio, -onis. 

pronostic, s. m. prognostic, presage, 
foretoken; wpoyvaxTrmo's , ngo-yi- 
yv(6a%(o, to know beforehand, 
pronostiqner, v. a. to prognosticate, 
to predict. 

propagande, s. f. propaganda; Con- 
gregatio de propaganda fide, 
society for propagating the faith 
see propager. 

propagandisme, s. m. propagandism. 

propagandi4t6, s. m. propagandist. 

— 214 — 

in^opafer, v. a. te propagate, to 
diffase; propagare. 

propagateur, 8. m. propagator; pro- 

propagation, s. f. propagation, diflfu- 
siou; propagatio, -onis. 
propeB8lO]i9 8. 1. propensity, inclina- 
tion, propension; propensio, 
-onis, pro-pendere, propen- 
8 urn, to hang forth. 
proph^te, 8. m. prophet; propheta; 
HQotfqtrig, one that predicts, ngo- 
<pfjp^, to say beforehand. 

yropUtMM, 8. f. prophetess. 

proph^tio, 8. f. prophecy. 

proph^qiiB, adj. prophetic, JtQotpri- 

prophAtiier, v. a. to prophesy. 

prophylaetiqae, adj. prophylactic, 
preventive; ngoqtvXaxxiyidQ ^ ngo- 
9vla#«<», to guard against. 

propiee, adj. propitious, favourable; 
propitius, prope, near, 
propitiation, s. f. propitiation; pro- 
pitiatio, -onis. 

.propitiatoire, adj. propitiatory. 

proportion, s. f. proportion, relation, 
ratio; pro-portio, -onis, sym- 
metry, analogy, proportion, pro, 
fore, portio, part. 

^^portionnol, le, adj. proportional, 
proportionner, v. a. to proportion. 

propos, s. m. discourse, conversation, 
thing said in conversation, idle talk ; 
propositum, design, purpose, p. 
p. of proponere, see next w. 

' propos, (k), adv. to the purpose, 

proposer, v. a. to propose, to move, 
to offer; proponere, proposi- 
tum, to put forth, 
proposition, s. f. proposition, pro- 
posal, motion; propositio, -onis. 
propre, adj. own, self-same, proper, 
clean; proprius. 
propret, te, adj. neat, tidy. 
propretd, 8. f. cleanliness, neatness, 

propri^t^, s. f. property, ownership, 
peculiarity, propriety; propr io- 
tas, proprius, see propre. 
propri^tairo, s. m. owner, proprietor. 
prorata, s. m. proportion, prorata; 
pro rata, according to the rate. 
proroger, v. a. to prolong, to pro- 
rog[ue; pro*rogare, pro, for- 
wara, rogare, to ask. 

prorogatif, ve, adj. that prolongs, that 
protracts; prorogativus. 

prorogation, s. f. prolongation, pro- 
rogation; prorogatio, -onis. 
pr osaiqae, ad j . prosaic ; p r o s a'i c u s ,* 
prosa, see prose. 

prosaYsme, s. m. prosaic form, pro- 
saism; prosa, see prose. 

prosateur, s. m. prose-writer; prosa, 
see prose. 

proseription, s. f. proscription; pro* 
Bcriptio, -onis, proscribere, 
see next w. 

proserire, v. a. to proscribe, to 
outlaw, to banish; pro-scribere, 
to write before, to post up, to 

proicrit, adj. and s. m. outlaw, exile; 
proscriptus, p. p. of proscri- 

prose, s.f. prose; prosa for prorsa, 

from prorsus, contr. of pro"- 

versus, forwards. 
proseeteur, s. m. preparator of 

anatomy , dissector ; prosector, 

pro-secare, to cut off. 

proselyte, b. m. f. proselyte; M.L. 
proselytus; ngoaTjlvtog, come to, 

a new comer, rcgog-igx^l'^h ^^ 
come or go to. 
pros^lytisme, s. m. proselytism. 

prosodie, s. f. prosody; prosodia; 
ngoamSia, the tone or accent of 
a syllable, prosody, ngtfg, to, dSi] 
a song. 
prosodiqno, adj. prosodical. 

prospectus, s. m. prospectus, hand- 
bill; prospectus, a prospect, p. 
p.of pro-spicere, to look forward. 

prospdre, adj. prosperous, thriving; 

prosper, pro, for, spes, hope. 
prosp^rer, v n. to prosper, to thrive; 

prosperare, to cause to succed. 
prospiritd, s. f. prosperity; pro- 


prosterner, (sc), pr. v. to prostrate 
o.'s self, to throw o.*s self down 
(as in adoration); pro-sternere, 
to throw to the ground, 
prostemation, s. f. prosternation. ^ 
prostemement, s. m. prosternation 

prostltuer, v. a. to prostitute; pro- 
stituere, to place before, to ex- 
pose, statuere, to place, sta- 
tus, see 6tat. 

— 215 — 

proatitoie, s. f. prostitute; prosti 
tuta, p. p. of prostituere. 
pnwt^tion, s. f. prostitution; pre- 
stitutio, -onis. 

prostration 9 s. f. prostration, pro- 
sternation; prostratum, sup. of 
prosternere, see prosterner. 

prote, B. m. overseer, foreman of a 
printing-office; ngmtog, the first. 

proteeteur, s. m. and adj. protector, 
patron , protective ; protector, 
protectum, sup. of protegere, 
see prot6ger. 
protectorat, s. m. protectorat. 
proteetrice, s. f. and adj. patroness, 

protection) s. f. protection, patron- 
age; protectio, -onis, protec- 
tum, see prec. 
protectioimiste, s. m. protectionist. 

prot^ger, v. a. te protect, to pa- 
tronize; pro-tegere, to cover 
before, to protect, 
prot^, s. m. e, s. f. protege, pro- 

protestant, e, adj. and s. protestant; 
originally one of the reforniei-s of 
North Germany, adherents to Luther, 
who, in the year 1529 protested 
against the decree of the Imperial 
diet held at Spires, which pronibit- 
ed all innovations in church- mat- 
ters, see protester, 
protestanttsme, s. m. protestantism. 

proteistation, s. f. protestation, pro- 
test; protestatio, -onis, pro- 
testare, see next w. 

protester 9 v. a. n. to protest; pro- 
te atari, pro, forth, testari,tobear 
witness, to attest, testis, a witness. 

prot^t, s. m. protest; see prec. 

protocole, s. m. register, protocol; 
M.L. protocollum; wpcSTOff, first, 
%(aXavy to glue, i. e. first sheet 
glued in a book. 

prototype, s. m. prototype; ngmtog, 
first, tvnogy a figure, an outline; 
comp. type. 

protuberance, s. f. protuberance; 
protuberans, pr. p. of pro- 
tuberare, to bulge out, tuber, 
a bump, see tubercule. 

prou, adv. much; probe, well. 

prone, s. f. prow; It. prua; Prov. 
Sp. Port, proa; prora, nQoigoiy 
w^o', before. 

pronesse, s. f. prowess, gallant feat; 
O.F. prou, see preux. 

prouver, v. a. to prove; O.F. p ro- 
ver, preuver; Prov. provar; 
pro bare, to try, to test, pro- 
bus, comp. probe. 

provenance, s. f. production, pro- 
duce; see provenir. 

ProvenQftl, e, adj. Provencial; of, or 
belonging to Provence in France. 

provende, s. f. provisions, proven- 
der; providenda, pro-videre, 
to see to beforehand, to provide. 

provenir, v. n. to proceed from, to 
come from; pro- venire, to come 

proverbe, s. m. proverb; prov er- 
bium, verbum, a word, 
proverbial, e, adj. proverbial; pro- 

provi4ence, s. f. Providence; pro- 
videntla. foresight, pro-videre 
to see to Deforehand, to provide, 
providentiel, Is, adj. providential. 

provin, s. m. layer of vines; O.F. 
prouvain, provin; Prov. pro- 
baine; It. propaggine; pro- 
pago, -inis, a layer of a plant 
provigner, v. a. to layer vines, v. n. 
to multiply. 

province, s. f. province, country 
(not the capital) ;provincia, contr. 
of proviaentia, a charge, govern- 
ment, a province, 
provincial, e, adj. and s. provincial; 

previsenr, s. m. provisor, principal 
of a government-college in France; 
provisor,aforeseer, pro-videre, 
to see to beforehand. 

provision, s. f. provision, stock, 
supply; provisio, -onis, a fore- 
seemg, providere, see prec. 
proviflionnel, le, adj. provisional, 
provisoire, adj. provisory, provisional. 

provisorat, s. m. headmastership 
of a college, see proviseur. 

provoqner, v. a. to provoke, to 
challenge, to call forth; pro-vo- 
care, to call forth, 
provocateur, trice, s. and adj. pro- 
voking, instigating; provocate r. 
provocation, s. f. provocation, chal** 
lenge; provocatio, -onis. 

proxlmitl, s. f. proximity, vicinity; 
proximitas, proximus, sup. or 
prope, near. 

prnde, adj. and s. f. prudish, prude; 
pruduB, prudens, foreseeing, 
see prudent. 

— 216 — 

pniderie, s. f. prudery. 

prudemment, adv. prudently, dis- 
creetly; see next w. 

prudent, e, adj. prudent, discreet; 
prudens. -entis, contr. of pro- 
videns, roreseeing, pr. p. of pro - 
videre, see providence, 
pnidoioe, s. f. prudence, discretion; 

pruderie, s. f. prudery; see prude. 

prudHiomme, s. m. good and true 

man, expert; see prude, which 

orig. meant wise, sensible, and 


prudlionmiit, s. f. probity, honesty. 

prune, s. f. plum (fruit); prunum. 

pmneau, s. m. prune; O.F. prunel; 
prunellus, dim. of prunus, 
prunum, see prec. 

prunelle, s. f. sloe, blackthorn, eye- 
ball; prunellus, see prec, comp. 
Ge. augapfel, apple of the eye. 
pmnellier, s. m. sloe -tree. 

pmnier, s. m. plum-tree; prunus, 
comp. prune. 

Prussien, ne, adj. and s. Prussian; 
Prusse, Prussia. 

pmsiiqae, adj. Prussic. 
psalmiste, s. m. psalmist; M.L. psal- 

mista; psalmus, see psaume. 
psalmodie, s. f. psalmody, singsong; 

fl>aXfitpd£a, ipalfidgf a psalm, oo^Tf, 

a song. 
psalmodier, v. n. to chant psalms, 

to drawl. 
psaume, s. m. psalm; psalmus; 

psautier, s. m. psalter, psalm-book; 

psalterium; tpaXttJQiov, ^tfjalnjg, 

a harper, 'V^aXAco, to play, lat^r, to 

sing to the harp. 

pseudo-, a prefix signifying false, 

or counterfeit; tpsydtigy 'tifsvdoa, to 

pseudonyme, adj. pseudonymous; 

'tftevdi^g^ see prec. and Svofia, a name. 
Psyche, s. f. Psyche, cheval-glass; 

iffvxii^ the soul. 
piyehiqut, adj. spiritual, mental. 

psychologie, s. f. psychology; ^fffvxijy 
soul, mind, Xdyo^, a discourse. 
pfyohologiqn«, adj, psychological, 
psjehologifte, pfyohologue, s. m. psy- 
pu, p. p. of poavoir, s. th. 
puant, e, adj. «tinking, offensive; 
see puer. 

puaattur, s. f. offensive odour, stench. 

pubdre, adj. that has attained the 

age of puberty, nubile, pubescent , 

Euber, -eris, pubes, see pu- 
pnberti, s. f. puberty; pubertas. 
pubescent, e, adj. pubescent; pu- 
bescens, pr. p. of pubescere, 
to become pubescent, pubes, the 
hair which appears on the body 
at the age of puberty. 

public, que, adj. public, notorious; 

publicus, contr. of populicus, 

populus, people, 
public, s. m. public. 
pnbUcain, s. m. publican (farmer of 

the Roman taxes), usurer; publi- 

publication , s. f . publication ; p u b 1 i - 

catio, -onis, publicare, see 

puUieiste, s. m. publicist, 
publicity, s. f. puolicity. 

publier, v. a: to publish, to make 

known; publicare, publicus, 

see public. 
publiqnement, adv. publicly; see 

puce, s. f. flea; It. pulce; pulex, 

puce, adj. puce, puce -coloured. 
pueeau, s. m. young simpleton; O.F. 

pucel; puUicenus, dim. of 

fuUus, young animal, see pou- 
ain. • 
pucelle, s. f. maid, maiden; It. 
puoelage, s.m. maidenhood, virginity. 

puceron, s. m. puceron, plant-louse; 
see puce. 

pudeur, s. f. pudicity, shamefacedness, 
modesty; pudor, pudere, to be 

pudibond, e, adj. modest, bashful; 
pudibundus, pudere, see prec. 

pudicit6, s. f. chastity, modesty; 
pudicitia, pudicus, see next w. 

pudique, adj. chaste, modest; pu- 
dicus, pudere, see pudeur. 

puer, V. n. to stink; O.F. puir; 

putere; wv^-o, to rot; comp. 

pu6ril, e, adj. juvenile, puerile, 

childish; puerilis, puer, pueri, 

a child, a boy. 
pafoiliti, 8. f. puerility, childishness; 


— 217 — 

pnerp^rale, adj. f. puerperal ; puer- 
peru8,a,am, pertaining to child- 
oirth, puer, a child, par ere, to 

pagilat, 8. m. pugilism; pugilatus, 
a boxing, pugil, a Doxer, pu- 
gnus, a fist. 

putn^, 6, adj. and s. later born, 
younger brother or sister; post 
natuB, see puis and n^. 

puis, adv. then, next^ afterwards; 

O.F. pues; Prov. pois; post. 
puiS) pnisse, etc., see pouvoir. 
pniser, v. a. n. to draw (water), to 
borrow, to take; see puits. 
pvisage, s. m. drawing water. 
pnisard, s. m. cesspool, water-sump. 

pnisque, conj. since, because; post- 
quam, see puis and que. 

piiissammcnt, adv.powerfully, mighti- 
ly, potently; see next w. 

puissant, e, adj. puissant, powerful, 
mighty, strong; O.F. poissant; 
possens for potens, posse, see 

puifsanM, s. f. puissance, power, 

puits 9 s. m. well, pit, shaft; O.F. 
puis, puiz;It.pozzo;Ge.pflitze; 
£. pit; puteus. 

pnlloler, v. n. to multiply rapidly, 
to swarm (be in abundance}, to 
pullulate; pullulare, to put forth, 
pullulus, dim. of pullus, see 

pulmonaire, adj. pulmonary; pulmo, 

-onis, see poumon. 
polmoiiie) s. f. consumption; pulmo, 

-onis, see poumon. 
pnlmonique , adj. consumptive. 

pnlpe, s. f. pulp; pulpa, the fleshy 

portion of animal bodies, 
pulpenz, se, adj. pulpous, pulp}^. 
pulsation, s. f. pulsation, throbbing; 

pulsatio, -onis, a knocking, 

pulsare freq. of pellere, see 


pnlv^riser, v. a. to pulverize; pul- 
verizare, pulvis, -eris, dust, 

• pulv^rin, s. m. priming-powder, prim- 

pidv^risation, s. f. pulverization. 

pnlT^rulent, e, adj. pulverulent; 
pulverulentus, full of dust, 
pulvis, see'prec. 

pnnais, e, adj. one whose nose emits 
a bad smell; Prov. putnais, 
putere see puer. 
pvnaise, s. f. bug. 

punch, s. m. punch (beverage); £. 

Eunch, supposed to be the 
ansc. panchan or pancha, five, 
the number of ingredients, of which 
it is composed. The fifth ingredient 
used by the Orientals is said to be 
pnnir, v. a. to punish; pun ire. 
pnnifgable, adj. punishable, 
punition, s. f. punishment. 
pnpille, s. f. pupil (of the eye) ; p u- 
pilla, dim. or pupa, a girl, the 
pupil of the eye „so called because 
it reflects the diminished image of 
the person who looks into it", 
comp. next w. 

pnpille, s. m. f. ward, pupil; pup il- 

lus, dim. of pu pus, a boy, a child; 

comp. prec. 

papiUaire, adj. pupillary. 

pupitre, s. m. desK, pulpit ; p u 1 p i t u m. 

pur, e, adj. pure, unadulterated; pu- 

por^e, s. f. soup (of peas, beans, etc.). 
puret^i s. f. purity; puritas. 

purser, v. a. to purge, to cleanse, 
to purify ; p u r g a r e, contr. of p u- 
rum agere, to make clean, 
pnrgatif, v«, adj. a. s. m. purgative, 
purgation, s. f. purgation, purgative ; 
purgatio, -onis. 
porgatoire, s. m. purgatory. 
purification, s. f. purification, puri- 

ficare, see purifier, 
purifier, v. a. to purify; purificare, 

purus, pure, facere, to make. 
purisme, s. m. purism; see pur. 
pniiste, s. m. purist; see pur. 

puritain, e, adj. and s. puritan, the 
advocate for purity in religion see 
puritanifme, s. m. puritanism. 

purpurin, e, adj. purplish; purpu- 
ra, see pour pre. 

purulent, e, adj. purulent; puru- 

lentus, pus, puris, pus. 
purolenee, s.f. purulence; purulen- 

pus. s. m. pus, matter; pus, see prec. 

pusiUanime, adj. pusillanimous, faint- 
hearted; pusillanimus, pusillus, 
very little, (pus us, a little boy,) 
animus, the mind. 

— 218 — 

8.f. pusillanimity, faint- 

pustule, 8. f. pustale, pimple; pus- 
tula, pus, see pus. 
Vutnltiuc, M, adj. pustulous. 

patatif^ Ye, acy. putative, reputed; 
pntativus, putare, putatum, to 

patois, s. m. polecat, fitchet, fitch; 
putere, to stink, comp. puer, be- 
cause of the disagreeable odour 
which it diffuses. 

putr^faetioD, s. f. putrefaction; pu- 
tref actum, sup. of putrefaoere, 
to make rotten, puter, rotten, fa- 
cere, to make. 

putr^fier, v. a. to putrefy; putre- 
f a cere, see prec. 

patride,adj. putrid; putridus, rot- 
ten, puter see prec. 
putridity s. f. putridy. 

pyirin^9 fl. m. pigmy, dwarf; pyg- 
maeus; Uvyficcioi^ the Pygmies, a 

fabulous dwarfish race, said to have 
existed in ancient times, especially 
in Africa, nvyft^-^^ a fist. 

pylore, s. m. pylorus; nvlagiig^ a 
gate-keeper, xvltj^ a gate, vi^og^ 
a guard. 

pyramlde, s. f. pyramid; pyramis, 
-id is; nvf^afiig^ orig. an £g7pt« 
pyramidal, e, adj. pyramidal, 
pyramider, v. n. to rise like a pyra- 

pyrite, s.f. pyrite; xvgitrjg^ of or in 
fire, nvQ, lightning, fire. 

pyrom^tre, s. m. pyrom^tre; nvQ, 
fire, /[ifrpov, a measure. 

pyroteclmle, s. f. pyrotechny, fire- 
works; nvQ, fire, riivrj, art. 
pyroteolmiqne, adj. pyrotechnical. 

pythonisse, s.f. pythoness, the priest- 
ess of Apollo at the oracle of Del- 
phi, witch; Tlvd-oov, the oldest name 
of Delphi. 


quadrag^naire, adj. and s. m. person 
of forty years of age; quadra- 
genanus, quadrageni, forty 

quadragesimal, e, adj. quadragesi- 
mal, lenten; quadragesima, for- 
tieth, comp. car^me. 

qaadrag^slme, s. f. first Sunday in 
Lent; quadragesima, see prec, 
about the fortieth day from Eas- 

quadrangnlaire, adj. quadrangular, 
four-cornered; quadra ngulus, 
quatuor, four, angulus, an angle. 

qoadratare, s. f. quadrature, clock- 
work; quadratura, quadratus, 
p. p. of quadra re, to make square, 
auadrum, a square, quatuor, 

qaadrUat^re, adj and .s. m. quadrila- 
teral;quaari-laterus, quatuor, 
four, latus, -eris, the side. 

qnadrige, s.m. quadriga (car); qua- 
drigae, cont. of quadrijugae, 
quatuor, four, jugum, a yoke. 

quadrille, s. m. quadrille; quadru- 
la, dim. of quadra, a square. 

quadrumaDe, adj. and s. m. quadru- 
is, four handed animal; q na- 
nus, quatuor, four, ma- 

quadmn^de, adj. and s.m. quadruped, 
four-footed; qua dm pes, -edis, 
quatuor, four, pes, pedis, foot. 

quadruple, adj. and s.m. quadruple, 
fourfold; quadrnplus, quatuor, 

qnadrapler, V. a. to quadruple, to in- 
crease four-fold. 

quai, s.m quay, wharf; (O.F. caye; 
Sp. cayo, a sand-bank,) £. quay; 
G. kai; D. kaai. 

quaker, s. m. quakeresse, s. f. quftk-* 
er, Friend; E. quake r. 
qoakarisme, s. m. quakerism. 
qualifier, v. a. to (jualify ; M.L. qna- 
lificare; qualis, such, facere, 
to make. 

qvalifleatif; Te, adj. qnalificadye, qual- 
qnmlifloation, 8. f. qualification, title. 

quality, 8. f. quality, title (of rank) ; 
qualitas, qualis, of what sort, 

quaud, adv. and conj., when, whenever, 
though, even; q nan do. 

quant, adv. in regard (to), regarding, 
as (to); O.F. adj. as many; quan- 

quaatas (foii\ adj. as many (times) ; 
see fois. 

— 219 — 

quantise, adj.and a.m. what nnmber, 

day of the month, 
quantiti, s. f. quantity, deal; quan- 


qaarantaine, s.f. forty, age of forty, 
quarantine; M.L. quarentana, 
quadragintana; quadraginta, 
forty (comp. next w.), the quaran- 
tine of ships having originally been 
of forty days* duration. 

qnarante, adj. forty; quadraginta. 

quarantine, adj. and s. m. fortieth. 
quart, s. m. quarter, quart; quar- 

quart, e, adj. forth, quartan. 

qnartaud, s. m. quarter of a hogs- 

qnarte, s. f. quart (two pints), quarte, 

quartaron, s. m. quarter of a pound, 
quarter of a hundred. 

quarteron, s. m. ne, s. f. quadroon. 

quartidi, s. m. fourth day of the de- 
ca<Je in the calendar of the first 
French republic; quartus dies. 

qnartier, s.m. quarter, district; quar- 
tarius, a fourth part, quartus, 
the fourth, 
qnartier-maltre, quartier-mestre , s. m. 
quarter-master; see maitre. 

qoartZf s. m. quartz; Ge. quarz. 
• qvartkevz, se, adj. quart zy. 
quasi, adv. almost; quasi, just as, 

quaterne, s. f. (lottery) quaternary; 
quaterni, four together, quatuor, 

quatorze, adj. and s. m. fourteen, four- 
teenth (day); quatuordecim. 
qoatoni^e, adj. and s.m. fourteenth. 

quatre, adj. and s. m. four, fourth; 

quatrain, s. m. quatrain; a piece of 

poetry consisting of four lines. 
qnatre- tempi, s. m. ember -days; 

occurring four times a year, see 


qoatre-yingt, adj. eighty, four score; 

lit. four -twenty, see vingt. 
quatre-visgt-diz, adj. ninety; lit. 

four - twenty - ten , see vingt and 


qoatrtoe, adj. and s. fourth, fourth 
qtetuor, s. m. quartet, quatuor; 
> quatuor, four. 

quayage, s. m. quayage, wharfage; 

see quai. 
que, pron. whom, that, which, when; 

quem, quam, quod, quos, 

quas, quae; quia, qui. 
que, conj. that, as, what; quid, 


quel, le, adj. what, whatever, who, 

which; qua lis. 
quelconque, adj. whatever, any; 

qualis-cunque, any - whatever. 
quelque, adj. some, any, few, what- 
ever; quail s-quam, any-how« 
qnelquefoii, adv. sometimes ; seefois. 
quelqu'un, unit, adj. somebody, some 
one, any one; see un. 

quenotte, s. f. milk-tooth; Et d- 
quenouille, s. f. distaff; rock; O.F. 
coloigne, conoille; It. cou- 
occhia; M.L. conucula for co- 
in cula, dim. of L.colus, a distaff. 
querelle, s. f. quarrel; querela, a 
complaint, queri, to complain, 
quereller, v. a. n. to quarrel with, 
to quarrel. 

quereUeur, se, adj. and s. quarrel- 
some, quarreller. 

quMr, V. a. to fetch; O.F. querre; 
quaerere, to search for. 

questeur, s.m. questor; quaestor, 
contr. of quaesitor, qnaesl- 
tum, sup. of quaerere, seeprec. 

question, s. f. question, query, tort- 
ure (inflicted judicially) ; quaes- 
tio, -onis, quaerere, see prec. 
questionnaire, s. m. examination ques- 
tions, book of questions, torturer 
(that applies the rack), 
questionner, v. a. to question, to 
ask questions, 
questionneur , s. m. ease, s. f. ques- 
tioner, querist. 

qnesture, s. f. questorship; quaes- 

tura, see questeur. 
qudte, s. f. search, quest, collection; 
O.F.queste; quaesta, forquae- 
sita, p. p. of quaerere, see 
qudter, v. a. to collect, to gather, 
qu^teur, s. m. eu8e,s. f. collector. 
queue, s. f. tail, rear (of armies), 
train of robes, etc., billiard -cue; 
O.F. coue, coe; Prov. coa; It. 
coda; Cauda, 
queuter, v. n. to strike two balls at 
once (billiards). 

— 220 — 

4iieiix,8.m.cook;It cuo c o; c oq nus, 
coquere. to cook; comp. cuire. 

qaeax, s. r. whetstone; Prov. cot; 
cos, cotis. 

qui, pron. who, whom, that, which; 
qui, quae, quod, quis, quid. 

qnieonqae, pron. whoever, whosoever, 
whomsoever, whichever; quicun- 

qnidam, s. m. qnidane, s. f. person 
(of name unknown), certain person; 

quiet, dte, adj. quiet, tranquil; quie- 
tus, p. p. of quiescere, to rest, 
comp. inquiet. 

qoiitode, s. f. quietude, tranquillity; 
M.L. quietudo. 

quigrnon, s. m. large piece of bread; 
for cuignon; cuneus, see coin. 

quille, s. f. keel; O.H G. chiol; It. 
chiglia; Sp. quilla; E- keel; 
Ge. kiel. 
qullage, s, m. keelage. 

quille, s. f. skittle; It. quiglia; 
O.H.G. chekil, chegil; M.H.G. 
and Ge. keg el. 
qvQlier, s. m. skittle-ground, skittles. 

qninaad, e, adj. abashed; Et. d. 

qnineaille, s. f. iron-mongery, hard- 
ware;forclincaille; Ge.klingen, 
to sound, comp. clinquant, 
qnineaillerie, s. f. iron-mongery, hard- 
quincaillier, s. m. iron-monger. 

qainconce, s,m. quincunx, an^arrange- 
ment of anything, as trees in a square, 
one being placed at each corner, and 
one in the middle; quincunx, 
uncis, quinque, five, uncia, 
ounce, the quincunx or piece of 
five ounces, was distinguished by 
five small balls to represent its value. 

qnine, s. m. five winning numbers^ 

ilott.), two fives (ttictrac); quini 
ive at a time; likequaterni, see 

quaterne, quinque, five. 
qninine, s. f. quinine; shortened from 

quinquina, s. th. 
qiunquag^naire, adj. of fifty years of 

age; quinauagenarius, quin- 

quageni. fifty each, quinqua- 

ginta, fifty. 
quinqaag^sime, s. f. quinquagesima, 

Shrove Sunday; about the fiftieth 

day before Easter, quinquage- 

simus, fiftieth. 
qidnqaet, s. m. Argand lamp, lamp; 

called so after M. Quinquet, who 

improved the Argand lamp by ad- 
ding the glass -tube or chimney, 
about 1785. 

qoinqoina, s. m. cinchona, bark-tree, 
quinquina, Peruvian bark; cin- 
chona; Peruvian kin a kin a. 

quint, adj. n. s. m. fifth; quint us. 

quintaine, s. f. quintain; Ed. d. 

quintal, s. m. hundred- weight, quin- 
tal; ace. to Menage a corruption 
of centum, hundred. 

quintan, s. m. quintain; Et. d. 

quinte, s. f. quinte, quint, tenor violin, 
fifth, see quint. 

quinte, s. f. cough, fit of coughing, 
crotchet, freak; Et. d. Scheler pro- 
poses O.D. kinkenforjkichen,Ge. 
Keichen, to pant; E. cough. (Ge. 
keich-husten, hooping-cough.) 

quintessence, s. f . quintessence ; q u i n- 
ta essentia, fifth essence, comp. 
essence, the fifth and last, or 
highest and most subtile, essence 
of any natural body. 

quintette, s. m. quintet; It. quin- 
tette; quinque, five. 

quinteux, se, adj. fantastic, crotch- 
ety; see quinte, crotchet. 

quintidi, s. m. fifth day of the decade 
of the calendar of the first French 
republic; quintus dies. 

quintuple, adj. five-fold, quintuple; 
quintuplex, quintus, fifth pli- 
care, to fold. 
qoixLtupler, v. a. to increase five-fold. 

quinze, adj. & s. m. fifteen, fifteenth; 

qninzain, adj. fifteen each (tennis). 
quinzaine, s. f. fifteen, fortnight 
qnijize-vingti, s. m. pi. asylum for the 
blind in Paris, receiving 300, or fifteen 
times — twenty persons, see vingt. 
qninzi^e, adj. and s. m. fifteenth. 

quiproquo, s. m. mistake; quis or 
quid pro quo, i. e. aliquis or 
aliquid pro aliquo, one for the 

quittance, s. f. receipt (for money 
paid) ; quittance ; M.L. quietancia, 
a quieting; quietus, see quitte. 
quittancer, v. a. to receipt. 

quitte, adj. quit, freed, quits; quie- 
tus, quiet, quiescere, to quiet, 
quitter, v. a. to leave, to q[uit. 

quel, pron. and int. what, which; quid, 

quoique, conj. although, though; 
quidquam. comp. quoi and que. 

— 221 — 

qaolibet, s. m. quibble, pun; auod 

libet, what pleases, i. e. any thing, 

no matter what. 
quote-part, s. f. quota, portion, share; 

quotus, quot, how many, see 

qnotldien, ne, adj. daily, quotidian, 

diurnal; quotidianus, quotidie, 

daily, quotus, what, dies, day. 
qaotient, s. m. quotient; quotiens, 

quo ties, how often. 
qaotit^, 8. f. quota, part, share; 

see quote. 


rab&cher, v. a. n. to repeat the same 
thing over and over again; Et. d. 
rabA«hage, s. m. tautology, repeat- 
ing the same thing over and over, 
rab&eheur, s. m. ease, s. f. eternal 

repeater of the same fching. 
rabais, s. m. diminution (of price or 
value), abatement, discount; see 

rabaisser, v. a. to lower, to abate, 
to depreciate, to underrate; see 
abaisser. baisser, bas. 

rabals, s. tn. 

rabainement, s. m. diminution of 
rabattre, v. a. to abate, to lower, 
to beat down, to come down; see 
re and abattre. 

rabftt, s. m. bands (worn by cler- 
gymen), roof Tof a tennis-court). 

rabftt-jole, s. m. kill-joy, damper; see 

rabbin, s. m. rabbi, rabbin; (a§§if 

Heb. rab, doctor, teacher, 
rabbiiiiqiie, adj. rabbinic. 
rabUnisme, s. m. rabbinism. 
rabbinitte, s. m. rabbinist. 
rab^tir, v. a. n. to stupefv, to stul- 
tify, to get stupid; see bete. 
rftble, s. m. oven-rake; O.F. roable, 
rouable; rutabulum, mere, to 
rake up. 

rftble. s. m. back (of hares, rabbits, 

etc) Et d. 
raUu, e, adj. thickbacked. 
rabonnir, v. a. to improve, to make 

better; re, (s. th.), and abonnir, 

see bon. 

raboter, v. a. to plane (see next w.) ; 

for rabouter, O.F. bouter, to 

push, see bout, comp. raboteux, 


rabot, s. m. plane (carpenters tool). 
raboteur* s. m. planer, moulding* 


rabottgrir, v. n. a. pr. v. to be stunted; 

Et. d. 
raboailldre, s. f. rabbit's nest. E. 

rabroaer, v. a. to scout, to snub; see 

raeaille, s. f. rabble, rubbish, trash; 

O.N. racki, dog, G;e. racker; £. 

rack, (rascal.) 

raccommoder, v. a. to mend, to repair, 
to reconcile; see re, and acco- 

raoeommodage, s.m. mending, repair- 
raooommodementy s. m. reconciliation, 
raooommodeur, s.m. se, s. f, mender, 
repairer, patcher. 

raeeorder, v. a. to join, to unite; see 
re, and accorder. 
raeeord, joining, union, accord, 
raeoordement , s. m. joining, union, 

raeeoureir, v. a. n. to shorten, to 

curtail, to abridge; see re, and 

raocoaroiisement, s. m. shortening, 

contraction, curtailment. 
raooouroi,s.m. (paint.) foreshortening, 


raccrocher, v. a. to hook on again,. 

to hang up again, to recover; see 

re, and acorocher. 
racbroe, s. m. lucky hit. 
race, s. f. race, breed; Prov. Sp. Port. 

raza; It. razza; O.H.G. reiza^ 

line, (lineage). 

raehat, s. m. repurchase, redemptiop ; 
F. racheter,( rachater. 

racheter, v. a. to repurchase, to re- 
deem; see re and acheter. 

raehitis, s. m. rachitis, rickets; fuzi- 

Tiff, (axig, the spine. 
raohitiqne, adj. rickety. 
raeine, s. f, root, radix; radiolna 

as it were, from radix, -iois. 

222 — 

raeler^ v« a. to serape off, to scrape 
' (play badly on the violin); O.F. 
raseler; It. raschiare; It. Port. 
Prov. rascar, to scrape; O.F. 
racher; rasiealare as it were, 
from radere, rasnm, to scrape, 
raeleur, s. m. scraper, 
xaoloir, s. m. scraper, road-scraper, 
raelure, s. f. scrapings. 
raeoler, v. a. to enlist; see col, lit. 
to take by the collar. 
tMtlaga, t. m. enlisting, 
xaooleur, s. m. recruiting officer. 
itteonter^ v. a. to relate ^ to recount, 
to tell; O.F. aconter, F. conter, 
see tb. and re. 

racontenr, s. m. le, s. f. relater, nar- 
iticornlXf v. a. to make as hard as 
hbrn, to harden, to shrivel; see re 
and corne. 

rae«miiiement, s. m. hardening, shriv- 
raequltter, v. a. to indemnify for a 
1m9, pr, ▼. to win back; see re 
and aequitter. 
itt4e, s. I. roa^, roadstead; It. Sp. 
raa«; E. ro*d;Ge. reede, rhede; 
O.N. reida, equipment, preparation. 
nMleaa.^ b. nu raft; O.F. radel; ra- 

tellus dim. of ratis, a raft. 
rader, v. a. to anchor in a rond- 

slead; see rade. 
rader, v. a. to strike (a measure); 
radere, to scrape, to strip off. 
ra^enr, s. m. salt-measurer. 
radoire, s. f. s. th. 

ra^dtial? e, adj. radial; It. radiale; 
radius, a rod, beam, ray, radius. 
ira^iiaiit, e, adj. radiant; radians, 
antis, pr. p. of radiare, to emit 
beams, radius, see prec. 
tadiationy s. f. radiation, erasure, ob- 
literation (of a name etc.) ; r a d i a t i o, 
onis, radiare, see prec. For the 
meaning of erasure, etc. comp. 
tadical, 69 adj. radical; It. radicale; 
radix, icis, a root, 
radiealisme, s. m. radicalism, 
radioitle, s. f. radicle, rootlet; radi- 
• eula, dim. of ^adix. 
radi^9 c, adj. radiate, stellated; ra- 
di«tu», p. p. of radiare, see ra- 
radier. s. m. apron (of basim, do«ki) ; 
Scb^er connecta it with ratU, a 
% see radeaa. 

radieux, ae, adj. radiant, be^my; 

radiosus, radius, a beam, 
radis, s. m. radish; Ge. r a dies; It. 

radice, root; radix, -icis, aiwt. 
radoire 9 s. f. strike (of measures); 

see rader, to strike. 

radoter, v. n. to dote, to talk itre©* 
herently; D. doten, dutten; 
E. dote. 

radotage, s. m. dotage, senseless talk, 
radoteor, s. m. euse, s. f. dotard. 
radouber, v. a. to refit, to repair 
(ships); see re and adouber. 
radoub, s. m. refitting, repair (of 
radouelr, v. a. to soften, to allaj^, 
to make milder; re and adoucir 
radoncisBement, s. m. (the weather) 
getting milder, mitigation, abate- 
rafale, s. f. squall; Et. d. Scheler 

suggests affaler, s. th. 
raffermir, v. a. to strengthen, to 
consolidate, to make firm; see re 
and affermir. 

raffbrmissement, s. m. consoMatibn, 
strengthening, fastening. 

rafiiner, v. a. n. to refine; It rafi- 
nare; see re and af finer. 
rafiBnage, s. m. refining, 
rafflnoment, s. m. refinement' 
raffinerie, s. f. refinery, sugar-refinery, 
rafflneur, s. m. refiner. 

raffoler, v. n. to dote, to be infatu- 
ated (with some thing or somebod]^) ; 
see re and affoler. 

rafle, s. f. stalk (of a bunch of gra- 

rafler, v. a. to snatch away, to sweep 
off; Oe. raffeln, raffen (E.raff.) 
comp. riffer and rifler. 
rafle,in laire rafle,to sweepstakes. 
(E. raffle.) 

rafratchir, v. a. n. and pr. to refresh, 
to cool, to renovate, to take refrerfi- 
ment; see re and fratchir. 
rafralohissaiLt, e, adj. and s.m. refresh- 
ing, cooling. 

rafralohissement, s. m. refreshment, 

ragaillardir, v. a. to enliver, to cheer, 
to make merry; see re and gail- 

rare^ ». f. rage, madness, hydioplw- 
bia, passion, violent pain; rabies, 
comp. rouge^ tSg«, et& 

— 323 — 

ragot, «, adj. short and stout, thiok- 

set; Et. d. 
rair^^iter, v. a. to restore the appe- 
tite of, to stimulate, to excite; see 
re and goiter, comp. d6goiiter. 
ragoftt, s. m. ragout, stew; see re 
and go fit. 
rag^&tant, e, adj. savory, relishing. 

ragrafer, v. a. to hook (into an eye) 
again, to clasp again; see re and 

ragmndir, v. a. to enlarge again; 
see re and agrandir. 

ragT^er, v. a. to, Hnish, to restore, 
to renovate, to do up, to dub (a 
ship); see re and agreer. 
ragriment, s. m. finishing up, doing 
up, renovation; see agr^ment. 

raga^, adj. chafed (cable); N. raka, 
to rub, D. raaken. 

raide, adj. stiff, rigid, inflexible, tight, 
steep, adv. quickly, vigorously, 
quite, see roide. 
raidenr, s. f. stiffness, rigidity, tight- 
ness, steepness, swiftness, 
raidir, v. a. n. to stiffen, to tighten. 

rale. s. f. stroke, line, dash, parting 
(of hair); O.F. rai, ray; radius, 
see radial; comp. rayer. 

rale, s. f. furrow; O.F. role; Prov. 

rega; M.L. riga; rigare, to water. 
rafe, s. f. (fish) ray, skate; rai a, 
raifort^ s. m. horseradish; radix 

fort IS, strong root, comp. radis. 
rail, s. m. rail; E. rail. 
railier, V. a. n. to rally, to jest, to 

foke, to jeer ; Sp. rallar; Port, ra- 

lar; radulare, radere, to scrape. 
- raillerie, s. f. raillery, jest, joke, 
railleur, le, adj. and s. jesting, joking, 


rainceau, s. m. (arch, paint.) foliage; 

O.F. rain, raim, branch; ramus. 
ralnette, s. f. green frog; dim. of 

O.F. raine, frog; rana. 
rainetto, s. f. pippin, rennet; because 

it is spotted like a frog. 
rainiLre, s. f. groove, furrow; O.F. 

rain, border of a forest; Ge. rain. 

(Local E. rain, a ridge, furrow.) 
raip4Mioe, s. f. rampion; It. rape- 

ronza; Ge. rapunzel; rapuncu- 

lus, dim. of rap a, turnip, comp. 

ralsy s. m. pi. spokes (of a wheelX 

rays, beams (of the son); 0,F. rai, 

s«ft rayon. 

raisin, s. m. grapes, raisin; ??«▼« 

razim; Sp. raoimo; racemus, 

a bunch or cluster of grapes and 

similar fruits; jce|, fayog, a grape. 

raiiini, s. m. jam ot grapes. 

raison, s. f. reason, sense, satisfao* 
tion, consideration, rate (propor- 
tion), (com.) firm; ratio, -on is. 

raisoanable, adj. rational, reasonable. 

raisonnttmeat, s. m. reasoning. 

raisoimsr, v. n. a. to reason, to argue. 

raisonneur, s. m. le^ 8« f. reasoner, 
that gives answers. 

rajennir, v. n. a. and pr. to refftete 
to youth, to make, to oecome yowa^ 
again re-ad-juvenescere; see 
re and jeune. 
ngeonissemaat, s. m. restauration to 
youth, renovation. 

r^Jaster^ v. a. to readjust, to arrange, 
to put m order; see re and ajuster. 
rajnstement, s. m. readjustment, ar- 

rftle, s. m. (bird) rail, crake; Ge. rail ; 
E. rail; see r&ler, to rattle^ eomp. 
E. crake, „so named ft'on ito 

rftle, s. m. rattle (in throat), death- 
rattle; see raler. 
rftlement, s. m. death-rattle. 

ralentir, v. a. to lessen speed, to 
slacken; to diminish; re-lentare, 
see re and lent. 

ralAntif lament, s. m. retardation^ 

rftler, v. n. to have a rattling in the 
throat, to have the death-rattle; E. 
rattle; Ge. rasseln. 

ralingne, s. f. bolt-rope; O.F. raa- 
lingue; O.N. r&; D.Da. etc. raa; 
Ge. rah, yard of a ship, and O.N. 
lina; O.H.G. lina, line; E. Itne^ 
Ge. leine. 
ralisguer, v. a. to sow the bolt- 
ropes to. 

railier, v. a. to rally, to haul the 
wind again; see re and allier. 
ralliement, s. m. rallying, rally. 

rallonger, v. a. to lengthen; see re 
and allonger. 

rallonge. s. f. piece to lengthen, leaf 
of a table, 
rallongemeat, s. m. lengthening. 

rallomery v. a. to light agaio> to re- 
kindle^ to relnae; see ret 

^ 224 — 

ramage, b. m. foliage, branches; ra- 
magium, ramus, a branch. 

ramage (chant, song, unterstood), 
. s. m. warbling of birds. 

ramagur, v. n. (of birds) to warble. 

ramaSf s. m. heap, lot, collection; 

see ramasser and amas. 
ramasse, s. f. moantain-sledge; It. 

ramaccia; ramus, a branch. 
ramasser, v. a. to collect, to amass, 
to gather up, to pick up; see re 
. and amasser. 
s. m. s. th. 
I, s.m. collection, heap, crowd. 

rame. s. f. stick (for peas etc.), oar, 
'■ paddle ; It. Sp. Prov. rama;ramus, 

a branch. 
rame, s. f. ream (of paper); It. ris- 

ma; Sp. Port, resma; (E. ream; 
^- Ge. riemen); dgid-fiog^ a number. 
rameauy s. m. branch; O.F. raim, 
1 rain*, ramus, a branch. 
ram^e, s. f. branches with green 
; leaves; ramus, a branch; comp. 

rame and rameau. 
ramener, v. a. to bring back, to 

bring to, to retrieve; see re and 
^ amener. 

fameqnin, s. m. ramekin (cheese- 
cake); Ge. rahm, cream and the Ge. 

suf&x chen. 
ramer, v. a. n. to prop (plants), to 
* stick (beans), to row, to pull; see 

ramereau, s. m. young ring-dove; 

dim. of ramier, s. th. 
ramenr, s. m. oarsman, rower; see 

rame, oar. 

irameux, se, adj. branching, branchy; 

! ramosus, ramus, see rame. 

ramier, s.m. ring-dove, wood-pigeon; 

' ramus, a branch, see rame. 

ramifier (se), pr. v. to ramify, to 
branch; M.L. ramificare; ramus, 
branch, fa cere to make, 
ramification, s. f. ramification. 

ramilles, s. f. pi. twigs; see rame, 

ramingue, adj. restive (horse); Prov. 
ramenc; It. ramingo, young fal- 
con (who jumps from branch to 
brancn); ramus, a branch. 

ramollir, v. a. pr. to soften, to get 
soft; see re and amollir. 

- ramoUiBtemeiLt, s. m. softening. 

ramon, s. m. broom; ram us ^ a 

ramonage, s. m. sweeping (of chim- 

ramoner, v. a. to sweep (chimneys), 
ramoneor, s. m. chimney-sweeper. 
rampant, e, adj. creeping, crawling, 

rampant; see ramper. 
rampCi, s. f . balustrade of a staircase, 
declivity, footlamps of theatres; 
O.F. ramper, to climb, see next w. 
ramper, v. n. to creep, to crawl; 
O.F. to climb (comp. prec), comp. 
E. ramp; It. ram pa, claw, ramp- 
are, same as It. rappare; D. 
rappen; E. rap. 
ramure, s. f. antlers, branching; ra- 
mus, a branch; comp. rame, ra- 
meau, etc. 
ranee, adj. and s. m. rancid, rancid- 
ness; rancidus, root ranc of 
rancens, ran cescere, to be rank, 
rancidity, s. f. rancidity, 
rancir, v. n. to become, to get rancid, 
ranoissnre, s. f. rancidity. 
ranQon, s. f. ransom ; O.F. r a a n q o n ; 
Ge. ranzion; redemptio, -onis, 
a ransoming, redimere, to buy 
back, em ere, to buy. 
ranfonxLement, s. m. ransoming, ex- 

ranyonner, v. a. to ransom, to fleece. 
ranenne, s. f. rancour, grudge; O.F. 
rancoeur; E. rancour; It. ran- 
core; M.L. rancor; rancere, to 
be rancid, comp. ranee, 
ranccmier, ^re, adj. rancorous, spiteful. 
randonn^e, s. f. (hunt.) circuit, round; 
O.F. ran don, impetuosity, swift- 
ness. (E. random) Prov. randa, 
the extreme point, violence; O.H.G.. 
and Ge. rand, edge, brink. 
rang, s. m. row (line), rank, order, 
dignity, place; O.H.G. bring, a 
circle, (E. Ge. ring) comp. ha- 

rangie, s. f. row, range, 
ranger, v. a. pr. to range, to arrange, 
to array, to reduce, to step aside. 
ranimer, v a. to recall to life, to 
reanimate, to revive, to cheer up; 
see re and animer. 
ranz (des vaehes), s. m. ranz des 
vaches, national air of the Swiss; 
Ge.kuhreigen, ranz prob.corrup. 
from Ge. reigen, song, vache 
(s. th.) cow, Ge. kuh. 
rapace, adj. rapacious; rapax, -acis, 
rapere, to reize* 
rapaoitiy s. f. rapacity; rapaoitaa. 

— 225 — 

rapatrier, y. a. pr. to reconcile, to 
be friends again; re-apatrier, 
orig. to reconcile with o's country 
or family; see re and patric. 

rftper, v. a. to grate, to rasp; O.F. 
rasper; It. raspare; Sp. raspar; 
O.HG. raspon; (Ge. raspeln; E. 

rftpe> s. f. rasp, grater, fresh grapes 
(put in to restore wine), stum. 

rapetasser, v. a. to piece, to patch 
up; re-apetasser; re,, pit- 
ta cium, a piece of cloth covered 
with salve*, niaaa, nCtta^ pitch. 

rapetisser, v. a. n. and pr. to lessen, 
to shorten, to get or grow little; 
see re and apetisser. 

rapide, adj. rapid, speedy, swift; 
rapidus, tearing away, rapere, 
to seize, to tear. 

rapidity, s. f. rapidity, swiftness, 
celerity, speed; rapiaitas. 

rapi^cer, v. a. to piece, to patch up; 

rp-api6cer, see re and pi^ce. 
rapi^eter, v. a. to piece all over, to 

patch up. 
rapidre, s. f. rapier; see rliper, (a 

worn, notched blade). 
rapine, s. f. rapme, plunder, pillage; 

rapina, rapere, to seize, 
rapiner, v. a. n. to pilfer, to pillage. 
rappareiller, v. a. to match (gettne 

fellow of); see re and appareiller. 

rapparier, y. a. to match (find one 
to complete a pair); re-apparier, 
re, B. th.; M.L. appariare; par, 
see pair. 

rappeler, v. a. and pr. to call again, 
to call back, to recall, to recollect, 
to remember; see re and appeler. 
rappel, s. m, recall, call, rappel. 

rapporter, v. a. to bring again, to 
bring back, to carry back, to pro- 
duce , to yield , to state , to report, 
to repeal; see re and apporter. 
rapport, s.m. produce, revenue, state- 
ment, report, affinity, relation, 
rapporteur, s. m. se, s. f. reporter, 

rapprendre, v. a. to learn again; see 
re and ap prendre. 

rapprocher, v. a. and pr. to bring 
near, to approach, to draw near, 
to bring together, to reconcile, to 
compare; see re and approcber. 
rapprochement, s. m. bringing near, 
drawing near, reconciliation. 

rapsode, s. m. rhapsodist; (atffmdog, 
one who stitches or strings songs 
together, hencp esp. one who recited 
Epic poems, (dnto), to sew, (pdfj, 
a song. 
rapsodie, s. f. rhapsody; Qatpcodia. 

rapt, s. m. abduction, rape; raptus, 

rapere, to seize 
rftpnre, s f raspings; see r&per. 
raquette, s. f. racket, snow -shoe, 

prickly pear; It. racchetta, cont, 

of retichetta; reticulum, dim. 

of rete, a net. 
raquettier, s. m. racket -maker. 

rare, adj. rare, scarce; rarus, thin, 
rarefaction, s.f. rarefaction; see next w. 
rarifler, v. a. to rarefy . rare- fa cere, 
lo iisike thin or rare, 
raremcnt, adv. seldom, 
rarete, s. f. rarity, scarcity; raritas. 

ras, e, adj. close-shaved, close, shorn, 
smooth, bare, flat; rasus, p. p. of 
radere, to scrape, see raser. 

ras, s. m. short -nap cloth. 

rasade, s. f glass tilled to the brim. 

raser, v. a. n. and pr. to shave, to 
graze, to rase; M.L. rasare, treq. 
of L. radere, rasum, to scrape, 
to shave off; comp. oser. 

rasibus, prep, quite close. 

rasoir, s, m. razor; M.L. rasorium. 

rassasier, v. a. and pr. to satiate; 

re-assasier, re- (s. th.), ad-sa- 

tiare, satis, enough, 
rassasiant, e, adj. satiating, 
rassaaicment, s. m. satiety. 

rassembler, v. a. and pr. to assemble, 
to bring together, to congregate; 
see re and assembler. 
raBBcmblement, s. m. assembling, as- 
semblage, crowd, mob. 

rasseoir, v. a. and pr. to reseat, to 

sit down again, to calm; see re 

and asseoir. 
rassis, e, adj. s. th. 
rasb^r^ner, v. a. and pr. to render, 

to make serene, to calm; see re 

and serein. 

rassis, 6, adj. stale (bread), calm, 
sedate; p. p. of rasseoir, s- th. 

rassurer, v. a. andpr. to consolidate, 
to strengthen, to tranquillize, to 
reassure; see re and assurer, 
raainrant, e, adj. tranquillizing, cal- 
culated to restore confidence. 


— M8 — 

rat, 8. m. rat, crotchet, whim; O.H.G. 

rato; A.S. raet; Ge. ratte; £. 

rat4ifla, s. m. ratafia; Sp. ratafia; 

£t d. 
ratatiner (se), pr. v. to shrivel; 

Et. (L 
ratatouille, s. f. stew of meat aad 

vegetables; Et d. 

rate, s. f. milt, spleen; D. rate, 
honigraate, honey -comb, because 
of the cellular tissue of the milt 
resembling the honey -comb. 

rftteaa, s. m. rake; O.F. rastel; It. 
rastello; rastellus, dim.of ras- 
trnm, a riJce, radere, see raser. 

ratelor, v. a. to rake. 

rfttekur, s. m. raker. 

ratelier, s. m. rack (of stables), arm- 
rack, set of teeth. 

rater, v. a. n. (of fire-arms) to miss 
fire, to miss, to fail; Et. d. 

ratier, dre, a4j- crotchety, whimsical; 
see rat. 

ratidre, s. f. rat-trap; see rat. 

ratifler, v. a. to ratify; M.L. rati- 
ficare; ratus, fixed, valid (reri, 
to think), facere, to make. 
ratiacatioii, 8. f. ratification, ratifi- 
catio, -onis. 

ratiner, v. a. to frizzle, to nap cloth; 
It. rattinare; Sp. ratina; Et. d. 
ratine, s. f. ratteen, Petersham. 

ration, s. f. ration, allowance; ratio, 
-onis, the art of thinking, hence 
a reckoning, comp. raison. 

rationalisme, s. m. rationalism; ra 

t ion alls, see next w. 
rationnel, le, adj. rational; ratio- 

nalis, ratio, see raison. 

ratisser, v. a. to scrape off, to rake; 
see r^teau. 
ratlMage, s. m. scraping, raking, 
ratissoire, s. f. scrape, rake. 
ratisBure, s. f. scrapings. 
raton, s. m. small rat; see rat. 
rattacher, v. a. to re -attach, to tie 
again, to connect; see re and at* 

ratteindre, v. a. to overtake again, to 

catch asain; see re andatteindre. 
rattendrir, v. a. to make tender again ; 

see re and attendrir. 
rattraper, v. a. to catch again, to 

overtake, to recover; see re aad 


ratare, 8. f. erasure; r as tram, see 
raturer, v. a. to erase, to scratch out. 
raucit6, s. f. raucity, hoarseness; 

raucus, see next w. 
rauqae, a4j. hoarse; raucus, comp. 

ravage, s. m. ravage, devastation; 
rapere, see ravir. 
ravager, v. a. to ravage, to lay waste. 
ravageor, s. m. ravager, destroyer. 

ravaler, v. a. to swallow again, to 
lower, to rough -cast; see re and 

rayalsment, s m. debasement, rough- 
ravauder, v. a. to mend (old clothes), 
to teaze, to plague; re-ad-vali- 
dare, validus, see re and va- 

rayandage, s. m. mending (of old 
clothes), botching. 

rayauderie, s. f. idle talk, nonsense. 

rayaiideiir, s. m. m, s. f. mender (of 
old clothes), silly talker. 

rave, s. f. turnip; rapa. 

raveUn, s. m. ravelin; it. rivellino; 
Et. d.; some propose M.L. rap ka- 
lis, from Arab, raphal, a house 
or property near the town. 

rayi, e, adj. delighted, enraptured; 
p. p. of ravir, s. th. 

ravigoter, v. a. and pr. to revive, to 
regain o.'s strength; O.F. r evi go- 
re r,r a vigor er, see re and vigour. 
ravigote, s. f. pickle - sauce. 

ravilir, v. a. to debase, to lower; see 
re and avilijr. 

ravin, s. m. ravine; rapere, see 

ravine, s.f. torrent (after rain), ravine ; 
same as prec. 

ravir. v. a. to ravish, to take away, 
to aelight, to enrapture; It rapi- 
re; rapere, to seize, comp. ra- 

ravisiant, e, a4j. ravishing, delightful, 
enchanting; comp. ravi. 
ravisBdment, s. m. ravishment, delight, 
raviaseor, s. m. ravisher. 

rayiser (se), pr. v. to alter o.'smind, 
to think better of it; see re and 

ravitaiUer, v. a. to revictoal; see re 
and avitniller. 
rayitaUlMBeat, a m. revietualliiig. 

— M7 — 

ravlTer, y* a. to revive, to reanimate, 

to rouse; see re and vif. 
raToir, v. a. to have again, to get 

again, to get back; see re and avoir. 
rayer, v. a. to streak, to siripe, to 

strike out; radiare, to radiate, 

radius, see raie*. 
rayon, s. m. honey -comb; O.F. raie; 

1>^ rate, see rate. 
rayon, s.m. ray, beam (of light), spoke, 

radius; Sp. rayo; It. raggio; 

radius, see raie. 
rajosnement, s. m. radiance, beaming, 

rajonner, y. n. to radiate, to irradiate, 

to beam. 
raynre, s. f. stripe (of textile fabrics), 

rifling of the barrels of guns; see 

re- 9 r6-, prefix denoting repetition, 

iteration, or backward action; £. 

re-; re-. 
r^, 8. m. d (in music); see nt. 
r^aetif, ye, adj. reacting; see re and 

reaction, s. f. reaction; see re and 

r^admettre, v. a. to readmit, to admit 

again; see re and admettre. 
r^agir, v. n. to react; see re and 

r^ai. e, adj. O.F. for royal, s. th. 
r^aliser, v. a. to realize ; M.L. realis, 

see r^el. 
r^alit6, s. f reality; It. realit^; 

M.L. realitas, realis, see r^el. 
r^apparition, s. f. reappearance; see 

re and apparition. 
rebaptiser, v. a. to rebaptize, to bap- 

tize a^ain: see re and baptiser. 
rebaptisaat, s. m. anabaptist 
r^barbatif, ye, adj. rude, repulsive; 

O.F. rebarber, to conf route, see 

rebfttir, v. a. to rebuild; see re and 

riSbattre, v. a. to beat again, to re- 
peat over and over; see re and 

rebee, s. m. rebec, a musical instru* 

ment, introduced by the Moors into 

Spain; It. ribeca, ribeba; Sp. ra- 

bel; Arab. rabd.b. 
^ rebelle, a<y. and s. m. rebellious, 

rebel; re belli s, that renews war, 

rebellious; re, again, bellum,war. 

mbeUer (m), pr. y. to rebel, toravalt 
rebellion, s. t rebellion; rabellio, 
reb^quer (se), pr. v. to answer in- 
solently; see re and bee. 
rebondir, v. n. to rebound; sea re 

and hondir. 
zebondi, e, adj. plump, chubby, 
rebond iw e m e nt , s. m. resiliency, re- 
rebord, s. m. brim, ledge, border (of 
clothes), flange; see re and bord. 
reborder, v. a. to border again, to 
put a new border to. 

reboaoher, v. a. and pr. to stop up 

again, to cork again; see re and 

rebooillir, v. n. to boil again; see 

r^ and bouillir. 
rebonrs, s. m. wrong way of the grain, 

reverse; M.L. reburrus; O.H.G. 

poTBt; Ge. borste, see brosse. 
rtbrovMer, v. a. n. to turn back; for 


rebuffade, s. f. repulse, rebuff, rebuke ; 
It. rabuffo; E. rebuff; see re 
and bouffer. 
r^bns, s.m. rebus, pun; rebus, dat. 

pi. of res, rei, a thing. 
renater, v. a. to repel, to reject, to 
rebuff, to dishearten; pr. v. to be 
discouraged; see re and but 
vsbnt, 8. m. repulsion, refusal, rubbish, 
rebntaat, e, adj. repulsive, discouraging. 
r^ealcitrer, v. n. (of beasts of burden) 
to kick, to be refractory; re-cal* 
citrare, to kickback, calx, cal- 
cis, the heel. 
r6oaloitrant,e, adj. refractory, stubborn. 
r^capituler^ v. a. to recapitulate; 
recapitulare, re, again, capi- 
tulum, a small head, a chapter, 
dim. of caput, -itis, the head, 
recapitulation, s. f. recapitulation, 
rec^ler, v. a. to receive stolen goods, 
to hide; see re and c^ler. 
reoel, reoMament, s m. receiving of 
stolen goods, 
reodleur, s. m. le, 8. f. receiver of 
stolen goods. 

recemment, adv recently, lately; for 
recent-ment, s. th. 

reeenser, v. a. to take the census 
of the population, to verify; re- 
cense re, to examine closely. 

• Wqv itkp int«r«luiig» of i tnd y »«o P. on longaoge, p. fi5 loq* 


— 228 — 

Jt— nmnmt, s. m. census, verificatiofn. 

r^ent, e^ acy. recent, new; recens, 

-ntis, fresh, young, recent; £t. d. 

reoeper, v. a. to cut down (close to 

the ground); see re and cep. 

reoepage, s. m. cutting down. 

recep^, s. f. part of a wood cut down. 

r6c^piss^9 s. m. receipt (for docu- 
ments, papers), acknowledgement 
of receipt; recepisse, having re- 
ceived, recipere, to receive. 

r^oeptaele, s. m. receptacle; recep- 
taculum, receptare, to receive 
again, recipere; see recevoir. 

r^eeption^ s. f. reception, receiving; 

receptio, -onis, recipere; see 

reeette^ s. f. receipts, receiver's office, 

receipt, recipe; O.F. recepte; re- 

ceptum, sup. of recipere, see 


receToir, ▼. a. to receive, to accept, 
to get; O.F. re^oivre; recipere, 
re, airain, back, capere, to take. 

roeoTaUft, adj. receivable, admissible. 

reoeyenr, s. m. receiver, tax-collector. 

refn, s. th. 

reeez, a. m. recess (a decree of the 
diet of the old German empire); 
Ge. recess; recessus, a going 
back, a retiring, the „recess^ having 
been primitively a summary read 
before the conclusion of the session, 
re-cedere, to go hack, to retire. 

rechan^e, s. m. exchange, reexchange; 

aee re and change. 
r^€happer, ▼. n. to escape; see re 

and 6chapper. 

reeharirer, ▼. a. to load again, to 
€haige again, to recharge; see re 
and charger. 
xtohaig«m«Bt, 8. m. loading again. 

r6eh«u4, s. m. chafing-dish; OF. 
reschaut; re, ex, calidus; see 
re and chaud. 
r^haaffer, ?. a. and pr. to heat again, 
to make hot again, to warm up; 
see re and chauffer. 
rMavibg*, 8. m. warming up, giving 
as new what is old. 
riehaaltaMat, s. m. dung for heating. 
vtokanMr, s. m. oven for warming 
plates or dishes. 

^4, adti. rough (to the touch); OJ". 
she; Ge. raesch, roesch, 
ch; (£. haralOi 

rechereher, v. a. to seek again, to 
search, to covet, to desire; see re 
and chercher. 

recheri^e, s.f. search, seeking, elegance. 

reohorchd, e, adj. choice, elegant, 
sought after. 

reehigner, v. n. to be cross, to scold; 
O.F. rechin, rechigne, rude; F. 
reche, s. th. 

rechigni, e, adj. cross, sour, 
rechuir, v. n. to fall again, to relapse; 
see re and choir, 
rechute, s. f. relapse, comp. chute. 

r^cidive, s. f. relapse; recidivus, 
falling back, re-cidere, cadere, 
to fall. 
ricidiver, v. n. to relapse. 

r6cif, resciX, ressif, s. m. reef; Sp. 
Port, ar-recife; Arab. ar-ra(;af, 
a row of stepping stones across 

r^eip^ , s. m. prescription (of a phy- 
sician), recipe; recipe, take, imp- 
of recipere; see recevoir. 

r^eipiendaire, s. m. candidate about 
to be received; recipiendus f. p. 
of recipere, see recevoir. 

r^eipient, s. m. recipient (vessel into 
which anything is distilled,, receiver 
of an air-pump, etc.; recipiens, 
-entis, pr. p. of recipere, see 

r^eiproque, a^j. reciprocal, mutual; 
reciprocus, going backwards and 
forwards, Et d. 

reeiproeite, s. f. reciprocity, recipro- 

reciter, v. a. to recite, to relate; 

re-citare, comp. citer. 
rteit, s. m. recital, narration, 
reeitatif, s. m. recitative, 
rteitation, s. f. recitation, recital; re- 

citatiu, -onis. 

r^elamer, v. a. to beseech, to claim 
back, to reclaim, to claim, v. n. to 
protest, to object; re- cl a mare, 
to cry out against 

rtftlamation, s. f. claim, objection. 

rteluM, 8. f. catch -word (printX 
newspaper -paragraph, recall. 

reelure, v. a. to shut up, to cloister; 
re-cludere, to open what had 
been closed, to shut up, clandere, 
to close. 

vMloa, •, ady. and s. recluse. 

iWaaioB, s. f. rednaioii, imprisonment. 

— 129 — 

reeoin, s. m. nook, by -corner; see 
re and coin. 

r^eoler, v. a. to read oyer to a wit- 
ness his evidence, to verify; M.L. 
recolare, to verify again; re- 
col ere, to work anew, 
rteolement, s. m. verification. 

r^collet, s. m. recollet (monk); re- 
collectus, p. p. of re-colligere, 
to gather again, comp. cueillir. 

r^colte, s.f. harvest, crop, collection; 
recollecta, p. p. of re-colligere, 
see prec. 

recommander, y. a. and pr. to re- 
commend, to commend; re-com- 
mendare, to commit to one's 
charge again, mandare, to put 
into one's hand, manus, band, 
dare, to pive. 

recommandable , adj. commendable, 

recomxnandation, s. f. rccommandation. 

recommeiicer^ v. a. n. to begin again, 
to recommence; se re and com- 
mence r. 

r^compeuser, v. a. to reward, to re- 
compense, to compensate; re, again, 
compensare, to weigh, to com- 

r^oompense, s. f. reward, recompense! 
compensation^ in re-compensa- 
tio, -onis. 

r^coneilier, v. a. to reconcile, to con- 
ciliate; re-conciliare, to bring 
back, c o n ci 1 ium , a calling together. 

r^conciliatenr, s. m. trice, s. f. recon- 

, oiler: re-conciliator. 

r^conciliatien, s.f. reconciliation; re- 
conciliatio, -onis. 

reconduire, v. a. to reconduct, to 
accompany to the door; see re and 
recondoite, s. f. accompanying to the 
dour, seeing out. 

r^conforter, v. a. to strengthen, to 
revive, to comfort; see re and con- 

reeonnaissable, adj. recognizable; 
recognoscere, see reconnaitre. 

reconnaissance 9 s. f. recognition, re- 
cognizance, afknowledgement; see 
re and connaissance. 

reeonnaissant, e, adj grateful, thank- 
ful; see prcc. and next w 

reeonnattre, v. a. to recognize, to 
know again, to acknowledge, to 

reward, to reconnoitre; re -cog - 
noscere; see re and connaitre. 

reeonqa^rir, ▼. a. to reconquer, to 
regain; see re and conqulrir. 

reconstruire, ▼. a. to rebuild, to re- 
con««triict; see re and construire. 
recoxLstmctioiL, s.f. rebuilding, recon- 
struction; see construction. 

recoquiller, v. a. to curl up in the 
shape of a shell, to cockle; see re 
and coquille. 

recorder, v. a. to rehearse (a lesson), 

pr. V. to concert; recordari, to 

think over, cor, cordis, the heart, 

comp. E. to learn by heart. 

recors, s. m. bailiff's assistant, witness. 

recoup er, v a. to cut again; see re 
and couper. 
recoupe, s. f stone -chips; chippings, 

bran, pollard, 
recoupette, s. f. coarse meal, 
recourber, v. a. to bend round, to 
recurve; see re and courber. 

recourir, v. n. to run again, to resort, 
to have recourse; re-currere, see 
re and currere. 

recours, s. m. recourse, resort, appeal; 

recouTert, e, p. p. of recouvrir» 

s. th. 
recouvrer, v. a. to recover, to regain; 
recnperare, to regain, 
recouyrablt, adj% recoverable, 
recoavrement, s. m. recotery. 

reeouTrir, ▼. a. to cover again, to 
cover over, to mask; see re and 

r^cr^ance, s. f. usufruct, (letters of) 
recall; see re and cr^ance. 

r^cr^er, v. a. and pr. to recreate, 
to rejoice, to amuse; re-creare, 
to create anew, to restore, comp. 

r^cr^ation, s. f. recreation, diversion; 
recreatio, -onis. 
r6criatif, ve, adj. recreative. 

r^erier (se), pr. v. to exclaim, to 

cry out; see re and eerier, 
r^criminer, v. a. to recriminate; ML. 
recriminare, re, again, crimi- 
nari, to accuse, crimen, a trial, 
a chirpe. 
recrimination, s. f. recrimination, 
ricriminatoire, a^j* recriminatory. 

r^crire, v. a« to write again, to re- 
write; see re and ^crire. 

— «30 - 

fterottre, v. n. to grow i^am, to 
spring up again ; see reandcroitre. 

reeroqveTlller (se), pr. v. to shrivel; 
corrupt, of recoquiller, s. th. 

reera, e, adj. tired out, worn out; 
O.F. recr6u, O.F. recroire, to 
let go, to give in; M.L. recredere, 
to go back. 

ref rudeseeBCe , s. f. recmdescence; 
recrudescens, pr. p. of re-cru- 
des cere, to become raw again, 
crudns, raw. 
reertte9 s.f. recruit, recruiting, recrnits ; 
see recroitre, tbe growing gene- 
reerater, v. a. to recruit; see re- 
croitre and prec. 
reomtement, s. m. recruiting. 
reenUear, s. m. recruiter. 
rectangle 9 s. m. rectangle; rectus, 
right, angulus, angle. 
rectaagnlHirt, adj. rectangular. 

reeteur, s.m. rector; rector, a leader, 
regere, rectum, to guide, to rule. 

rectifier, v. a. to rectify; M.L. rec- 
tificare; rectus, right, facere, 
to make. 

reetifloation, s. f. rectification, amend- 

rectiligne. adj. rectilinear; rectus, 
right and F. ligne, s. th. 

reciitade^ s. i. rectitude, rightness, 
uprightness; rectitudo, rectus, 

recto, s. m. first page of a leaf; 
rectus, right. 

reetoral, e, adj . rectorial ; see r e c t e u r. 

rectorat, s. m. rectorship, rectory; 
see recteur. 

reetuni. s. m. rectum: rectus, a, um, 

re^Q, s. m. receipt; p. p. of rece- 
▼ oir, s. th. 

recaeilir, v. a. to gather, to collect, 
to receive, pr. v. to collect o.'s self, 
to meditate;, re-colligere, to 
gather again, comp. cueillir. 
reeueil, s. m. collection, selection. 
reeuexllBBLflat, s. m. meditation, con- 

recuire, ▼. a. to reheat (liquids), to 
anneal; see re and cuire. 
reeuit, e, adj. and s. reheated, re- 
heating, annealing. 

recaler, v. a. n. and pr. to go back, 
to recede, to move backward, to recoil; 
It rincalare; (O.E. recule, E. 

recoil); re, against, cuius, M.L. 
bottom, comp. cul. 

reeul, s. m. recoil. 

reculade, s. f. backing, fulling back, 

reeulement, s. m. backing. 

reculoiui (10 1 adv. backwards. 
r^cup^rer, v. a. to recuperate, tore- 
cover, to retreave; recuperare, 
to regain, comp. recouvrer. 
r^eurer, v. a. to scour; see 6curer. 
r leaser, v. a. to challenge (a judge, 
juror, or witness), pr. v. to decline 
officiating as judge, juror, etc.; re- 
c us are, to decline, causa, a cause. 

rieusable, adj. challengeable, excep- 
tionable; comp. also irrecusable. 

riensatioiL, s. f. challenge, exception. 

r^dactenr, s. m. writer, editor (of a 
newspaper, etc.); redactum, sup. 
of redigere, see r^diger. 

redaction, s. f redaction, editing, 
editors office; see prec. 

redan, s. m. redan, skew- back; for 
redent, see re and dent. 

reddition, s. f. surrender, giving in 
of accounts, etc.; redditio, -onis, 
reddere, to give back, dare, to 
give, comp. rend re. 

redemander? v. a- to reclaim, to re- 
demand; see re and deroander. 

r^demptear, s. m. Redeamer; re- 
demptor,red-imere, to buy back, 
see redimer. 

rMemption, s. f. redemption, ransom; 
redemptio, -onis, see prec. 

redevable, adj. and s. indebted, debtor; 
see redevoir. 

redevance, s. f. annual rent, ground- 
rent, due; see redevoir. 

redevenir, v. n. to become again; see 
re and devenir. 

redevoir, v. a. to remain in o.'s debt, 
to owe still; see re and devoir. 

redhibition, s. f. redhibition; red- 
hibitio, onis, red-hibere, to 
give back, habere, to have. 
redhiMtoiie, adj. redhibitory. 

r^diger, v. a. to word, to edit; red- 
igere, to drive back, to reduce 
to any condition, age re, to act. 

redimer (se)^ pr. v. to redeem o.'s 
self; red-imere, to buy back, 
em ere, to buy. 

redingote, s* f. overcoat, great-coat; 
E. riding coat 

— Ml — 

redire, ▼. a. to repeat, to say again, 
to blame; see re and dire. 

rediaaur, s. m. la, a. f. repeater (per- 
son), tale-bearer. 

radite, s. f. frequent repetition. 
redonder, v. n. to be redundant; red- 
undare, to flow back, to overflow, 
re, back, unda, a wave. 

redondanee, s. f. redundance. 

redondant, e, adj. redundant. 
redoabler, v. a. n. tg. redouble , to 
double, to increase; see re and 

redoublement, s. m. redoubling, in* 
crease , reduplication. 

redoatable, adj. formidable, redoubt- 
able; see red outer. 

redonte, s. f. redoubt, masquerade; 
It. ridx)tto; reductus, reducere, 
see reduit. 

redoater, v. a. to dread, to fear; It 
ridottare; Prov. redoptar; see 
re and d outer. 

redresser, v. a. andpr. to straighten, 
to set up again, to redress; see re 
and dresser. 

radressement, s. m. straightening, re- 
erection, redress 
redrosMur, s. m. rodresser, avenger. 

redaire, v. a. to reduce, to subdue, 

to compel; re-ducere, to lead or 

bring back, 
reduction, s. f. reduction, subjugation; 

reductio, -onis, reductum,sup. 

of reducere. 
reduit, s. m. recess (place), (fort.) 

reduct; reductus; seeprec; comp. 

r^el, le, adj. real, substantial, true; 

It. reale; M.L. realis; res, rei, 

a thing; comp. r^alite, realiser. 

r^^lection, s. f. reelection; see re 

and Election. 
r^^ligible. adj.reeligible; see re and 

r6exporter9 v. a. to reexport; see 

re and exporter, 
reexportation, s. f. reexportation. 
refaire, v. a. to remake, tb make again, 

to do again, pr. v. to refresh o.'s 

self, to recruit o.'s strength; see 

re and faire. 
refait, s. m. drawn game (cards), 

new horns (of stags). 

refection, s. f. repairs, refection 
(refreshment , repast) ; r e f e c t i o , 
-onis, a restoring, re-ficere. 

refectum, to make again, facara, 
to make. 
refeetoire, s. m. dining- hall, refec- 
tory ; M.L. refectorium, see prec 
refendre, v. a. to split again, to saw; 

see re and fendre. 
refsnd, s. m. partition (wall), ^re-wood, 
r^f^rer, v. a. pr. to refer, to attribute ; 
re-ferre, to carry back, to refer. 
MMf 8. m. (law) application to a 
judge sitting in chambers, 
xifi&rendaire, s. m. referendary ; M.L. r e - 
ferendariua; referendum, re- 

referiner, v. a. pr. to shut again, to 
reclose, to close; see re and former. 
r^fl^chir, V. a. to reflect, to reflect 
back, to throw back, v. n. to reflect, 
to think; Sp. Port, reflectir; re- 
flect ere, to bend back, comp. 

rWchinement, s. m. reflection, re- 
verberation (of sound), 
rifleetear, a^j. and s. m. reflective, 
reflexion, s. th. 

refl^ter, v. n. to reflect the light; 
reflectere, see prec. 
reflet, s. m. reflection, reflex. 

reflexible, adj. reflexible; re-flexi- 
bills, reflexus, p. p. of reflec- 
tere, see r6fl§chir. 

reflexion 9 s. f. reflection; reflexio, 
-onis, reflexus, see prec. 

refluer, v. n. to flow back, to ebb, 
to flow; re-fluere, to flow back. 
reflTxx, 8. m. ebb, ebb-tide, refluc- 
tuation; refluxum, sup. of re- 

refondre, v. a. to recast, to refound, 
to remodel; see re and fond re. 
refonte, s. f. recasting, refounding, 
reformer, v. a. and pr. to reform, to 

form anew; see next w. 
reformer, v. a. andpr. to reform, to 
amend, to reduce; re- form a re, 
forma, see forme, 
rtformatenr, s. m. -trioe, s. f. reformer; 

rtformation , s. f. reformation, amend- 
ment; reformatio, -onis. 
reforme, s. f. reformation, reform, 
reform^, a, a^j. reformer, Calvinist 
refouler, v. a. n. to drive back, to 
repel, to ram, to stem (the tide); 
see re and fouler. 

— 232 — 

nfovlement, 8, m. driTing back, ebbing, 
refonloir, s. m. rammer, ramrod. 

r^fracler, v. a. to refraci; refr ac- 
tum, sup. of re-fringere, to 
brpak lip, frangere, to break, 
refraotaire, adj. and s. m. refractory, 

rebeliiuns^ refractarius 
refraction, s. f. refraction. 

refrain, s. m. refrain (of a song), con- 
stant theme; refringere, see re- 

refrangible, adj. refrangible; re- 
frangore, to break, 
refrangibiliti , s. f. refrangibility. 

refrener, v. a. to bridle, to restrain; 
re-frenare, Irenum, a bridle. 

refrigerant, e, adj. and s. m. re- 
frigerant; refrigerans, -antis, 
pr. p. of re-frige rare, to make 
cold, frigere, to be cold. 

refrig^ratif, s. m. refrigerative; re- 
frigerare, see prec. 

refrigeration, s. f. refrigeration; re- 
frigeratio , -onis, refrigerare, 
see refrigerant. 

refrogner (se), pr. v. to frown, to 
knitthebrow; Et.d. comp. E. frown. 

refroidir, y. a. n. and pr. to cuol, to 
chill; see re and froid. 
refroidissement , s. m. cooling, chill, 
cojilnehs, cuulness. 

refuge, s. m. refuge, shelter; refu- 
gium, re-fugere, to flee back, to 

refagier (se), pr. v. to take refuge, 
to take shelier, refugere, see prec. 
refagii, s. m. e, s. f. refugee. 

refuir, V. n. to double (Imnt.); re- 
fiipere, see prec, comp. fair. 
refute, s. f (hunt.) doubling, shift. 

refui>er, v. a. and pr. to refuse, to 
deny; It. refusare; refusare, 
refutare, see refuter. 
refns, s. m. refusal, denial. 

refuier, v. a. to refute, to di^sprove, 
to confute; refutare, to pour back, 
to check, to confute, (connected, with 
futum, a water- vessel, fund ere, 
to pour). 

regagner, v. a. to regain, to win 
back, to take again; see re and 

regain, s. m. aftermath, second-crop; 
O.F. gain, wain, vuin, voin; 
O.H.G. weida, food, grass* weidon, 
to feed; comp. guerre, guerir. 

i*egal, 8. m. banquet, regale; see 

regale, s. m. (mus.) regal; see re 
and egal. 

regale, adj. royal; regalis, rex, 
regis, king. 

regaler, v. a. and pr. to regale, to 
entertain, to treat; It. regal are; 
Sp. regalar; O.Sp. regalar meant 
to liquefy, to melt, from L. re- 
gelare, to thaw, g e 1 a r e , to f reeze. 

regaler, v. a. to level (ground), to 
assess (tax^); see re and egaler. 

regalien , adj. m. regal, of the crown, 
regalis, see regale, royal. 

regarder, v. a. to look at, to behold, 
to regard, to consider; It. riguar- 
dare, guard are, to guard (see 
garder), like E. hold and behold. 

regard, s. m. look, glance, gaze, 

regardant, e, adj. particular, exact, 

regate, s. f regatta; It. re gat a, re- 
gatta, corrupt, of It. remigata, 
remigare, rem are, to row, ram a, 
see rame. 

regence, s. f regency, see regent. 

regeuerer, v. a. and pr. to regener- 
ate; re- gen era re, to create again, 
gpnns, origin; romp, generateur. 
reg^neratenr, -trice, adj. and s. re- 

gfi'Pratnry, regenerator, 
r^^ndration, s. f. regeneration. 

regent, s. m. regent ;regens,-enti8, 

pr. p. of r eg ere, to lead, to rule. 

r^genter, v. a. n. to teach, to domineer. 

regicide, s. m. regicide; It. Sp. re- 
gicida; rex, regis, a king, cae- 
dere, to slay, comp. parricide. 

regie, s. f. administration, see regir. 

regimber, v. n. to kick, to resist; 
Et. d. 

regime, s. m. regimen, diet, form of 
government, objective case; re- 
gimen, a rule, regere, to rule. 

regiment, s. m. regiment; M L. re- 
pi men tum; regimen, see prec. 
r^gimentaire, adj. regimental. 

region, s. f. region; regio, -onis, 
a making straight, a direction, a 
region, regere, to stretch, to rule. 

regir, V. a. to govern, to rule, to 
manage; regere, to stretch, to rule, 
r^gie, ». th. 

r^glBsenr, s. m. manager, steward (of 
an estate). 

regristre or regitre, 8. m. register; 
It. Sp. registro; Port, registo; 
M.L. registrum, regestum; re- 

— 233 — 

gesta, regestam, sap. of re- 
gerere, to carry back, 
regifltrer, v. a. to register. 
Tdgle, 8. f. rule, ruler; regula, a 
straight piece of wood, a ruler, a 
rule, regere, to stretch 

r^gleinent, s. m. regulation, regula- 
tions, laws, settlement of accounts*, 
see ropier, 
rftglementaire, adj. concerning regula- 

rftglementer, v. n. to make regulations. 

r^gler, v. a. to rule, to regulate, to 
square, to settle i accounts) . M.L. re- 
gulare; reguJa, see regie. 

regrlet, s. m. (.\rch ) tillet, (print.) rule, 
r^leur, s. m. wh«» rules pajier etc. 

r^gli>i»e9 s. f. liquorice; Sp. regal iz; 
Prov. regalicia; U. regolizia; 
liquiritia, yivxt'^^tja, yXtrKvg, 
sweet, ^t?a, a root. 

r^glure^ s. f. ruling (drawing of lines); 

see regler. 
regnant, e, adj. reigning, prevalent; 

see regner. 

rdgne, s. m. reign, kingdom; regnum, 

rex, regis, king, 
rigner, v. a. to reign, to govern, to 

prevail, regnare. 
regnicole, adj. and s. native; M.L. re g- 


to inhabit. 

regonfler, ▼. a. n. to infl.ite again, 

to swell again; see re and gonfler. 

regonflement, s. m. rising (of water 

ohstruned), swelling. 

regorger, v. n. to overflow (of fluids), 

to abo'ind; see re and gtirger. 

regorgement, s. m. overflow (of fluids). 

regottler, v. a. to reject with con- 
tempt, to surfeit; goule, old form 
of gueule, 8. th., comp. goulet. 

regratter, v. a. to seratch again, to 
rub down, v. n. to huckster; see re 
and gratter. 

regrat, s. m. trade of a huckster of 
salt; M.L. regratarius, huckster. 

regratterie, s. f. bnckster's business. 

regrattier, s. ro. -lire, s. f huckster. 

regretter, v. a. to regret; OF. re- 
greter ; queritari, freq. of queri, 
to complain . l>iez prefers O.N. 
grStta; A.S. graetan, E. grate. 

regret, ««. m. regret. 

regrettable, a(jy. to be regretted, 

r^gularisatlon, s. £ regulation i re- 
gularis; see regulier. 

r^galariser, ▼. a. to put in order, 
to regularize; regularis; see re- 

r^ga]arit6, s. £. regularity; It. re- 
gularity; regularis, see regu- 

r^gulatear, -trice, adj. and s. regu- 
lating, regulator regula,see regie. 

regale, s. m. regulus; regulus, dim. 
of rex, regis, a king, a name ap- 
plied by the alchemists to metals 
separated from other substances by 
fusion, from their exspecting to fina 
gold, the king of the metals, as 
they termed it, at the bottom of 
the crucible. (Hobiyn.) 

r6galier, dre, adj. regular; regu- 
laris, regula, see r^gle. 

rehabiliter, v. a. and pr. to rehabil- 
itate; M.L. rehaUilitare, habi- 
litare; to enable habilis, apt, 
habore. to have, 
rehabilitation, s. f. rehabilitation. 

retiausser^ v. a. to raise, to raise 
higher, to enhance; see re and 
rehauBsement, s. m. raising. 

reimporter, v. a. to reimporte; see 

re and importer, 
reimportation, s. f. reimportation. 
rcimpressiou, s. f. reprinting, reprint; 

see re and impression. 
r6impriiner, t. a. to reprint, to print 

anew; see re and imp rimer, 
rein, s. m. kidney, pi. loins, reins; 

ren; comp. roguon. 
reine, s. f. queen; O.F. reine; re- 

cina, rex, regis, king, 
reint- Claude, s. f greengage ; so called 

after queen G I a u d e , who liked them 
very much. 

reinette, s. f pippin, rennet; same 

as rainette, s. th. 
r^installer, v. a. to reinstal; see re 

and in"? taller. 

reinstallation, s. f reinstalment. 
reinte, e, adj. strong in the back; 

see rein. 

r^int^grer, v. a. to reinstate; re, 

again, integrare, to restore, in- 

tpffpr, epe integre. 
reintegration, s. f . reinstatement; re, 

iui egraiio, -onis. 
r^it^rer, v.a to reiterate; re, iterare, 

iterum, again, comp. it^rttif. 

— 234 — 

rtttfaaHon, 8. f. reiteration; reLte* 
ratio, -onis. 
reltre, rdtre, s. m. reiter, a trooper 
especially a soldier of the German 
cavalry of (he I4tb and Ib^ cen- 
turies; Ge. reiter, a rider, a horse- 

rejaillir , v. n. (of fluids) to gush out, 
to spring forth, (of solid bodies) 
to rebound, (of light) to flash, to 
reflect; see re and jaillir. 
rqaUUssement, s. m. gushing, spouting, 
rebounding, flashing. 

rejeter, v. a. to throw again, to throw 
back, to throw away, to throw up, 
to reject; O.F. rejecter; rejec- 
tare, freq. of re-jicere, to throw 
back, j ace re, to throw, comp. 

rijet, s. m. rejection, young shoo, 
(of plants), new assessment of taxes 

rqetable, adj. rejectable. 

rejeton, s. m. shoot (of plants), scion, 

reJoindre, v. a. and pr. to rejoin, to 
join again, to reunite , to join; see 
re and join d re. 

r^Jooir, v. a. pr. to rejoice, to delight; 
see re and jouir. 

r^'ouiuanee, s f. rejoicing, merry- 
making, make -weight (of butchers 

rAjouissant, e, adj. jovial, joyful, merry. 

relftcher, v. a. and pr. to slacken, to 
relax, to release (prisoners), to let 
go, to yield, to diminish; re -lax- 
are, see l^che, comp. relaxer. 

reUehe, s. m. rest, repose, (theat.) 
non- performance, s. f. putting into 
port, port to put into. 

relAehement, s. m. slackness, laxity, 
relaxation, intermission. 

relais, s. m. relay, stage (place where 
fresh horses are taken), see relay e r. 

relancer, v. a. to start anew (hunt.), 
to turn out anew, to urce on, to 
answer sharply ; see re ana lancer. 

relapS) e, adj. and s. relapsed (into 
heresy), relapser; relapsus, p. p. 
of re- lab i, to slide back, to relapse. 

r^largrir, v. a. to widen; see re and 

relater, v. a. to relate, to state; re- 

latum, sup. of referre, see r^- 


relatif, ye, ac|j. telativa; M.L. re- 
lativus, relatum, see prec. 

relation, s. f. relation, narrative, state- 
ment, reference, connection; re- 
latio, -onis, referre, see prec. 

relaxer, v. a. to release (prisoners); 
relaxare, see relltcher. 
relaxation, s. f. release of prisoners, 
relaxation; relaxatio, -onis. 

relay er, v. a. and pr. (of workmen) 
to relieve, the relieve each other, 
V. n. to change horses;. £t d. Diez 
proposes 'religare, which means 
to tie and to loosen; comp. frayer 
from fricare. 

rel^guer, v. a. to banish to a partic- 
ular place, to relegate, pr. v. to 
seclude o.'s self, to retire; re-le- 
gare, to send away, legare, to 
reUgation, s. f. banishment to a par- 
ticular place, a relegation, rele- 
gatio, -onis. 

relent, s. m. musty smell of meat; 
redolens, -entis, pr. p. of red- 
der e, to emit a scent. 

relever , v, a. n. and pr. to raise anew, 
to raise up again, to raise, to exalt, 
to criticize, to relieve (guard), to 
rise again; re-levare; see re and 

releyailles, s. f. pi. churching, 
reley^, s. m. extract, statement 
reley^e, s. f. afternoon. 
reUvement, s. m. raising again, acconnt, 
sheer of a ship's deck, 
releveur, adj. and s. m. levator, ele- 
vator (muscle). 

relief, s. m. relief, relievo, embossing, 
remains of the table; It rilievo; 
ML. relevium. 

relier , v. a. to bind (books) , to hoop 
(casks); re- li gare, to bind back 
or behind; see re and Her. 
relieur, s. m. boock- binder; see also 

religieux, se, adj. religions, scropa- 
lous, exact; religiosus, religio, 
see religion. 
religieTxx, s. m. friar, monk, 
religieuie, s. f. nun. 

religion, s. f. religion, creed, con* 
science, religious order, order of 
Malta; religio, -onis, ace. to 
Cicero from relegere, to read 
again. Ace. to Lac tan tins and 
others, from religare, to bind 
back. The former is the more prob* 

— 235 — 

able, religio thai lignifVing the 

careful pondering OTer a thing, 
utigionnairt, s. m. f. protestant 
reliquaire, s. m. reliquary, shrine; 

see relique. 
reliq«at, s. m. arrears, remains; re- 

liquatnm, p. p. of ML. reli- 

qnare; reliqnns, that is left, 
rdiqaatairef adj. and s. debtor. 
relique 9 s. f. relic, remains; reli- 

qniae, leavings, relinquere, to 

leave behind. 

rellre, v. a. to read again; see re 
and lire. 

reliare , s. f. binding of a book, book- 
binding; see relier. 

relulre, v. n. to' shine (by reflecting 
the light), to glitter, to- flash; re- 
lucere, comp. luire. 
reluia&tf e, adj. shining, glittering, 

relnquer, v. a. to ogle, to leer; re 
(s. th.) and O.F. louquer, luquer, 
to look; O.H.G. luoken; (A.S. lo- 
ci an; Ge. Ingen; £. look). 

remanier, v. a. to handle again, to 
change greatly, to repair; see re 
and manier. 
remaniement, s. m. handling again, 

alteration, great change. 
remarier, v. a. and pr. marry again, 
to wed again; see re and marie r. 
remarqaer, v. a. to remark, to ob- 
serve, to notice; see re and mar- 
remarqnable, adj. remarkable, conspic- 
xemarqae, s. f. remark. 

rembarquer, v. a. n. and pr. to reem- 
bark, to ship again; see re and 

rembarrer, v. a. to repel, to repulse; 
re (s. th.), and O.F. embarrer, 
bare, s. th., comp. embarras. 

remblayer, v. a. to fill up with earth, 
to embank; orig. to sow, the con- 
trary of deblayer; see th. re and 
rsmblai, s. m. mound of earth, remblai. 

rembotter^ v. a. to set (bones); to 
fit In again; see re and emboiter. 
remboitement, s. m. setting (of bones), 
fitting in again. 
rembourrer, v. a. to stuff, to bolster; 
eee re, en and bourre. 
nmbomrrement, 8.m. stuffing, bolster- 

rembonrser, v. a. to reimbursai to 
refund, to repay; see re, en and 
bourse, comp. d^bonrser. 

r«mbonrsable, acU- re-imbursable. 

rembounemeiLt, s. m. reimbursement, 
repayment, refunding. 
rembrunir, v.a.and pr. to make browner, 
darker, to darken; see re, en and 

rembnmiiitmflnt, s. m. darkening. 
rembueher (se), pr. y. (hunt) to re- 
turn to the wood; see re, en and 
bdche, comp. embtiche. 

rembaehement, s. m. (hunt.) return to 
the wood. 

remade 9 s. m. remedy; re medium, 

that which heals again, a remedy; 

re, again, mederi, to heal. 
remMier, v. n. to remedy, to redress, 
rem^morer, v. a. pr. to remind, to 

remember; re- m em orare,memor, 

remereier, v. a. to thank, to decline, 

to dismiss; see re and merci. 
remereiment, s. m. thanks, thanks- 

r^m^re. s. m. repurchasing (of an 

estate); re, back, emere, to buy. 

remettre, v. a. to put back,' to give 
back, to deliver, to restore, to defer, 
to remit, pr. v. to remember, to 
recover (health), to refer (for decision), 
to rely; re-mittere, to send back. 

r^miuiseenee, s. f reminiscence, re- 
collection, reminiscentia, re- 
mi nisei, to recall to mind. 

remis, p. p. of remettre; re mis- 
sus, p. p. of remittere, see re- 

remise, s. f. delivery, surrender, de- 
rimiisible, adj. pardonable, remissible. 
r6mission, s.f. remission, merc^, par- 
don granted to criminals; remissio, 
r^molade, remoulade, s. f. chaii^e 
(a kind of ointment), mustard-sauce; 
F. remouin, p. p. of remoudre, 
8. th. (well- ground spices). 

remonter, v. a. n. and pr. to reascend, 
to remount (a horse, etc.), to go 
back (in time), to new-front (boots), 
to stock again, to wind up (clocks, 
etc.), to new-string (a violin, etc.), to 
remount; see re and m outer. 

remonte, s. f. remounting. 

remontage, s. m. vamping. 

— 236 — 

remontrer, v. a. n. to show again, 
to represent, to remonstrate; re- 
mo nstrare; see re and montrer. 
remontnmee, s. f. remonstrance, delay, 

r6mora, s. m. obstacle, obstruction, 
impediment, remora, the sucking 
fish; re- mora, delay, hindrance, 
sucking-fish, the latter attaching it- 
self to ships was supposed to be 
able to impede their progress. 

remordre, v. a. n. to bite again, to 
attack again, to torment; re-m or- 
ders, comp. mordre. 
remords, s. m. remorse. 

remorque, s.f. towing; O.F. remol- 
que; remulcum, a tow rope, 
(vfia. a towing line. 
romorqaer, v. a. to tow. 
remorqueur, s. m. tow-boat, tug. 
remuuai*e, v. a to grind again; O.F. 

remcildre; see re and moudre. 
r^moudre, v. a. to grind again (sharpen) ; 
see rp and e moudre. 
xtoiouleur, s. m. grinder. 
remuuby s. m. eddy, the wake of a 
ship; O.F. rem ol; O.F. remoldre; 
see remoudre. 

rempailler, v. a. to mend, to bottom 
chairs with rush or cane; see re 
and. empailler. 
rempaiUeur, s. m. se, s. f. chair-mender. 

remparer (se), pr. v. to fortify o/s 
self, to take possession again; 
re and emparer (s. th); Prov. 
Sp. Port, emparar, amparar, to 
seize; It. parare; Prov. parar, 
to hold towards; Fr. parer (s. th.); 
parare, to arrange, 
rempart, s.m. rampart, bulwark; O.F. 

remplacer, v. a. to replace, to take 
the place of, to succeed; see re, 
en and placer. 

rempla9ant, s. m. substitute. 

remplacement , s. m. replacement, re- 

plui-ing, substitution. 

remplir, v. a. to till again, to fill to 

fill up. to fill out, to cram, to fulfil, 

to fill (nn office); see re and emplir. 

xemplage, s. m. filling up (casks of 
\kii(") lubtnsh, small stones. 

mnplifsage, s. m. filling up, make- 


remporter, v a. to carry back, to 
take back, to carry off, to obtain; 
see re and em porter. 

remaer, v. a. n. and pr. to move, to 
stir, to stir up, to change (children) ; 
Prov. remudar; see re and muer 

remnant, e, adj. stirring, restless, busy, 
remae- manage, s. m. rummage, dis- 
tiirbanco; see menage, 
remuement, remtiment, s. m. Btirring^ 
moving, commotion. 
remaenfe, s. f. nurse. 

remugle, s. m. musty smell; Et d. 

rcniuu^rer, v. a. to remunerate, to 
reward; re-munerari, munns, 
-eris. a gilt, 
r^mnn^ratenr, trice, adj. and s. re- 
muiicrative, rewarder. 
rtanm^ration, s. f. -remuneration^ re- 
wind, r «»uiuneratio, -onis. 
r^mun^ratoire, adj. remunrratory. 

reuucier, v. u. to snuff (in anger), to 
snori; dim. of renasquer, s. th. 

renaissance, s. f. regeneration, revival, 
renaissance; see re andnaissance. 

reualtre, v. n. to be born again, to 
revive, to be regenerated; re-nasci; 
see re and naitre. 

r^nal, e, adj. renal; renalis, ren; 
see rein. 

renard, s. m. fox, reynard; O.F. 
regnard; O.II.G. reginhart; Ge. 
Rein hard, lit. very hard; ,,Reynard 
which in English is a duplicate for 
fox, while in the French renard 
has quite excluded the older volpil, 
goupil (seegoupillon), was origi- 
nally not the name of a kind, but 
the proper name of the fox hero; 
the vulpine Ulysses, in that famous 
beast- epic of the middle ages, Rei- 
neke Fuchs, the immense popu- 
larity of which we gather from many 
evidences. (Trencii.) 

renarde, s. f. she -fox. 
renardean, s. m. fox's cub. 
renardier, s. m. fox -catcher, 
renardi^re, fox's burrow. 

renasquer, v. n. to snuff (in anger), 
to snort; O.F. nasque, snot, na- 
sicus, nasus, the nose. 

rench^rir, v. a n. to overbid, to out- 
bid, to get dearer; see re and 
e n r h r i r. 

rench^rissement, s. m. rise^ increase 
of pri-e. 

rencontrer, v a. to meet, to meet 
accidentally, to fall in with, to en- 
counter, v. n. to hit, to be felicitous 
(in an idea, an expression), pr. Y. 

— 237 — 

to meet, to encounter , to coincide; 
see re and encontre. 
rencontre, s. f. meeting (by chance), 
adventure, collision, encounter, ren- 

rendant, 8.m. who renders an account; 
see rendre. 

rendez-TOuS) s. m. appointment (meet- 
ing), rendezvous; lit. render your- 
selves, repair; see rendre and 

render mir 9 v. a. and pr. to lull, to 
set to sleep again, to fall to 
sleep again; see re and endormir. 

rendre, v. a. to give back, to return, 
to deliver up, to produce, to render, 
to translate, to repeat, v. n. (of roads) 
to lead, to go, pr. v. to repair, to 
proceed, to render, to make o.'s 
self, to surrender; It rendere; 
reddere, to put back, to give back, 
dare, to give, 
rendu, e, adj. tired, weary, 
rendu, s. m. return. 

rSne, s. f. rein; O.F. resne, resgne, 
reigne; Prov. regna; It. redina; 
retinere, to restrain, tenere, 
to hold. 

r6ii6gat, s. m. e, s.f. renegade; M.L. 

renegatus; re, back, negare, 

to deny. 
renfermer, v. a. and pr. to shut up, 

to confine, to contain, to include; 

see re and enfermer. 
renfler, v. n. to swell; see re and 

renilement, s. m. swelling, enlargement. 
renfoucer, v. a. to drive farther in, 

to begin a line farther distant; see 

re and enfoncer. 
renfoneement, s. m. recess, break, 


renforcer , v. a. and pr. to strenghten, 

to make stronger, to reenforce; see 

re and enforcer, 
renfort, s. m. reinforcement. 
renfrogner (se), pr. v. same as re- 

frogner, s. th, 
rengainer, v. a. to sheathe (a sword) ; 

see re, en and gaine* 

rengrorger (se), pr. v. to bridle up, 
to hold up the. head; see re and 
renter, v. a. to deny, to disown, to 

abjure; see re and nier. 
reniement, renlment, s. m. denial, 
renienr, s. m. blasphemer, swearer* 

renifler, y. n. to snuff, to sniff; re 
(s. th.) and O.F. nifler, to snuff, 
to sniff; It niffa, niffo, niffolo; 
Prov. nefa, the big part of the 
beak of birds of prey; AS. E.D. 
neb, the beak or bill of a bird; 
L.G. nibbe, nif; O.N. nebbi, nef» 
beak, nose; (Ge. schnliffeln; £. 
sniff, snuff. 

reniflerie ,s. f. sniffing. 

reniflenr, s. m. le, s. f. sniffer. 

renue, s. m. reindeer; A.S hranas; 
^Sw. ren; O.N. hrein, hrein-dyr; 
(K. reindeer; Ge. rennthier), 
prob. from Finnlandic rain go. 
renommer, v. a. to name again, to 
reappoint, to praise; see re and 
n () ni m e r. 

renom, s. m. renown, fame, 
renomm^, s.f. renown, fame, rumour. 

renoucer, v. n. to renounce, to sur- 
reuder, to give up; renunciare, 
re-nuntiare, to bring or carry 
back word, to retract, nuntius, 
see nonce. 

renonoe, s. f. renounce (at cards). 

renoneement, s. m. renunciation. 

renonciation, s. f. renunciation > re- 

renoueule, s. f. ranunculus, crowfoot, 
butter- cup; ranunculus, a little 
frog, dim. of ran a, a frog, so named 
by Pliny because the aquatic species 
grow where frogs abound, 
renouer, v. a. to knot again, to tie 
anew, to renew, to resume; see re 
and nouer. 

renou^, s. f. polvgonum, knotberry. 

renonement, renotlment, s. m. renewal. 

reuouveier, v. a. o. and pr. to renew; 

M.L. renovellare; see re and 

nouveau, nouvel. 

renouvellemont, s. m. renewal, renewing. 

renovateur, trice, adj. renovating; 
renovatum, sup. of nenovare, 
see next w. 

renovation, s. f. renovation, renewal; 
renovatio, -onis, re-novare, 
to re-new, novus, new. 

renseigner, v. a. to teach again, to 
inform, to tell; see re and en- 

renseignement, s. m. information, di- 

rente, s. f. income, revenue, rent, 
annuity, stock; It rendita, re- 

— 238 ~ 

income; Sp.ProT. renta; reddita, 

p. p. of reddere; see rendre. 
iwiter, y. a. to endow, to idlow a 

yearly income, 
rentier, s. m. to, s. f. stockholder, 

independent gentleman or lady. 

rentrer, y. n. to come in again, to 
return, to reenter, to reappear (on 
the stage), to resume (duties, etc.), 
Y. a. to take in, to gathei in, to 
carry in (hay, com, etc.); see re 
and entrer. 

fantrant, adj. (geom.) reentering. 

mtv^, 8. f. reentrance, reopening 
(of schools, etc.), reappearance (of 
an actor), receipt, returns. 

resYeraer, y. a. and pr. to throw 
down^ to upset, to oyertum; re 
( andO.F. enverser, to over- 
turn; re*in-yersare, inversus; 
see enverft. 

MBTflrsi (4 1a}, adv. backward, on 
o.'s back. 
lenYanenentf s. m. overthrow, sub- 
version, inversion. 

reuToyer, v. a. to send again, so send 
back, to return, to dismiss, to re- 
fuse, to refer, to postpone; see re 
and envoyer. 

xtBToi, s. m. sending back, dismissal, 
reference, postponement. 

r^organiser, v. a. to reorganize; see 
re and organiser, 
rtergaaisation, s. f. reorganization. 

r^ouTerture, s. f. reopening (of a 
theatre, etc.). 

repaire, s. m. den, haunt; O.F. re- 
pairer, to return home, to retire; 
repatriare; see rapatrier. 

repaitre, v. a. and pr. to feed, to 
nourish, to delight; M.L. rep as - 
cere for pascere; see re and 
paitre, comp. repas. 

r^pandre, v. a. and pr. to pour out 
(liquids), to spill, to shed, to diffuse, 
to spread; see re and epandre. 

reparable 9 adj. reparable; repara* 
bilis, reparare; see reparer. 

reparaitre, v. n. to reappear, to 
appear again, to come out again; 
aee re and paraitre. 

reparer, v. a. to repair, to mend, to 
restore; re-parare, to get again, 
to repair; comp. parer. 
f^parahlet s. th. 

jrfparatev, taiee, a^}. and s. repara- 
tive, repairer, restorer. 

xipajratien, s. f. repair, reparation, 

repartie, s. f. repartee, rejoinder, 
reply; see next w. 

repartir, v. n. to leave again; to reply ; 
see re and partir. 

r6partir, v. a. to divide, to appor- 
tion, to assess (taxes); O.F. se par- 
tir to f'oparate ; see re and partir. 
repartition, s. f. division, distribution, 

repas, s. m. meal, repast, entertain- 
ment (meal); re -past us, p. p. of 
pascere, to feed. 
repasser, v. a. n. to repass, to pass 
again, to return; to iron, to grind 
(knives, etc.); see re and passer. 

repassage, s. m. ironing, grinding 

repassenae,, s. f ironer. 
repentir (se), pr. v. to repent; re 
(s. th.) and O.F. pentir; it. pen- 
tire; poenitere, to repent 

xepentenoe, s. f. repentance. 

repentant, e, acy. repentant. 

repentir, s. m. repentance. 

r^perenssion , s. f. repercussion, re- 
verbaracion; repercussio, -onis, 
repercussum, sup. of reper* 
cutere. see next w. 

r^percater, v. a. to reverberate, to 
drive back, to repercuss; re-per* 
cutere, to strike back, quatere, 
to strike. 

repdre, s. m. bench-marks, points 
for reference; re-perire, to find. 

repertoire, s. m. repertory, index; 
repertorium, reperire, seeprec. 

r^p^ter, v. a. to repeat, to rehearse; 

re-petere, togobackto, to repeat, 
rip^tenr, s. m. repeater, tutor, 
r^p^tition, s. f. repetition, rehearsal, 

instruction; repetitio, -onis. 
repeupler, v. a. to repeople, to stock 

again (with fish, game, etc); see 

re and peupler. 
xepeupIameBt, s. m. repeopling, stocking 

again (with fish, etc.). 

r^pit, s. m. respite, delay; O.F. re- 
spit; Prov. respieit; it. rispitto; 
respectus, a looking back, respect, 
consideration; see respect, comp. 

replaeer, v. a. to replace, to rein- 
state; see re and placer. 

replanter, v. a. to replant) see re 
|wd planter. 

— 239 — 

replfttrer^ ▼. a. to plaster again, to 

plaster up, to botch up; see re and 

replet, dte, adj. stout, portly; re- 

pletns, lull, re-piere, to fill 

a^nin (replete). 
ziApUtion, & f. repletion, stoutness, 

replier, v. a. to fold again, to fold up 

again, pr. v. to wind, to coil, (mil.) 

to fail back; re-plicare, comp. 

next w. and plier. 
repli, s. m. fold, winding, turning, 

coil (of serpents). 

T^pliquer, ▼. a. n. to reply, to answer; 
re-plicare, to fold back, to unfold, 
xvplique, s.f. reply, answer, replication. 
replonger, v. a. to plunge anew, to 
immerse again; see re and p longer. 
T^pondre, v. a. n. to answer, to reply, 
to respond, re-spondere, to pro- 
mise in return, to answer, 
ripoiui, s.. m. response; responsio, 
-onis, responsum, sup. of res- 
vAponie, s. f. answer, reply, response. 

reporter, v. a. to carry back, to re- 
convey, to carry forward, pr. v. to 
go back; see re and porter, 
report, s. m. carrying forward, sum 
brought forward. 
reposer, v. a. to lay again, to repose, 
to rest; v. n. to rest, to lie, to re- 
pose, to lie down, pr. v. to rest, to 
repose, to rely (on, upon); see re 
and poser. 

repoi, s. m. rest, resting place, re- 
pose; re, pausa. 

reposoir, s. m. altar serving as a rest- 
ing place in religious processions. 

repousser, v. a. to push back, to re- 
pulse, to repel, v. n. (of plants) to 
spring up again, to grow again; to 
be repulsive; repulsare, freq. of 
re-pellere; see re and pousser. 
zepounnt, e, adj. repulsive, shocking. 

reprehensible, adj. reprehensible ; 
reprehensibilis, reprehensum, 
sup. of reprehendere; see re- 

reprehension 9 s. f. reprehension; re- 
prehensio, -onis, see prec. 

reprendre« v. a. to take again, to 
take back, to resume, to recover, 
v. n. (of plants) to take root again, 
to grow again, to recover, pr. v. 
to oosfflct o.'s sell, (of wouimU) to 

dose; reprendere, re-prehan- 

dere, comp. prendre. 
repr^saille, s. f. reprisal, retaliation; 

It. ripresaglia; reprensus; see 

repr^senter, v. a. n. to represent, to 

show, to play, to personate; re- 

praesentarc, to bring back, to 

show; comp. presenter, 
repriientant, s. m. representative, 
repriientatif, ve, adj. representative, 
repriientatioii, s. f. representation, 

exhibition, performance, appearances; 

repraesentatio, -onis. 

r^pressif, ve, adj. repressive; re- 

pressum, sup. of re-primere, 

see reprimer. 
repression, s. f. repression; It re- 

pressione; repressum, see prec. 
r^primande, s. f. reprimand, reproof; 

reprimenda, reprimere, see 

r^primander, v. a. to reprimand, to 


reprimer, v. a. to repress, to quell, 
to subdue, to check; re-prim ere, 
to press back, to check, pre mere, 
to press. 

repris, s. m. person taken again; p. 
p. of reprendre; reprensus. p. 
p. of reprendere, see reprendre. 
repxiie, s. f. resumption, taking back, 
recapture, repetition (music), re* 
pairs, dam. 
repriaer, v. a. to darn up, to repair. 

reprobateur, trice, adj. reprobatiug ; 
reprobatum, sup. of re* pro- 
bare, to disapprove, probus, 
able, good, compL approuver and 

reprobation, s. f. reprobation; re- 
probatio, -onis, reprobare, 
see prec. 

reproeher, v. a. to reproach, to ex- 
postulate, pr. V. to repent; Prov. 
repropchar, repropche; It 
rimprocciare; Sp. reprochar; 
M.L. reprochare; re-propiare, 
comp. rapprocher. 
reprochabla, adj. reproachable. 
reproohe, s.m. reproach, expostulation. 

reprodoire, v. a. and pr. to repro- 
duce; see re and produire. 

reproduoteur, triee, acy. reproductive ; 
productum, sup. of producere. 

repzodaetion, s.* f. reproduction, comp. 

— 240 — 

reprouYer, ▼. a. to prove anew; see 
re and prouver. 

r6proaTer, v. a. to reprobate, to dis- 
approve; reprobare, see repro- 

reptUe, adj. and s. in. reptile; rep- 
tilis, reptare, freq. of repere, 
to crawl. 

repu, e, adj. satiated; p. p. of re- 
paitre, s. th. 

r^publique, s. f.. republic, common- 
wealth; respublica, res, a thing, 
an affair, publicus, a, um, public. 

r^pnblioain, e, adj. and s. republican. 

r^publicanisme, s. m. republicanism. 
r^pudier, v. a. lo repudiate (o.'s wife), 
to rfpudi^te; repudiare, re-pu- 
dium. a divorce, pud or, chastity. 

repudiation, s. f. repudiation; repu- 
diatio, -onis. 
T^pugrnery v. n. to be opposed, to be 
repugnant; re-pugnare, to fight 
again>t, pugnus. a fist. 

ripagnance, s. f repugnance; repug- 
nant la. 

z^pagxiaBt, e, adj. repugnant; re pug- 
nans, -antis. 

r^palsif, ve, adj. repulsive; It. Sp. 
repulsive; repuUum. sup. of 
repellere; see repousser. 

T^pulBion, s. f. repulsion; repulsio, 
-onis, repulsum, see prec. 

T^puter, V. a. to repute, to esteem; re- 
put a r e , to count again, to think over, 
reputation, s. f. reputation, repute; 
reputatio, -onis, a reckoning, a 
thinking over. 

requ^rir, v a. to request, to beg, to 

call upon, to require; re-quirere, 

to seek again, to ask for, quae- 

rere, to ask. 

requ^rant, e, adj. one who requests. 

requite 9 s. f. petition, request; O.F> 
request; requisita, p. p. of re- 
quirere, see requ6rir. 

reqaiem, s m. requiem; requiem, 
ace. of requies, -etis, repose; so 
called from the first word of the 
prayer commencing „Requiem ae- 
ternam dona iis, Domine, (give 
eternal rest to them o Lord). 

requln,, s. m. shark, requin; O.F. 
requiem, same w. as prec. the 
sailors called the shark requiem, 
because if it seized its prey, it never 
let it go again, and nothing remained 
but to sing a requiem. 

reqois, e, p. p. of requ6rir, s. th. 
and requete. 

requisition, s. s. requisition; requi- 

sitio, -onis, requisitus, see 

r^quisitoire, s. m. public prosecutor's 

adress to the court; requisitus, 

see. requete. 

rescif, s. m. same as recif, s. th. 
resciuder, v. a. to rescind, to annul; 

re-scindere, to cut off, to annul, 
rescision, s. f. rescission, rescindment, 

abrogation; rescissio, -onis, re- 

scissum, sup. of rescindere, see 


rescriptiou, s. f. rescription, order 
for the payment of money, re scrip - 
tio, -onis, r e sc riptum, see next w. 

rescrit, s. m. rescript; rescript um. 
rescriptus, a, um, p. p. of re- 
scribere, to write back, to reply. 

rdseauy s. m. net- work, net; O.F. 
resel. rpseul; M.L. aild It re- 
ticella (for reticulum), dim. of 
rete, a net* 

rdsdda, s. m. mignonette; reseda, 
resedare, to appease, to allay, (it 
is re|)nted to dissolve swellings). 

r^server, v a. to reserve, pr. v. to 
reserve to o.'s self, to wail for an 
oppotunity; re-servare, to keep 
bark, servare. to save, to keep. 

reservation, s. f. reservation. 

reserve, >. f. reserve, reservation. 

reserve, e, adj. reserved, cautious, shy. 

reservoir, s. m. reservoir, tank, fish- 

r^sider, v. n. to reside, to dwell; 

re-sidere, to sit down, to reside, 

sod ere, to sit. 
r^sidant, e, adj. resident, 
residence, s. f. residence, abode, 
resident, s. m. resident minister at 

a foreign court. 

r6sidu, s. m. sediment, residue; re- 
siduum, residere, see r^sider. 

r^Bigner, v. a. to resign, pr. v. to be 
resigned, to submit; re-signare^ 
to unseal, to transfer, to resign, 
signnm, a sign, 
resignation, s. f. resignation. 

r^silier, v. a. to cancel; re-silire, 
to leap back, to retreat, salire, 
to leap. 

risiliation, s. f cancelling. 

xitiUtmant, rMllmtnt, B. m. cancelliog. 

— 24t -- 

r^sille, 8. f. SpaDish hair -net; reti- 
cellum, see r^seau. 

r^slne, s. f. resin; resin a. 
rteiBowc, M, adj. resinous; resino- 

r^sipiseence, s. f. resipiscence, re- 
pentance;, resipiscentia, resi- 
piscere, to recover o.'s senses, 
resipere, to savour, sapere, to 

roister, v. n. to resist, to withstand; 
resistere, to stand against, 
r^iitance, s. f. resistance. 

r^solu, e, adj. resolved, determined, 
resolute; resolutus, p. p. of re- 
solvere, see resoudre. 

r^Mlahle, adj. solvable, resolvable. 

T^ltbmant, adv. resolutely. 

r^soliu, etc., see resoudre. 

relation, s. f. resolution; resolu- 
tio, -onis. 

r^solvaiSf r^Bolvant etc.; see re- 
r^sonner, v. n. to resound; re-so- 
nare, to sound again, to resound. 
T^onanoe, s. f. resonance. 
rAMnmant, e, adj. resonant, sonorous; 
resonans, -antis, pr. p. of re- 
rteomiMnait, s. m. resounding. 

r^orption, s. f. reabsorption; re- 
sorptio, -onis, re-sorbere, to 
suck back, to swallow again. 
resoudre, v. a. n. andpr. to resolve, 
to solve, to determine; O.F. re- 
soldre; re-solvere. 

resoiu, p. p. of resoudre. 
respeet, s. m. respect, duty, regard; 
re8pectu8,a looking back, regard, 
respect , re-spicere, to look back. 

respectable, adj. respectable, venerable. 

respecter, v. a. to respect, to revere; 
respectare, freq. of respicere. 

retpectif, ve, adj. respective. 

zespectiveiiii&t, adv. respectively. 

respeotiMuaif le, adj. respectful, dutiful. 

respirer, v. n. to breathe, to find 
rest, V. a. to inhale; re-spirare, 
to breathe back, to breathe out. 
xespirable, adj. respirable. 
respiration, s.f. respiration, breathing; 
respiratio, -onis. 
respiratoire, adj. respiratory. 
resplendir, v. n. to be resplendent, 
to shine brillantly; re-splendere. 
reepjendiiiant, e, adj. resplendent. 

s. m. resplendence. 

responsable, adj. responsible, liable | 
responsum, sup. of respondere, 
see r^pondre. 

retponsaliiliti, s. f. responsibility, lia- 

ressae^ s. m. surf; £t. d. 

ressaisir, v. a. to reseize, to take 
again; see re and saisir. 

ressaut, s. m. ressault, sally, pro- 
jection; see re and sauter. 

ressembler, v. n. to ressemble, to 
be like; see re and sembler. 
reisemblailoe, s.f. resemblance, like- 
reiiemhlant, e, adj. alike, like. 

ressemeler, v. a. to sole (boots, etc.); 
see re ai\jd semelle. 

ressentiment, s. m. slight attack (of 
a pain, disease) , resentment, feeling; 
see re and sentiment. 

ressentir, v. a. to feel, to experience, 
to have the sense of; see re and 

reserrer, v. a. and pr. to tie again, 
to tighten, to close (the ranks); 
see re and serrer. 

ressif^ s. m. same as r^cif^ s. th. 

ressort, s. m. elasticity, elastic spring, 
activity, energy; see ressortir. 

ressortf s. m. jurisdiction, depart- 
ment (part of business), resort; 
It. risorto; see ressortir. 

ressortir 9 v. n. to go out again, to 
come out again, to show; see re 
and sortir. 

ressortir, v. n. to be in the juris- 
diction; O.F. resortir, to retire, 
to resort to; M.L. resortire to 
have a right to appeal. 

ressouree^ s. f. resource, expedient, 
means; see re and source. 

ressouvenir (se), pr. v. to remember, 
to recollect; see re and souvenir. 
ressouvenir, s. m. remembrance, re- 

ressuer, v. n. to sweat; to separate 

silver from copper, same as res- 

suyer, s. th. 
ressuage, s. m. operation of melting 

metals, liquation. 
ressui, s. m. lair (where animals dry 

themselves from the dew or rain); 

see ressuyer. 
ressusciter, v. a. n. to raise (the 

dead), to revive, v. n. to rise from 

the dead, to ri^e again, re-susci- 

tare, to raise up again. 


— 242 — 

tessnyer, v. a. n. and pr. to dry; 

see re and essuyer. 
restant, e, adj. and a.m. remaining, 

remainder, rest; see r ester. 
restaurer, v. a. and pr. to restore, 
to revive; restanrare. 
rastMuraat, e, adj. restorative, 
restauraat, s. m. restaurant, eating- 

reftauratevr, s. m. trioe, s. f. restorer, 
eating-house keeper. 
reftauratioiL, s. f. restoration. 

rester, v. n. to remain, to stay, to 

sta^ behind; re-stare, to stand 

behind, comp.restant and arr^ter. 

teste, s. m. remainder, rest, remnant, 


restitner, v. a. to restore, to make 
restitution of, to return; re-sti- 
tuere, to put or set up again, to 
replace, statuere, toset up, stare, 
to stand. 

reititiitioiL, s. f. restitution, restora- 
tion; restitutio, -onis. 

restretndre, v. a. to restrict, to re- 
strain, to limit; re-stringere, to 
draw back tightlv,to restrain; comp. 
astreindre and ^treindre. 

restrietif, ve, adj. restrictive; re- 
strictnm, sup. of restringere. 

xvitrietion, s. f. restriction, restraint, 
reservation; restrictio, -onis, 
see prec. 

restringent, e, adj. ands. m. restrin- 
gent, restringens, -entis, pr. p. 
of restringere. . 

r^sulter, v. n. to result, to be the 
result (of), to follow; resultare, 
to spring oack, to rebound, freq. 
of resilire, see r^silier. 

rtenltante, s. i. resultant. 

rtevltat, s. m. result, effect. 
r^snmer, v. a. and pr. to sum up; 
re-sumere, to take up again, to 

rfonm^ s. m. summing up, summary, 
substance, resum^. 

r^sorreetion, s. f. resurrection, re- 
suscitation; resurrectio, -onis, 
resurrectum, sup. of re-sur- 
gere, to rise up again. 

ratable, s. m. screen at the back of 
an altar; O.F. restaule;re, against, 
stabilis, firm, steady. 

i^taMir, v. a. to restore, to re- 
establish, pr. V. to recover; see re 
and 6tablir. 

rMiaUiisement, s. m. restoration, re* 
establishment, recovery. 
retaper, v. a. to comb (hair) the wrong 
way, to do up (hats), to curl and 
powder (wigs); see re and taper. 
retarder, v. a. to delay, to retard, 
V. n. to be too slow, to go too 
slow, to lose; re-tardare, to make 
slow again, to tarry, see tarder. 

retard, s. m. delay, slowness, behind 

retardataiie, adj. and s. m. tardy, in 

retardatioa, s. f. retardation; retar- 
datio, -onis. 

retardement, s. m. delay, retardment. 

retenir, v. a. to keep back, to retain, 
to detain, to check, to bespeak, 
pr. V. to keep back, to hold back, 
to refrain ;re-tinere, to hold back, 
tenere, to hold. 

retention, s. f. retention, retaining; 
retentio, -onis, a holding back; 
see also retenu. 
retentir, v. n. to resound, to sound; 
O.F. tentir; re, again; M.L. tin- 
nitare, freq. of tinnire, to ring; 
comp. t inter. 

retentiflsant, e, adj. resounding. 

retenu, e, adj. and s. reserved, timid; 
p. p. of retenir, s. th. 
retenvA, s. f. reserve, moderation, 
(aduL fin.) stoppage. 

r^tieenee, s. f. reserve, reticence; 
reticentia, a keeping silent, re- 
ticere, tacere, to be silent. 

r^tieul^, e, adj. reticulated; reticu- 
lum, a little net, dim. of re te, net, 
see rets and r^seau. 
ziAtieiUaire , adj. reticular. 

r^tif, ve, adj. restive; O.F. restif; 

re-stare, to withstand. 
ratine, s. f. retina; retina, rete, net. 
retirer, v. a. to withdraw, to remove, 
pr. V. to retire, to withdraw, to 
retreat; see re and tirer. 
retixade, s. f. retirade. 
retiri, e, adj. retired, secluded. 

retomber, v. n. to fall again, to 
relapse; see re and tomber. 
retombte, s. f. springing of arches. 
retordre, v. a. to twist again, to 
twist, to twine; re-torquere, to 
twist back; see re and torare, 
eoittp. next w. 
retofdemtttt, s. m. twisting. 

— 243 — 

r^torqner, v. a. to retort (to return 

an argument); re-torqnere, see 

retors, e, adj. twisted, artful; re- 

tortuB, p.p. of retorquere, see 

retordre, comp. next w. 
retorsion, s. f. retorting (returning 

arguments); retorsio, -onis, see 

retorte, s. f . retort (vessel) ; r e t o r t a , 

p. p. of retorquere, see rotors. 

retoucber, v. a. n. to touch again, 
to retouch, to touch up; see re 
and toucher. 

retonehe, s. f. retouch, touching up 
(a picture, etc.). 
retourner, v. a. and pr. to turn, to 
turnaround, to return; v. n. to re- 
turn, to go back, to go again, to 
revert; see re and tourner. . 

retonr, s. m. return, change. 

retonma, s. f. (cards) trump -card, 
turn up card. 

retraeer, v. a. and pr. to trace again, 

to retrace; see re and tracer. 
r^traeter, v. a. and pr. to retract, to 
recant; re-tractare, to take in 
hand again, tractare, see traitor, 
vitraotation, s. f. retractation, recan- 
tation; retractatio. -ouiis. 
retraire, v. a. to withdraw; re-tra- 
here, to draw back; comp. retirer. 
xttrait, s. m. withdrawal/ regaining 
possession, shrinkage; retractum, 
sup. of retrahere. 
retraite, s. f. retreat, retirement, pen- 
sion, recess; see prec. 

rotrancher, v. a. and pr. to cut off, 
to retrench, to curtail, to intrench; 
see re and trancher. 
retnuiehement , s. m. retrenchment, 

rdtrO) s. m. see rettre. 

r^tr^eir, v. a. n. and pr. to narrow, 
to straiten, to shrink; see re and 
ritrieiasement, s.m. narrowing, shrink- 
ing, stricture. 

retremper, v. a. to temper (iron, 
steel) again, to strenghten, to give 
renewed force; see re and t rom- 

r^tribaer, v a. to retribute, to re- 
munerate, to pay; ro-tribuere, 
to give back, to repay, 
xitribution, s. f. retribution, remu- 
neration; retribatio, -oniB. 

r^tro- a prefix, theL. retro, back- 
wards, behind. 

r^troactif, ve, adj. retroactive; see 
rdtro and actlL 

retroaction, s. f. retroaction; see 
r^tro and action. 

r^troactiTite , s. f. retroactive effect; 
see r6tro and activity. 

r^troe^der, v. a. to reconvey, to 
retrocede; retrocedere; see retro 
and c^der. 

ritrooeiaion, s. f. reconvey, retro- 
cession, see cession. 

r^troirrade, adj. retrograde, back- 
ward; retro, back, gradus, a 
step, comp. grade. 

ritrogradatioiL, s. i. retrogradadon, 

ritroffnUtor, v. n. to retrograde, to 
go Dackward; retrogradi. 
retrousser, v. a. to turn up, to tuck 
up, to truss up; see re and trous- 

retarouBMoifliit, s. m. turning up, tuck- 
ing up. 

r«troiU8ia, s. m. boot-top, flap (of 
hats), facing (of uniforms, etc.). 

retrouver, v. a. and pr. to find again, 

to meet again; see re and trouver. 
rets, s. m. net, snare, ret is for 

rote; comp. r^seau and ratine. 
reunion, s. f. reunion, union, meeting, 

assembly; see re and union. 
r^unir, v. a. and pr. to unite, to join, 

to collect, to call together, to cpme 

together;, see uhir. 
r^ussir, v. n. to succeed, to have 

success; O.F. re-is sir, ussir; It. 

uscire; see re and issu. 
riussite, s. f. success, issue. 
revaneher, v. a. to defend, pr. v. to 

retaliate, to revenge ;0.F. revenger, 

see re and venger. 
revanche, s. f. retaliation, revenge. 
r^vasser, v. n. to be dreaming, to 

dream, to muse; see r eve. 
rivESflerie, s. f. dream. 
rSve, s.m. dream, fancy, vision; O.F. 

resve, reve; rabies, rage; comp. 

rage (E. rave). 
revdche, adj. sharp (to the palate). 

harsh, untractable; It. rivescicy; 

reversus, turned contrary, see 

reveiller, v. a. and pr. to awake, to 

wake up, to rouse; see re and 



— 244 — 

revdl, 8. m. awaking, reveille, 
reveille- matin, s. m. alarm-clock; 

see matin. 
reveillon, s. m. collation in the middle 

of the night; O.F. revel; Prov. 

revel, revolt; (E. revel); re- 

bellare, to revolt, see rebeller. 

r^T^ler, v. a. to reveal^ to disclose; 
re-velare, to nnveil, velum, a 

rivtiatenr, tiiee, adj. revealing, dis- 

rAvtiatton, s.f. revelation, discovery; 
revelatio, -onis. 

revenant, e, adj. pleasing, prepos- 
sessing; pr. p. of revenir, s. th., 
comp. next w. 

revenant, s. m. ^host, apparition; 
pr. p. of revenir, s. th. 

revendenr, s. m. se, s. f. retailer, 
dealer in old clothes ; see r e v e n d r e. 

revendiqner, v. a. to claim, to reclaim; 

re, s. th.; vindicare, vendicare, 

vindex, a claimant; (vindicate). 

revendieation, s. m. claiming; vin- 

dicatio, -onis. 

revendre, v. a. to resell; see re and 

reventr, v. n. to come back, to re- 
turn, to come again, to come round, 
to recover; re- venire, to come 

xievenant, s. th. 

revenu, s. m. revenue, income, 
xev^ne, s. f. young wood of a coppice. 
revente, s.f. resale; see re and vente. 

rdver, v. n. a. to dream, to think; 

see rSve. 
r^verb^rer, v. a. to reverberate; 
re-verberare, to beat or cast 
back, verber, a lash. 
r^verb^ratioB, s. f. reverberation. 
r4verbtee, s. m. reflector of a lamp, 

reverdir, v. a. to paint green again, 
V. n. to become green again, to 
reblossom; see re and verdir. 

r^v^rer, v. a. to revere, to revejence. 
to venerate; re-vereri, to stand 
in awe or fear of, to respect. 

riv^renoe, s. f. reverence, respect, 
obeisance, bow; reverentia. 

r^vireneienx, le, adj. reverential. 

r4virend, adj. and s. m. reverend. 

reverie, s. f. revery, idle fancy, 
dreaming, frenzy; see rdve. 

revers, s. m. reverse, backblow; re- 
versus, p. p. of reverti, to turn 

riveniUe,adj.revertible, reversionary. 

rivenibiliti, s. f. reversion. 

riversioiL, s. f. reversion; reversio, 
-onis, a return. 

rev^tlr, v. a. and pr. to clothe, to 

dress, to line, to invest; see re 

and v^tir. 
revttement, s. m. facing of plaster, 

wood, etc. 
r^vear, se, adj. and s. dreaming, 

pensive, dreamer; see reve. 
revient, s. m. net cost; see revenir. 
revirer, v. n. to change sides of a 

ship, to tack; see re and virer. 
revirement, s. m. tacking, sudden 

change, transfer (bank.). 

reviser, v. a. to revise, to review; 
revisere, to return to see; see 
revieear, s. m. examiner. 
xevisioiL, s. f. revision, review; re- 
visio, -onis. 
revivifier, v. a. to revivify, to revive; 
see re and vivifier. 
revivificatioa, s. f. revivification. 
revivre, v. n. to revive, to live again, 
to return to life; see re and vivre. 
revocable, adj. revocable, repealable ; 
revocabilis, revocare; see re - 

revocation, s. f. revocation, repeal, 
recall; revocatio, -onis, revo- 
care, see r^voquer. 

revoiei, prep, here is a^ain, here are 
again; see re and voici. 

revoilA, prep, there is again, there 
are again; see re and voila. 

revoir, v. a. n. and pr. to see again, 
to meet again, to revise (correct 
modify); re-videre, see re ana 

r^volte, s. f. revolt, rebellion; re- 
voluta. p. p. of re-volvere, to 
roll back, to revolve, 
r^olter, v. a. n. and pr. to revolt, 
to excite, to rouse, to rebel, 
riveltaat, e, adj. revolting, shocking; 
pr. p. of prec. 

r^vola, e, adj. finished (time), com- 
pleted; revolutum, sup. of re- 
volvere, see prec. 

r^Tolation, s. f. revolution; revo- 
lutjo, -onis, revolutum, see 

— 245 — 

rtvolvtioiiiuure, adj. and s. revolution- 
ary, revolutioniBt. 
riyoliiti<nuur, v. a. to revolutionize. 
r^Toqaer, v. a. to revoke, to repeal, 
to recall; re-voeare, to call back, 
to recall. 
revn, e, p. p. of revoir, s. th. 

revne, s. f. review, survey. 
revulsion, s. f. revulsion; revulsio, 
-onis, re-vellere, revnlsum, 
to pull back, 
rivnliif, ve, adj. revulsive. 
reZ) 8. m. and prep, level; rasus, 
see ras. 

rei-de-ehaiuite, s. m. ground -level, 
ground -floor; see de and chaus- 
rhabiller, v. a. to dress again, to 
mend; see re and habiller. 
rhabillage, s. m. mending, patching up. 
rh^nan, e, adj. Rhenish; see Rnin. 
rh^teur, s. m. rhetor, rhetorician; 
rhetor, (littoQ^ an orator, (em, to 
flow, to speak, 
rh^toridan, s. m. rhetor, rhetorician. 
rh^torique, s. f. rhetoric; rheto- 
ric a, (rjtoQtuil, the art of oratory, 
frltmQj see prec. 
Bhin, s. m. Rhine; Rhenus; Ge. 

rhinoceros, s. m. rhinoceros; rhi- 
noceros; fivonigtog, (^g^fivogy the 
nose. usQccg, a horn. 
rhododendron, s. m. rhododendron; 
(ododsv^QoVj rose-tree, fodov^ the 
rose, divdQov, a tree. 
rhombe, s. m. rhomb, rhombus; 
rhombus, fofipog, a magic wheel, 
a rhombus, ^f/i^oo, to roll about, 
rhomboide, s. m. rnomboid; eldogj 
BhOne, s. m. Rhone; Rhodanns. 
rhnbarbe, s. f. rhubarb; rheum, 
'Pa, a name of the river Volga, 
{(iog, a stream, (im, to flow); ^Sq- 
paQog, strange, foreign. 
rhom, mm, s. m. rum; £. rum. 
rhume, s. m. cold fdisease); rheum a; 

fsviitt, a flow, Qsm, to flow, 
rhnmatiqiie, adj. rheumatic ; (evfiari 
Tidg^ subject to a discharge, 
rhnmatiimal , adj. rheumatic, 
rhnmatisma, s. m. rheumatism, J£v- 
rhythme, s. m. rhythm; rhythmus; 

pv^fto's, (im, to flow, 
rhythmique, adj. rhythmical ; fvd'iunog. 

riant, e, adj. smiling, cheerful, pleas- 
ant; pr. p. of rire, s. th. 
ribambelle, s. f. string (long list), 

host, lot; Et. d. 
riband, e, adj. and s. ribald; O.F. 
ribald; It. ribaldo; M.L. ribal- 
dus; O.H.G. hriba. 
ribaudflrie, s. f. ribaldry, 
ribleor, s. m. prowler, 
ribota, s. f. debauch, intoxication, 
riboter, v.n. to get intoxicated, drunk, 
riboteor, s. m. se, s. f. debauchee, 

riblette, s. f. collop, rasher; Et. d. 
rieaner, v.n. to sneer; O.F. recaner, 
recaigner; Prov. reganar, to 
show the teeth ; Sp. r e ^ a n a r ; Et. d. 
Diez suggests cachinnare, to 
latigh aloud. 
rieaii«inent, s. m. sneering, 
rieaaarie, s. f. sneer, 
rieaaeor, sa, adj. and s. sneering, 
rle-lk-rie, adv. exactly, with rigorous 
exactness; Et. d. 

riche, adj. and s. m. rich, wealthv, 
precious, copious; O.F. rice; It. 
ricco; Goth, reiks; O.H.G. rthhi; 
A.S. rica, rice, rye; (Ge. reich, 
E. rich). 

richard, s. m. rich fellow, 
xiehassa, s. f. riches, wealth, abun- 
riein, s. m. castor-oil-plant ; r i c i n u s. 
rieoener, v. n. to ricochet; Et. d. 
ricoohat, s. m. ricochet, the bounding 
or skipping of a flat stone,, thrown 
obliquely on the surface of water. 

ridelle, s. f. staff -side (of carts); 

Et. d. 
rider, v. a. and pr. to wrinkle, to 
shrivel; O.H.G. ridan. 
rida, s. f. wrinkle, ripple, 
ridaaa, s. m. curtain, rideau; O.F. 
ridel; M.L. ridellus. 
ridicnle, adj. and s. m. ridiculous, 
ridicule; ridiculus, laughable, 
ridere, see rire. 

ridicttliiar, v. a. and pr. to ridicule, 
ridicvliti, s. f. ridiculousness, ridicu- 
lous thing. 

rien, s. m. nothing, mere nothing, 
mere trifle; O.F. ren; rem, ace. 
of res, rei, a thing, 
rian, adv. nothing. 

rieur, s. m. se, s. f. laugher; see 

- 446 — 

rifler, v. %, n, to scrape, to plane; 

O.F.riffer, to scratch ;L.G.rif fen; 

6e. raffen; £. rifle; comp. rafle. 
riilard, s. m. common plane, old 

rl^aodon, s. m.; see rigodon. 
ri^de, adj. rigid; strict; rigid us, 

stiff, hard, rigere, to stiffen; comp. 

raide, roide. 
rigidity, 8. f. rigidity, strictness; ri- 

rigodon, s. m. rigadoon; a dance 

said to have been brought from 

Provence, and to have been so 

called from its inventor Rig and. 

rigole, s. f. (small) trench, culvert; 
£t. d.; ace. to some the Gelt rhig, 
incision, rhigol, furrow; ace. to 
Frisch, Ge. rie^e, same as reihe 
(O.H.G. rifl^a, circular line) row. 
rigueur, s. f. rigour, strictness; ri- 
gor, rigere, to stiffen. 

rigoriime, s. m. rigorism, strictness 
carried to excess. 

rigoriste, s. m. f. rigorist. 

rigouenx, le, adj. rigorous, strict; 
It. Sp. rigoroso. 

rUne , s. f. rhyme, verse ; Prov. It. Sp. 

rima; Ge. reim; O.H.G., A.S. rim, 

number. . 

rimailler, v. n. to make bad rhymes, 
rimaillenr, s. m. versifier, rhymester, 
rimer, v. a. n. to rhyme, 
runeur, s. m. rhymester. 
rlneeau, rainceau, s. m. (arch, paint.) 

foliage, bough; O.F. rainoi, rain, 

bougn, ramus. 

rincer, v. a. to rinse; for rinse r; 
O.N. hreinsa; Ge. rein, clean; 
O.H.G. hreinisdn, reinison, to 
rin^e, s. f. slops. 

rioter, v. n. to titter; O.F. riot, 
quarrel, E. riot; £t. d. 
rioteur, sa, adj. and s. tittering, 

ripaiUe, s. f. feasting, ^ood cheer; 
said to be the name of a place on 
the lake of Geneva, where one of 
the Savoy princes after having 
retired from the Government made 
the pleasures of the table his ex- 
clusive study. 

riper, v. a. to scrape off; O.H.G. 
ripan; Ge. rippen, reiben, to 
ripe, s. f. Boraper. 

ripop^e, 8. f. slipslop; a mixture of 
the remains of several bottles of 
wine, slope, a mixture of different 
liquors or sauces, a medley; £t. d. 

riposte, 8. f. repartee, reply; It. ris- 
posta, p. p. of rispondere, to 
answer; comp. repondre. 
riposter, v. n. to repartee, to reply, 
(fenc.) to parry and thrust 

rire, v. n. to laugh, to smile, to joke, 
pr. V. to jest, to trifle (with), to make 
fun (of)i ridere; comp. croire 
and seoir. 

ris, 8. m. sweet -bread; said to be a 
corruption of rides, ripples, see 

ris, s. m. laugh, smile, laughter; 
risus, risum, sup. of ridere, 
see prec. 
riste, 8. f. laugh, laughter, laughing- 

risible, adj. risible, laughable; risi- 
bilis, risus, see prec. 
xisibilitft, s. f. risibihty. 

risque, s. m. risk, hazard, peril; It. 
risico, risco;Sp. rlesgo;£. risk 
from Sp. risco, rock (danger), 
risquer, v. a. andpr. to risk, to ven- 
ture; It. risicare; Sp. ar-ris- 

rissoler, v. a. to roast brown; same 
root as Da. riste; £. roast; Ge. 
roesten; see rotir. 
liisole, s. f. rissole, small meat-pie. 

rit, rite. s. m. rite; ritus. 

ritoarnelle, s. f. ritomello, the burden 
of a song; It ritornello, ritor- 
nare, to return. 

rituel, s.m. ritual, prayerbook; see rit. 
ritudistef s. m. ritualist. 

rivage, s. m. sea-shore, shore, beach, 
bank (of a river, etc.); see rive. 

rival, e, adj. and s. rival; rivalis, 
lit. pertaining to a brook, ri vales, 
those who use the same brook, 
transf. rivalis, a rival, rivus, a 
rivaliser, v. n. to rival, to compete, 
rivaliti, s. f. rivalry, competition. 

rive, 8. f. bank (of rivers, etc.), shore; 
It riva; ripa. 

river, v. a. to rivet, to clinch ; O.H.G. 
ripan; Ge. reiben; see riper. 

riverain, e, s. and adj. inhabitant 
of the banks of a river, or of the 
borders of a forest; see rive. 

rivet, 8. m. the riveted end of a nail in 
the hoof of a horse, rivet; see river. 

— 247 — 

ilTidre, s. f. riyer, stream (of dis- 

monds); It. riviera; Prov. Port. 

ribeira; O.F. riviere, bank, ri- 

pari a, belonging to the bankB, ripa, 

bank, comp. rive. 
lixdale, s. r. rix-dollar; Da. rigs- 

daler; Gre. reichsthaler, reieh, 

realm, thaler, a dollar. 
lixe, B. f. scuffle, affray, wrangling; 

rlz, 8. m. rice; Prov. ris; It riso; 

Ge. reis; oryza; ^gv^tx. 

riiiix9, 8. f. rice -plantation. 

rob, 8. m. rob; It. robbo, rob; 

Sp. rob; Arab. robb. 
robe, 8. f. dress, gown, robe; Prov. 

rauba, booty; O.H.G. roub, booty 

Sjre. raub, spoil); comp. d6rober. 
in, 8. m. limb of the law; see prec. 
robin, s. m. name of the sheep in 
the fable, same, as Robert, comp. 
renard, pierrot, martinet, etc. 
rohlnet, s. m. cock (instrument for 
drawing off a liquid from a cask^, 
tap; because the taps are generally 
made in the form of heads of sheep. 

robre, s. m . rubber (whist) ; £. r u b b e r. 

robuste, adj. robust, vigorous; ro- 
bnstus, robur, strength. 

roe, 8. m. rock, castle (in chess); 
It. rocco; see roche. 

roeaille, s. f. shell-work, rock- work, 
see prec. 
roeaillenx, sa, adj. flinty, stony. 

roeambole, s. f. rocambole; Et. d. 

roche, s. f. rock; Prov. roca, rocha; 
It. rocca, roccia; Et. d. I)iea pro- 
poses rupea, rupes, a rock; 
comp. proche. 

roeher, b. m. rock, rocks, breakers; 
see prec. 

rochet, s.m. rochet, ratchet (wheel); 
It. rocchetto; Sp. roquete; 
roccus, rochus; O.H.G. rocch, 
hroch; Ge. rock^ a coat. 

r^der, v. n. to ramble, to rove, to 
roam; Prov. rodar; It. rotare, 
to turn; comp. rouer. 
rddeor, 49. m. rambler, rover. 

rodomont, s. m. rodomont, bragger, 
vain boaster,Il odomonte, a bluster- 
ing hero in the Orlando Furioso 
of Ariosto. The name is said to 
have been created byBojardo, the 
author of Orlando innamorato 
(f 1494), from L. rotare montem, 
to turn a mountain. 

B. f. rodomontade, noisy 
blustering, rant 

rog«tion8, s. f. pi. rogation; roga- 
tio, -onis, rogare, rogatum, 
to ask. 

rogatoire, adj. (commission or writ) 
of inquiry; M.L. rogatorius, 
see prec. 

rogaton, s. m. remnants of meat re- 
vise piece; rogatum, askea or 
begged for, sup. of rogare, see 

rogne, s. f. inveterate itch, mange; 
robigo, -inisi rust of metals, 

rogner, v. a. to clip, to cut off (the 
extremities), tocut; O.F. rooigner; 
Prov. redonhar, rezoynar; O.F. 
roond, reond, round; rotundus. 
rognAwr, B. m. sa, 8. f. clipper (of 
rognura, s. f. clipping, refuse. 

rognenx, se, adj. and s. itchy, mangy; 
see rogne. 

rognon, s. m. kidney; Sp. renon; 
Prov. renhd, ronho; ren; comp. 

rogue, adj. arrogant, haughty; N. 
hrokr, arrogant; (E. rogue). 

roi, 8. m. king; O.F. rei; rex. 
roitdet, s. m. petty king, kinglet 

roide, raide, adj. stiff, rigid, tight, 
tough; O.F. roit; Prov. rege, 
rede, reze, rot; rigiduB, comp. 

roiddor, s. f. stiffness, rigidity, in* 
roidir, v. a. to stiffen. 

roitelet, s. m. petty king, kinglet; 
see roi. 

rWe, s. m. roll, role, part or char- 
acter (in a play); Prov. rotle; It 
rotolo, rullo; Sp. rollo, roi; 
Ge.rolle; E. roll; rotula, a little 
wheel, dim. of r o t a , a wheel ; comp. 
eontr61e, enrdler and rouleau* 
rMet, B. m. small role, part 

Bomain, e, adj. and s. Eoman; Bo- 
manus, Bo ma, Bome. 
romaine, s. f. lettuce, steel -yard; 
lactuca romana, comp. laitue* 

roman, e, adj. Bomanic, Bomance; 
O.F. and Prov. remans; M.L. ro- 
roman, s. m. novel, romance; lit 
something written in the Bomance 
lanffuage. „The Latin tongue ceased 
to be spoken in France abont the 

— 248 — 

ninth century, and was succeeded 
by what was called the romance 
tongue, a mixture of the language 

• of the Franks and bad Latin. As 
the songs of chivalry became the 
most popular compositions in that 
language, they were emphatically 
called r o m a n 8 or r o m a n t s." (Percy.) 

zmnance, adj. Romanic, Romance, 
s. f. ballad, song. 

romaneier; s. m. novelist, novel-writer. 

roxnaneique, adj. romantic. 

ivmantiqBe, adj. romantic. 

romarin, s. m. rosemary; rosma- 

rinus, ros, dew, marinus, marine. 
rompre, v. a. n. and pr. to break, 

to break in, to snap, to rupture; 

rumpere, to burst, to break, comp. 


rompement, s. m. mental fatigue. 
ronce, s. f. brier, bramble, black- 
: berry -bush, thern; rumex, -icis, 


fond, e, adj. round, even, frank: 
O.F. roond, r6ond; Sp. Port, re- 
dondo; It. rotondo; rotundus, 
round, rota, a wheel. ■ 

nmd, B. m. round (thing), ring, circle. 

rondaehe, s. f. round sliield, buckler. 

ronde, s f. round (walk performed 
by certain officers), beat (of a po- 
liceman, etc.), round. 

rondea-u, s. m. rondeau: rondo; O.F. 

nmdelet, te, adj. roundish, plump, 
rondement, adv. roundly, quickly. 
rondenr, s. f. roundness, 
rontoi, s. m. round piece of firewood, 
cudgel. ' 

rond-point, s. m. the rounded end of 

a church, place where several roads 

meet; lit. round point; see point. 

^onfler, v. n. to snore, to snort (of 

. ??^T' **!?°<le^ etc.), to roir; roffazan. 

_iroiiflement, s. m snoring, snorting 

roaring (of thunder, etc.). 

wafleur, s. m. m, s. m. snorer. 

**?jfrrn'^7' Q *^J^a^» *« nibble, tO 

corrode; Sp. Port, rumiar; M.L. 
rn™'/*J®' to ruminate, ruma, 

f^;, s. m. (hunt.) ruminating. 
w«jgwr. adj and s. m. gnawing, cor- 
roding, rodent, gnawer. ^' 

Roquefort, s. m. Roquefort cheese; 
Roquefort, the name of a place 
in Languedoc, France. 

roquelaure, s. f. roquelaure; a kind 
of cloak or surtout buttoning up 
in front, introduced by the Duke 
de Roquelaure in the reign of 
Louis XIV. 

roquer, v. n. (chess) to castle; Sp. 
roque. castle (in chess); It. rocco; 
E. rook; Pers. rokh, a camel bear- 
ing archers. 

roquet, s. m. pug dog, dog; N. rack!) 
A.S. raece; O.E. rach, a settings 

roquette, s. f. rocket (plant); It. ru- 
chetta; Sp. ruqueta, dim. of Prov. 
It. ruca; Ge. rauke; eruca, cole- 

rosace, s. f. (arch.) rose, rose- work; 

see next w. 
rosae^, e, adj. rosaceous; rosaceus, 

rosa, see rose. 
rosage, s. m. oleander, rosebay; see 


rosalre, s. m. rosary; M.L. rosa- 
rium; rosarius^ of roses, see 
rose. „The name of rosary is 
figurative; it means a chaplet of 
spiritual roses, divided into three 
sets, white, red, and damask roses, 
corresponding to the joyful, sorrow- 
ful, and glorious mysteries." (p. cyo.) 

rosat, adj. (pharm.) of roses, rose; 

rosatum, rosa; see rose. 
rdsbif, s. m. roast beef; E. roast 


rose, s. f. rose; rosa, (o96v. 
reie, adj. rosy, rose-coloured, 
rose, s. m. rose-colour. 

roseau, s. m. reed, reed-grass, rush; 
O.F. rosel; Prov. rauzel, dim. of 
Prov. raus; Goth, raus, a reed. 
(E. rush; O.H.G. rdr; Ge. rohr, 

rose-eroix, s. m. rosictucian; ros, 
dew, crux, cross. „Crux stands 
instead of lux, light, because the 
figure of the cross exhibits the three 
lettres of which the word LVX is 
formed; and light is what, in the 
opinion of the Rosicrucians , when 
properly modified, produces gold. 
And or all natural oodies dew is 
the most powerful dissolvent of 

gold." (Motheim.) 

— 249 — 

ros^e, i. f. dew; Pro v. fob; Port. 

r6cio; Sp. roclo; roscidus, 

dewy, ros. dew, (roBcid). 
roseride, 8.1. rosary (a bed of roses); 

see rose. 
rosette, s. f. rosette, rose, bow, roset, 

red ink, (de cuivre, of copper, 

understood) pure red copper; see 

rosier 9 s. m. rose-bush; see rose. 
rosfdre. s. f. rose -maid (the girl who 

gets the price of virtue at the feast 

of roses); see rose. 
roson, s. m. same as rosace, s. th.; 

It. roBone, a rose. 
rosse, s.f. jade (horse), hack; O.H.G. 

hros, ros; A.S. hors; E. horse; 

Ge. roBS. 
rosser. v. a. to trash (beat), to drub; 

Et. d. 
rossignol, s. m. nightingale, picklock; 

O.F. luscignol; luBciniolus, dim. 

of luscinia, (luscinius, Phaedr.) 

rossinante, s. f. miserable horse; the 

name of Don Quixote's horse, Sp. 

rocinante, rocin, a nag, comp. 

rossolis, s. m. rosa-solis, a kind 

of liquor; ros, dew, solis, of the 

sun, sol, solis, the sun. 
rostres, s. m. pi. rostrum; Rostra, 

an erection between the Comitium 

and the forum, from which speakers 

delivered their addresses, so called 

from being adorned with the beaks 

of ships; rostrum, the bill or beak 

of a bird, a ships beak. 
lOBtral, e, adj. rostral, ros trails. 
rot, s. m. belch; It. rutto; ructus, 

, s. m. roast, roast meat; Prov. 
raust; E. roast; comp. rotir. 
rotation, s. f. rotation; rotatio, 
-onis, rotare, to turn, rota, a 

rotatoire, adj. rotatory. 
roter, v. n. to belch; ructare, see 

r^ti, s. m. roast, roast meat; p. p. 

of rdtir, s. th. 
rOtie, s. f. toast; same as prec. 
rotin, s. m. ratan; ace. to Buchanan 
Javanese rottang; Malay rot an. 
rOtir, V. a. n. to roast, to broil, to 
toast; O.F. rostir; O.H.G. rostan 
(£. roast; Ge. roesten). 
^tiiMrio, 8. f. cook-shop. 

rMiMenr, s. m. sa, s. f. master, mis- 
tress of a cook-shop. 

r6tiiiolz», s. f. roaster. 
rotonde, s. f. rotundo; It. rotonda; 
rotundus, round, rota, a wheel. 

rotonditi, s. f. rotundity, plumpness. 

rotule, s.f. knee-pan; rotnla, dim. 

of rota, a wheel. 
reture, s. f. plebeian state; M.L. rnp- 

tura, a small piece of land; rupta, 

see route, 
rotnrier, hn, adj. and s. plebeian, 


rouage, s. m. wheel- work, machinery, 

movement (of clocks, etc.); see 

roaan, adj. (of horses) roan; O.F. 

roan; It. roano, rovano; Sp. 

rouano; ace. to Roquefort from 

ravus, grayish, 
rouan, s. m. roan horse. 
ronanne, s. f. brand -iron (to brand 

casks), pump -borer; Et. d. 
rouanner, v. a. to brand casks, to bore. 
roaehe, s. f. hull (of a ship); same 

as ruche, s. th. 

roucouler, v. n. to coo; onomat. 
roueoulement, s. m. cooing. 
roae, s. f. wheel, fake (of a cable); 

reu^, e, adj. and s. broken (upon 

the wheel), fatigued, harrassed, rou6, 

profligate person; see rouer. 
rouelle, s. f. round slice; see roue. 
roaennerie, s. f. common printed 

cotton; made at Rouen in France. 
rouer, v. a. to break upon the wheel, 

to beat, to coil (a cable) ; see roue. 

rouerie, s. f. trick, action ofarou^; 

see roue. 
rouet, s. m. spinning wheel, small 

wheel; see rou6. 
rouge, adj. red, red hot; Prov. rog; 

It. roggio, robbio; Sp. rubio; 

rubeus, ruber; comp. tige and 

rouge, B. m. red colour, rouge, paint, 
rouge&tre, adj. reddish, 
rougeaud^ e, adj. and s. ruddy, red- 
rouge- gorge, s. m. robin, redbreast; 

see gorge. 

rougeole, s. f. rubeola, measles, 
rouget, s. m. red mullet, 
rougeor, s. f. redness, blush, 
rongir, v. n. a. to redden, to blush, 

to colour up. 

— 250 — 

ifOilUe^ ■• f • rust, blight (of plants); 
Prov. roYlh, roYlba; rabigo, nut. 
rooillnr, v. a. and pr. to rust. 
i«ttOlBz«, B. f. rnstiness. 
rottir, V. a. to ret; D. roten, rotten; 
(Ge. roesten; £. ret, rot). 
fvaiiwge, s. m. retting; comp. alao 

ronler, ▼. a. n. to roll, to wheel, to 

revolve, to turn over; O.F. roler; 

see rdle. 

fo«la4e» 8. f. roll, roulade; see roaler. 
fovlage, B. m. rolling; carrier-business. 
zmOaat, e, adj. rolling, (road) easy 

(for carriages), (of firing) running; 

pr. p. of rouler: 
rootoaa, s. m. roll, roller, rouleau; 

dim. of role. 
roulemaiit, s. m. rolling (motion) , roll 

(of drums), rotation, 
ronletta, s. f. small wheel, caster, 

Bath chair, roulette (game). 
roulier, s. m. carter. 
. rpolii, 8. m. rolling (pi ships). 
nmloir, s. m. rolling board (for wax). 

roapie^ s. f. snivel; Et. d. 
rmq^^uz, s. f. se, adj. snively. 
roupie, s. f. rupee; Pers. ropah, 

roapiller^ v. n. to slumber, to doze ; 

£t. d.; ace. to Frisch F. roupie, 

snivel, s. tb. 
roapilltur, s. m. le, s. f. slumberer, 

roure^ roayre, s. m. English oak; 

O.F. robre; robur, hardness, a 

very hard kind of oak. 

ronsse) adj., f. of roux (s. th.) redd- 
ish, carroty; Prov. ros; It. rosso; 
russus, red. 

fovsfitra, adj. reddish, russet. 

rouiieaii, s. m. red-haired person. 

muidtt, s. m. russeting. 

rwuNMV} s. f. redness, freckle. 

rousfi, s. m. Russia -leather, smell of 

routlTi V. a. n., s. th. 
roussin^ s. m. thick-set stallion; O.F. 
roucin; Prov. rossin, rocin; Sp. 
rocin, a nag; F. rosse, s. th. 

roussir, v. a. n. to redden, to turn 
red, to scorch (bv fire); see rousse. 
fonsfif s. m., s. tn. 

rout) s. m. rout (numerous assembly); 
£. rout. 

route, s. f. road, way, route (direc- 
tion); rupta (via) broken i. e. 

beaten way, rumpere, rvptiim, 
to break; comp. Ge. bahn, way, 
akin to A.S. ban a, destruction, 
£. bane. 

rontiar, s. m. and adi. person who 
knows the roads well, chart-book, 
rontine, s. f. routine, 
rontinnr, v. a. to teach by routine, 
rontiaier, s. m. ire, s. f. person acting 
by routine. 

routoir, s. m. retting pit; see roqiir. 

rouvienx, s. m. mange (of horses); 
O.H.G. hruf, ruf; Ge. rufe. 

ronvre) see r our e. 

rouvrir, v. a. andpr. to open again; 
see re and ouvrir. 

roux, rousse, adj. and s. reddish, 
red-haired, carroty; see rousse. 

royal, e, adj. royal, kinglv, regal; 
O.F. reial, real; regalis, rex, 
king; see roi. 
royaUnne, s. m. royalism. 
royaliste, adj. and s. royalist, 
royaume, s. m. kingdom, realm, 
royauti, s. f. royalty; O.F. roialt^. 

ra, s. m. channel of a brook; O.F. 
riu, rui; Prov. riu; Sp. rio; ri- 
vus, a small stream of water, a 

made, s. f. kicking (of animals); see 

rubaee, rubaeelle, s. f. bright ruby; 
see rubis. 

ruban, s. m. ribbon; £t. d. 
raban«rie» s. f . ribbon- weaving, ribbon- 
rabanier, s. m. bn, s. f. ribbon- weaver. 

rubarbe, see rhubarb e. 

rub^fier, v. a. to rubify, to redden; 
rubefacere, ruber, red, facere, 
to make, 
rab^fftotion, s. f. rubification. 

rubican, adj. and s. m. rubican, ru- 
bican colour; rubere, to be red. 

mbieond, e, adj. rubicund, reddish; 
rubicundus, rubere, to be red. 

rubis, s. m. ruby^; It. rubino; Ge. 
rubin; rubeus', red; see prec. 

rnbrique, s. f. ruddle, red chalk, 
rubric; ruber,, red, the titles ot 
laws, the rubrics, etc. were for- 
merly written or printed in red 

ruche, s. f. hive, bee -hive; O.F. 
rusche, rusque; Prov. ruaca, 
ruscha, bark, hive; M.L. rusoa; 
a Celtic word, O.Ir. riiae; Gael, 
rdsg; W. rhisg, bark (£• ruak). 

— 251 — 

niolier, 8. m. apiarv, bee -house. 
rudanier, dre^ adj. and s. surly, 
churlish; rude, see next w. and 
anier, ass- driver, see ane. 

rude, adj. rough, rude; rudis. 
nidMwe, s. f. roughness, rudeness; 
comp. also rudoyer. 
rudent^, e, adj. cabled (columns); 
rudens, -entis, a rope, a cord, 
rsdentiire, s. f. rudenture, cabling. 
rudiment, s. m. rudiment; rudi- 
mentum, a first attempt, rudis, 

mdimentaire, adj. rudimental, elemen- 

radoyer, v. a. to treat harshly, to 

handle roughly; see rude. 
rue, s. f. rue (plant); Prov. ruda; 

rut a, fvtijj jk bitter herb, rue. 
rue, s.f. street; Prov. Sp. Port, rua; ruga; ruga, a turrow. 
raeDe, s. f. small street, lane, space 

between a bed and the wall. 
mer, v. a. to hurl, to throw, pr. v. 

to rush, to fall, v. n. (of animals) 

to kick; mere, to rush. 

ruflen, s. m. libertine, debauchee; 
It. Prov. Sp. rufian, pander, de- 
bauchee; E. ruffian; O.H.G. hruf; 
M.H.G. ruf; Ge. rufe, scurf, comp. 

rugir, V. n. (of wild beasts) to roar; 

rugiMementy s. m. roar, roaring of 
wild animals. 

mguenx, se, adj. rugous, wrinkled; 
rugosus, ruga, a wrinkle, 
mgositi, s. f. rugosity, wrinkle. 

mil^e, s. f. verge -board; O.F. ruil, 

rule; (regula, see roule). 
mine, s. f. ruin; ruina, a falling 
down, ruere, see ruer. 
miner, v. a. and pr. to ruin. 
ndnaiuE, m, adj. ruinous; ruinosus. 

mlssean, s. in. brook, rivulet, gutter 
(of streets, roads); O.F. ruissel; 
a form rivicellus for rivulus, 
dim. of rivus, see ru. 
ndaseler, v. n. to stream, to triekte 

rum, s. m. see rhum. 

rumenr, s. f. noise, uproar, rumour; 

ruminer, v. a. to ruminate, to chew, 

to think (over); ruminare, rumen, 

the gullet. 

ruminant, e, adj. and s. m. ruminant, 
nuninatioa, s. f. rumination; rumi- 

natio, -onis. 
runique, adj. runic; Goth, rfina, 

secret; A.S. run, run a, a magical 

character, a mystery. 

rupture, s. f. rupture, breaking off; 
ruptura, ruptum, sup. of rum- 
pere, see rompre. 

rural, e, adj. rural, country; ru- 
ral is, belonging to the country, 
rus, ruris, the country. 

ruser, v. n. to dodge, to use shifts, 
(of wild animals) to double, to 
shift; O.F. and Prov. rehuaar, 
reilsar, reilser; Sp. rehusar, 
to refuse; Prov. refusar; It. ri- 
fusare; see refuser. 
mfd, s. f. ruse, artifice, deceit, 
nui, e, adj. artful, deceitful, cunning. 

rustaud, e, adj. and s. m. rustic, clod- 
hopper; O.F. ruste, see rustre. 

rustique, adj. and s. m. rustic, rural; 

rusticus, rus, ruris, the country. 

nutioiti, s. f. rusticity; rusticitas. 

rustre, adj. and s. m. very rough, 
clodhopper; O.F. ruste, coarse, 
rusticus, see prec. 

rut, s. m. rut; O.F. ruit; rugitus, 

a roaring; rugire, see rugir. 
rutoir, s. m. see routoir. 
rjfthme, s. m., see rhythme. 


sa, adj. f. his, her, its, see son. 
sabbat, s. m. sabbath, uproar; sab- 
bata, aa^^ara, Hebrew shabath, 
rest, day of rest. 
sable, s. m. sand, gravel, sabulo. 
■abler, v. a. to sand, to gravel, 
•ableux, le, adj. sandy, 
sablier, s. m. sand-box, hour-glass, 
sandbox -tree. 

sabli^, s. f. sand-pit^ gravel -pit. 
sablidre, s.f. sabliere, piece of timber; 
ace. to Menage scapularia. sea* 
pula, shoulder, ace. toSchelerfor 
stabiliere; stabilis, that stands 
firmly (stare, to stand). 
sablon, s. m. small sand, see sable. 
saUonner, v. a. to scour with sand, 
sablonneoz, le, adj. sandy, gritty^ 

~ 252 — 

dnr, 8. m. dealer in sand. 
wMmadkaet, 8. f. sand-pit, gravel-pit. 
mbord, 8. m. port -hole, gnn-port; 

£t. d. 
8»bot, 8. m. sabot, wooden shoe, 
hoof, spinning top, socket (of fur- 
niture); £t. d. 
■aboter, v. n. to spin a top. 
sabotier, s.m. maker of wooden shoes, 
wearer of wooden shoes. 
aahotikm, s. f. a dance. 
sftbouler, y. a. to push about, to toss 
about; £t. d. 

sftbre, 8. m. sabre, sword; It. scia- 

bola; sciabla; Sp. sable; Ge. 

B a e b e I ; Slav, s ab 1 a. Ace. to Frisch 

from £or^off, curved, 
■abrer, v. a. to sabre, to hurry a 

. sabretaohe, s. f. sabre -tache; Ge. 

tasche, pocket, 
■abreur, s. m. brave soldier (but no 

sae, s. m. bag, sack, pouch, sacking, 

plunder, pillage; saccus, aanitog. 

saceade, s. f. saccade, jerk, jolt; 

O.F. sacher, sachier; Sp. Port. 

sacar, to draw out, see sac. 
saoeadi, e, adj. by jerks, abrupt 

(style). ^ 

saeeader, v. a. to jerk. 
saecage, s. m. confusion, upsetting, 

confused heap; see sac. 
saeeagement, s. m. sacking, ransacking. 
saoeag«r, v. a. to sack, to ransack, 

to plunder, 
laocageor, s. m. sacker. 

gaeeharin, e, adj. saccharine; sac- 

charum, sugar, see sucre. 
gaeerdoce, s.m. priesthood; sacer- 

dotium, sacerdos, -otis, a 

priest, sacer, do root of dare, 

to give, 
laoerdotal, a, adj. sacerdotal; sacer- 

saehant, pr. p. of savoir; sapiens, 

-entis, pr. p. of sapere; see 

sache, sachez, etc.; see savoir. 

sach^e, s.f. bagful, sackful; see sac. 

sachet, s. m. satchel, sachet, scent- 
bag; see sac. 

sacochej s. f. money-bag, saddle- 
bag; It. saccocia; see sac. 

saoramental, e, sacramentel, le, adj. 
sacramental, essential; see sacre- 

saere, s. m. consecration, coronation; 
sacrum, comp. sacrer. 

saere, s. m. saker (a species of hawk) ; 
Sp. Port, sacre^ It sagro; G^.E. 
saker; sacer, holy, because the 
hawk was considered holy; comp. 
ti^a^j a hawk, lit. holy bird. 

saer^9 e, adj. and s.m. consecrated, 
sacred, holy, cursed; sacratus, 
p. p. of sacrare; see sacrer. 

saerement, s. m. sacrament, matri- 
mony; sacrament um, a solemn 
obligation, sacrare, see sacrer. 

sacrer, v. a. to consecrate, to crown, 
to curse; sacrare, to consecrate, 
to declare accursed, sacer, sacra, 
sacrum, holy. 

sacrificateur , s. m. sacrificer ; s a c r i - 
ficator, sacrificare, see sacri- 

sacrifice, s. m. sacrifice, peace-offer- 
ing; sacrificium, sacrificare, 
see next w. 

sacrifier, v. a. to sacrifice, pr. v. to 
devote o.'s self; sacrificare, 
sacrum, holy, facere, to make. 

saeril^ire, s. m. sacrilege, sacrilegist ; 
sacrilegium, sacrum, sacred, 
lege re, to steal. 

sacrilege, adj. sacrilegious; sacri- 
legus, see prec. 

sacripant, s. m. braggart, vain boaster; 
It. sacripante, one of the per- 
sonages in the Orlando Furioso of 

sacristaln, s. m. sacristan, sexton; 
It. sagrestano; M.L. sacrista, 
see next w. 

sacristie, s. f. sacristy, vestry, vestry- 
room; It. sagristia, sagestria; 
M.L. sacristia; sacrum, sacired. 

sacrum, s. m. sacrum; os sacrum, 
the sacred bone. 

Saduc^en, ne, adj. and s. Sadducean, 
Sadducee; SaddovKaioc, „oneofan 
ancient sect among the Jews, who, 
in the time of our Saviour, denied 
the resurrection of the dead, and 
the existence of angels and spirits; 
so called from the founder of the 
sect , S a d o c , a Jewish rabbi, who 
lived about 250 years B. C." 
Sadnc^isme, s. m. Sadducism. 

safran, s. m. saffron, crocus; It. 
zafferano; Sp. azafran; Arab, 
z afar an; Pers. zafferon. 
safraner, v. a. to saffron. 

— 253 — 

saftre, adj. gluttonous, greedy; £t. d. 
Diez proposes Goth, safjan, to 

sagaee, adj. sagacious, shrewd, acute; 
sagax, -acis, sagire, to per- 
ceive quickly. 

sapeitA, s. t sagacity, acuteness, 
shrewdness ; sagacitas. 

sage, adj. wise, sensible, well-behaved; 
It. saggio; O.F. saive; It.Sp.Port. 
sabio; sapius, inM.L. nesapius 
(qui non sapit, who does not 
know); sapere, to know. 
lage, s. m. philosopher, wise man. 
fage-fsmme, s. f. midwife; lit. wise 
woman, see fern me. 
ngesM, s. f. wisdom, discretion, 
sagittaire, s. m. Sagittarius, the Archer ; 
Sagittarius, sagitta, an arrow. 
sago, sagou, s. m. sago; Malay and 
Javanese sagu. 

sagiiiD, s. m. sale, s. f. sagum (an- 
cient military cloak); sagum, ad- 
yog, a coarse woollen blanket or 
mantle, ace. to Polybius a Celtic 
saigner, v. a. to bleed, to drain, 
V. n. to bleed; M.L. sanguinare; 
sanguis, see sang, 
■aignant, e, adj. bleeding, under- 
done (meat). 

iaignte, s. f. bleeding, blood-letting, 
■ a i ynem ent, s. m. bleeding (flowing 
of blood). 

salllir, V. n. to gush out, to break 

forth, to project, v. a. (of animals) 

to leap, to serve; sal ire, to leap, 
laillant, e, adj. projecting, striking, 


iaillia, s. f. start, projection, sally. 
sain, e, adj. healthy, wholesome, sound ; 

sanus; comp. sant6 and main. 
saindoux, s.m. lard; sain, Sp. sain; 

Prov. sagin, satn; sagina, a 

fattening, fatteness, and doux, 

8. th. 
sainfoin 9 s. m. sainfoin; for saint 

foln, s. th. 
saint, e, adj. holy, sacred ; s a n c t u s , 

sancire, see sanction, 
sainteti, s. f. holiness, saintliness; 


sais. sait, see savoir. 

saisu*, V. a. and pr. to seize, to catch, 

to perceive, to distrain; Prov. 

sazir; It. sagire, to give posses- 

sion; M.L. sacire, to appropriate; 
O.H.G. «azjan; Goth, satjan; 
O.H.G. sezan, to put into pos- 
session; (Ge. setzen; E. beset). 

Mdsie» s. f, seizure, (law) distress. 

saisisiable, adj. seizable (law), dis- 

■aisisiemeiit, s. m. seizing, shock, 

salson, s. f. season; Prov. sazo; Sp. 

sazon; M.L. satio, the sowing 

time; satio, -onis, a sowing. 
salade, s. f. salad; It. salata, in- 

salata, salted; salata, salare. 

to salt; sal, salt; comp. sal er and 


■aladier, s. m. salad-bowl. 
salage, s. m. salting; see saler. 
salaire, s. m. salary, pay, wages, 

reward; salarium, ong. the money 

given to soldiers for salt, salt- 

moQcy, hence salary, sal, salt. 
salaison, s. f. salting (of provisions), 

salt provisions; see saler. 
salamalec, s. m. low bow; Turk. 

Salam alaikom, peace be with you* 
salamandre, s. f. salamander; aaXa- 


salarier, v. n. to pay; see sal aire. 

®*I?V,*5J* ^^"^^y^ fi^*V; O.H.G. salo; 

M.H.G. sal, dirty; (E. sallow), 
saland, e, adj. and s. dirty, sloven. 
sal^, e, adj. salted, salty, s. m. salt 

pork; see saler. 
saler 9 v. a. to salt, to com (beef); 

to overcharge; M.L. salare; sal, 

salt. ^ 

salet^, s. f. dirtiness, filthiness, dirt, 

filth; see sale. 
salidre, s. f. salt-cellar; see sal. 
saligaud, s. m. e, s. f. dirty fellow, 

sloven; see sale. 

salin, e, adj. saline; salinus, sal, 

salt. ' •' 

saline, s. f. salt provisions, saline, 

salt-works; salinae. 

saliqne, adj. Salic (law); laws framed 

by the S a Hans or Salian Franks. 

sallr, v.a. to dirty, to soil, to sully; 

see sale. 

salissare, s. f. spot of dirt. 
salive, s. f. saliva, spittle; saliva., 
salivation, s. f. salivation. 
saHver, v. n. to Spit, to salivate. 
salle, s. f. hall, room; It. Sp. Port. 
sala;Ge.saal; O.H.G.sal, dwell- 
ing, house. 

— 254 — 

sftbDlffOBdls, 8.m. salma^ndi, hodge- 
podge, medley; Ace. to Landais 
from L. salgama, pickles, sal, 
salt, condita, preserved, con- 
dor e, to preserve, to pickle. 

SAlads, B. m. salmis, ragout of game 
previously roasted ; s a 1 g a m a , 0dl- 
yofkK, pickles, preserves; see prec. 

galoir, s. m. salt -box; see saler. 

mIob, b. m. saloon, drawingroom, 
exhibition of works of art; It. sa- 
lone; Sp. Ge. salon; O.H.G. sal; 
see salle. 

salope, adj. and s. f. sloven,' slnt; 
for slope, comp. £. sloppy, 
■aloporie, s. f. sluttishness , dirty 
language. . 

salpdtre^ s. m. saltpetre ;salpetrae, 
sal, salt, petra, stct^ix, a stone, 
comp. pierre. 
itlpttrer, v. a. to saltpetre. 
itljAtrier, s. m. saltpetre -maker, 
itlpttrifart, 8. f. saltpetre-works, nitre- 
works, salpetri^re (alnu^iouse for 
women in raris). 

§alsep»reille, s. f. sarsaparilla; It. 
salsapariglia; Sp. zarzapa- 
rilla; ace. to Scaliger Sp. zarza, 
bramble, and Pari lie, the name 
of the physician, who first used it. 

sMsifls, s. m. salsify, goats -beard 
(plant); Et. d. 

saiiimbanque, s. m. mountebank, 
buffoon; It. saltimbanco, salta- 
re, to dance, in banco, upon a 

SUlubre, adj. salubrious, healthy; 
salubris, salus, health, 
■alubriti, s. f. salubrity ;salubritas. 

salaer, v. a. to salute, to greet; Pro v. 
Sp. saludar; It. salutare; salu- 
tare, to keep safe, to wish health, 
salus, -utis, health, see salut. 

sulare, s. f. saltness; see saler. 

salat^ s. m. safety, salvation, salu- 
tation, salute ; salus, -utis, health, 
welfare, contr. of salut us from 
salvus, safe. 

•alutaire, adj. salutary, benefioial; 

salutation, s. f. salutation, salute, 
bow; salutatio, -onis. 

salvage, s. m. salvage; M.L. sal- 
vagium; salvatio, salvus, un- 
hurt, safe. 

salve, s. f. military or naval salute; 
aalve, term of salutation, imper. of 
salver e, to be well. 

samedl, s. m. Saturday; sabbati 
dies, sabbath-dav; comp. sabbat. 

saneir, v. n. to founder, to sink; 
sancire, to render sacred, to iix 
unalterably, sacer; see sacr6. 

sanctifier, v. a. to sanctify; sancti- 
ficare, sanctus, holy, facere, 
to make. 

sanetifioatioii, s. f. sanctification^ 
sanctificatio, -onis. 

sanetlon, s. f. sanction; sanctio, 
-onis, sancire, to make sacred 
or inviolable, see sancir. 
sanetionner, v. a. to sanction. 

sanetuaire, s. m. sanctuary; sane- 
tuarium, sanctus, see saint. 

sandal, santal, s. m. sandal -wood; 

sandale, s. f. sandal (shoe); sand a- 
Hum; cocvddliov, advdalov. 

sandaraque, s. f. sandarach, pounce; 
sandaraca, crav^apolx?}, a sulfuret 
whence a bright red-colour was made. 

sang, s.m. blood, consanguinity, race; 

sang -de -dragon, sang-dragon, s. m. 
dragon's blood, bloodwort; san- 
guis draconis. 

sang-froid, s. m. sang-froid, cold 
blood, coolness; see froid. 

sanglade, s. f. cut with a whip, lash; 
see sangle. 

sanglant, e, adj. bloody; sangui- 
lentus, sanguinolentus; san- 
guis, see sang. 

sangle, s. f. strap, band, girth (of 
saddles); O.F. cengle; It. cinghia; 
Prov. singla; cingula, cingere, 
saagler, v. a. to strap, to girth, to 
strike hard, to lash (with a whip). 

sanglier, s. m. wild -boar, hog; It. 
cinghiale; Prov. senglar; M.L. 
singularis (aper, wild boar under- 
stood); singularis, alone, so 
called from its solitary habits. 

sanglot, s. m. sob; Prov. singlot; 

singultus contr. of singulatus, 

singulus, one only, single, the 

sobs coming singly. 

saagloter, v. n. to sob; singultare. 

sangsue, s. f. leech, blood-sucker, 
extortioner ; Prov. sancsuga; Ban- 
gui sug a, blood-sucker; see sang 
and sucer. 

sanguin, e, adj. sanguine, of blood 
colour; sanguineus, Bangnis, 
see sang. 

— J55 — 

nngviiiaire adj. sangmnary, bloody; 


ufigwlTiii, s.f. red-chalk, blood-stone, 
iangnfaffilimt, e, adj. sanguineous; 

sanguinolentus; comp.also san- 

sanle, B.f. sanies; sanies (a weakened 

form of sanguis), blood, 
lanieux, m, adj. sanlous. 
sanitaire, adj. sanatory, sanitary: 

sanitas, sanus; see sain and 


sans, prep, without, less; O.F. sens; 

sans-eulotte, s. m. ragamuffin, sans- 
culotte; Ut. without breaches; see 
sans and culotte. „Thiswasone 
of the words which were added 
to the French language during the 
Revolution. The name was first 
given to the most indigent class 
of people, and afterwards it was 
araropriated to the partisans of 
the constitution of 1793, as an honor- 
able title." 

sansonnet, s. m. starling; dim. of 

Sanson, Samson, propre name; 

comp. martinet, perroquet, etc. 

saiital, 8. m.; see sandal. 

sant^, s.f. health; sanitas, sanus; 

see sain. 
saoul, sftouler, see soiil, sofiler. 
saper, v. a. to sap, to undermine; 
it. zap pa rSp. zap a), hoe; pro b. 
^lutxavrjy a hoe, omdntm, to dig. 
sapa, s. f. sape. 
sapanr, s. m. sapper. 
Mpenr- pompier, s. m. fire -man; see 

saphiqae, adj. and s. m. sapphic; 

2?ttir<p£xog, from £anq>oi, a G-recian 

saphire, s. m. sapphire; sapphirus; 

sapide, adj. sapid, savory; sa^idus, 

sapere, to taste; comp. insipide. 

sapidity, s. f. sapidity. 
saptn, s. m. fir-tree, fir; sapinus. 

lapiaa, s. f. beam, plank of fir. 

lapiai^a, s. f. fir -grove. 

saponifier , v. a. to saponify ; s a p o - 
onis, soap, fa cere, to make. 
sapoaifloatioiL, s. f. saponification. 

saquebute, s. f. sackbut; Sp. saca- 
buehe, the tube of a pump, and 
a sackbut, from sacar, to draw, 
And buohe, tht stomach, beoause 

in blowing this instrument the 
breath is drawn up with great 
force from the stomach. (Woreester.) 

sarabande, s. f. saraband, a Spanish 
dance; It. sarabanda; Sp. zara- 
banda; Pers. serbend. 

sarbaeane, s.f. pea-shooter, speaking- 
tube; It. sarbacana, cerbot- 
tana; £t. d. 

sarboti^re, s. f. see sorbeti^re. 

sareasme, s. m. sarcasm; sarcas- 

mus; cuQTiaafiog, aaQxata, to tear 

flesh, to bite the lips in rage, to 

sneer, oa^f, auQ-nosy flesh. 

■aroastiqae, adj. sarcastic ; aa(f%aari%6s. 

sareler, v. a. to weed; sarculare, 
sarculum, a light hoe, sarire, 
to hoe the soil, to weed. 

tardage, s. m. weeding. 

sardAiir, s. m. weeder. 

lareloir, s. m. Dutch hoe, weeder. 

saroliire, s. f. weeds. 

sareophage, s. m. sarcophagus; oa^xo- 
qpayop, eating flesh, aa^£, aagnos, 
flesh, qpay^rv, to eat, aaQnotpdfog 
(U^osy stone, understood), a lime- 
stone, which like slacked lime con- 
sumed animal substances: hence 
coffins were often made of it: hence 
generally a coffin, sarcophagus. 

sarde, adj. and s. Sardinian; Sar- 

sardine, s. f. sardine; sardina; 
aagSivfj^ adgSa^ a kind of tunny 
caught near Sardinia. 

sardoine, s. f . sardonyx ; sardonyx; 

sardonlen, sardoniqne, adj. sardo- 
nian, sardonic; aagdaviogj pit was 
also written aagSdviog^ as if from 
aaQdoviov, a plant of Sardinia, 
ZagdfD, which was said to distort 
the face of the eater." 

sarment, s. m. vine -shoot, shoot ^ 
sarmentum, twigs, sarpere, to 
cut off, to prune. 
■anneiLteuE, m, adj. sarmentons. 

sarrasin, s. m. sarrasin; buckwheat; 
originary from Africa, hence, called 
saracen, the name given to the 
Arabs after their settlement in 

sarraa, sarrot, s. m. smock-irook; 
M.L. sarrotus for saroetus, sa- 
rica; serioa, serio stuff, silk; 
Qomp. aoie. 

— 256 — 

(Hurrette, s. f. Baw-wort; It. serra- 
tola; serratula,8erratum, saw- 
shaped, serra, a saw. 

MS, 8. m. sieve; sasse (kind of sluice); 
O.F. s^as, saas; M.L. sedatlum, 
sitacium for setaceum; seta, 
a bristle. 
saisMT, V. a. to sift, to scrutinise. 

satan, s. m. satan; sat an as; aatavSg, 
aaxav^ an enemy, a Hebrew word. 
saUniqve, adj. satanical. 

satellite, s. m. satellite; satelles, 
-itis, an attendant, a life-guard. 

satl^t^, s. f. satiety; satietas, 

satis, enough. 
satin, s. m. satin; It. setino; seta, 
a bristle, comp. sole, 
satiiier, v. a. n. to render smooth 
and glossy, to glaze (ribands), to 
hot -press (paper). 

■atiiuigt, s. m. the smoothing or 

satire , s. f . satire, lampoon ; s a t i r a , 
6atura(lanx, a dish, understood), 
orig. a dish filled with various, 
kinds of fruits, food composed of 
various ingredients, a medley, also 
a species of poetrv peculiar to the 
Romans, in which the poets attacked 
the follies and vices of mankind 
in general, satur, full of food, 
satis, sat, enough. 
Mtirique, adj. and s. m. satirical, 

satixiier, v. n. to satirize. 

satlsfaire, v. a. n. andpr. to satisfy, 
to gratify, to give satisfaction, to 
discnarge obligations ; s a t i s f a ce r e , 
satis, enough, facer e, to make. 

latisfitotioiiy s. f. satisfaction; sat is - 
factio, -onis. 

satitfaisant, e, adj. satisfactory. 

latiffait, e, adj. satisfied, gratified, 


satrape, s. m. satrap; satrapes; 

actt^dnjiq , a governor of a province, 

among the Persians; a Persian word. 

satarer, v. a. to saturate; saturare, 
to satiate, satur, full of food, 
satis, sat, enough, 
saturation, s. f. saturation. 

saturnales, s. f. pi. saturnalia; sa- 
turnalia, a general festival in 
honour of Saturn, celebrated at 
Bome about the middle of December, 
lasting at first one day, but after- 
wards extended to seven days, 

during which there was unrestrained 

license for all classes, not excepting 

Saturne, s. m. Saturn, lead ;Saturnus. 
satyre, s.m. satyr; satyrus; adrvQog, 
satyre, s. f. satire, a kind of play 

in which the Chorus consisted of 


■atyxiqiie, adj. satyric. 
saaee,s.f. sauce; O.F.sause,sausse; 
' It. 8p. salsa; salsus, a, um, 

salted, sal; see sel. 
lauoer, v. a. to dip in sauce, to sop, 

to scold. 

sanoi^, s. f. sauce-boat. 

saueinse, s. f. (small) sausage; M.L. 

salsicia, extension of salsus, 

see prec. 
■aaciisoa, s. m. (large) sausage, sau- 

sauf, sanve, acy. safe; sal v us; comp. 

chauve, mauve, etc. 
•avf-oondnet, s. m. safe-conduct; see 

sauge, s. f. sage (plant); It. Sp. 

salvia; salvia (salvus, wdU, 

wholesome), so called in allusion 

to its reputed healing qualities. 

saugrenu, e, adj. impertinent, absurd; 
sel grenu, s. th. 

saule, s. m. willow -tree; willow; 
O.H.G.salaha, sala, willow; comp. 

saumfttre, adj. (of taste) briny, brack- 
ish; It. salmastro; salmacidus 
salma cont. of salgama (see 
salmis), and acidus, sour. 

saumon, s. m. salmon; salmo, -onis. 

saumon, s. m. pig (of lead, brass or 
copper); Et. d. 

saumore, s.f. brine, pickle; Sp. sal- 
muera; sal, salt, muria. orine. 
sauner, v. n. to make salt; M.L. 
salinare; salinus, belonging to 
salt, sal, salis, salt. 
saanage, s. m. salt- trade, 
laanerie, s. f. salt-works, 
iaunier, s. m. Salter, salt -maker. 
saupiquet, s. m. pungent sauce ; O.F. 
saupiquer; Prov. Sp. salpicar; 
see sel and piquer. 

saupoudrer, v. a. to salt, to powder 

with salt, to powder; see sel and 

saur, saure, adj. brownish yellow, 

(of horses) sorrel, red (herring); 

O.F* sor, sojre; Prov.saurt It 

— 257 — 

sanro, sore; D. soor; E. sear, 


Mwrer, v. a. to smoke (herrings), 
■auret, adj. sorrel. 

saussaie, s. f. plantation of willows; 

saliceium, salictum, salix, a 

saut. s. m. leap, jump, (water -)f all; 

saltus, salire, sal turn; seenextw. 
sauter, v. n. to leap, to jump, to 

explode, to blow up, (of the wind) 

to veer, to shift, v. n. to leap over, 

to pass over (omit); sal tar a, freq. 

of salire, to leap, 
■ante, s. f. sudden veering, shifting 

of the wind. 
lautA, e, adj. stewed, 
■anterelle, s. f. grass-hopper, locust, 
saatenr, s. m. le, s. f. leaper, jumper, 


sautiller, v. n. to hop, to skip, 
santoir, s. m. saltier, cross -(wise). 

sauvage, adj. and s. wild, uncultivated, 
Sp. salvage; It. salvaggio, sal- 
vatico; silvaticus, belonging 
to a wood, wild, silva, a forest. 

sauvageim, adj. and s. m. (agric.) 
a wild stock. 

sauvagarie, s. f. unsociableness, shy- 

sanvagin, e, adj. and s. f. fishy taste 
(of water -fowls). 

saavegarde, s. f. safeguard, protec- 
tion, protector; It. salvagardia; 
see sauf and garder. 
sanvegarder, v. a. to safeguard, to 

sauver, v. a. to save, to rescue, pr. 
V. to escape, to flee, to effect o.*s 
salvation; salvare, salvus, see 

sanvetage, s. m. salvage; comp. sal- 

■auveur, s. m. saver, deliverer, Sav- 
iour; sal vat or. 

savamment, adv. learnedly; see 

Bavane, s. f. savanna, prairie; O.F.* 
savene; Sp. sabana, a sheet for 
a bed, a large plain covered with 
snow; O.H.G. sab an, tine linen; 
sabanum, savanum; C€i§avqv, a 
linen cloth. 

savant, e, adj. and s. learned, learned 
man, scholar; see savoir. 

savate, s. f. old shoe, form, letter- 
carrier; It. ciabatta; Sp.zapata; 
Port, sapata; ace. to l^usa from 
Arab, sabat, shoe, sabata, to 

lavaterie, s. f. old shoe trade. 

laveter, v. a. to cobble. 

iayetier,,s. m. cobbler. 

saveur, s. f. savour, relish; O.F. sa- 
vour; Sp. sabor; sapor, sapere, 
to taste; comp. savourer. 

savoir, v. a. to know, to be able, 
V. n. to be learned; It. savere; 
sapere, to taste, to know. 

■avoir, s. m. knowledge, learning. 

■avoir, adv. namely, to wit. 

■avoir-faire, s. m. cleverness, ability; 
lit. to know how to do; see faire. 

■ayoir-vivre, s. m. good breeding; 
lit. to know to live; see vivre. 
savon, s. m. soap, reprimand; It. 
sapone; sapo, -onis. 

■avonner, v. a. to soap, to lather, 
to scold. 

■avonnage, s. m. soaping, lathering. 

■avonnerie, s. m. soap -Bouse, soap- 

■avonnette, s. f. soap-ball, wash-ball, 
■avonaenz, se, adj. soapy, 
lavonnier, s. m. soapboiler, soap- 

saTOurer, v. a. to savour, to relish, 
to enjoy; see saveur. 
■avoaret, s. m. marrow-bone of beef, 
■avooreoz, le, adj. savoury. 

Savoyard, e, adj. Savoyard; F. 
Savoie, Savoy. 

saxe, adj. Saxon; F. Saxe, Saxony, 
■axon, s. m. Saxon (man and lan- 

savon, s. m. sagum; see saie. 
sblre, s. m. Roman archer, policeman. 

constable; It. sbirro, birro; Et. 

d. ace. to Menage from birr us, 

dark cloth (with which he was 


seabellon, s. m. pedestal, stand; 

scabellum; see escabeau. 
seabieux, se, adj. scabious; sca- 

biosus, scurfy, scabies, a scurf, 
■oabiaiue, s. f. scabious, a plant used 

in cutaneous diseases. 

scabreux, se, adj. scabrous, rugged, 
dangerous, slippery; scabrosus 
for scaber, ora, brum, sca- 
bere, to scratch. 


— 268 — 

scalpel, B. m, scalpel; scalpellum, 
dim. of Bcalprum, a sharp cutting 
i^stniment, scalp ere, orlg. the 
same word as sculpere, to carve, 
comp. sculpter. 

scalper, v. a. to scalp; scalpere; 

see prec. 

seandale, s.m. scandal, cause of falling 

into sin or error; scandalum, 

" if%dvSaXov, a snare laid for an 

enemy, later form for ewxvSdXri&Qov, 

the trap -spring. 

Boandaleux, se, adj. scandalous. 

geandalifler, v. a. to scandalize, pr.v. 
to be scandalized; oTtavdaXitao. 

seander, v. a. to scan; scandere, 
to climb, to mount, to scan. 

scaphaudrc, s. m. cork -corset^ for 
swimming; axdyi?, a skiff, ai'iip, 
dvdQog, a man. 

seapulaire, s. m.scapulary; M.L. sca- 
pulare; scapulae, the shoulder- 

flearab^e, s. m. scarabee, beetle; sca- 
r abacus; awxgdpstog, andgapogj 

searamouehe, s. m. Scaramouch, 
buffoon;It.scaramuccia, a skirm- 
ish (see escarmouche); a char- 
acter in the old Italian comedy, 
representing a